AG magazine (in print)
Online magazine (pdf)
Online articles (html)
Literature- and poster projects
of the real lizards, family Lacertidae
Podarcis muralis (LAURENTI, 1768)
Abalos Alvarez, J. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Carazo Ferrandis, P. & Font, E. & Carretero, M.A. (2014) -
Ábalos, J. (2016) -
Signalling plays a key role regulating the intensity of animal contests. In this study, we evaluate the role of two (potential) chromatic signals in determining the outcome of male-male combats in Podarcis muralis lizards from a population showing polymorphic ventral coloration, with discrete white, yellow and orange morphs. As in other lacertids, males of this species display a row of ventrolateral ultraviolet (UV)- blue in their outer ventral scales (OVS) with a mean peak reflectance of 372.35nm. Previous studies have suggested that some chromatic variables of these patches may signal individual fighting ability and/or physical condition. In order to test this possibility, we staged combats between 60 adult lizards (20 individuals/morph), where each lizard confronted rivals from each morph in a tournament with a balanced design. Intruder/resident condition was controlled in order to avoid its strong effect in determining contest outcome. A general dominance/fighting ability ranking was calculated using the Bradley-Terry model, and used to explore the general relationship between morphs, chromatic measurements of the UV patches, and fighting ability. Unexpectedly, we did not find an effect of the UVblue patches on contest outcome, but we found a morph-specific bias in fighting ability: orange males lose more combats with other morphs than yellow and white males.
Ábalos, J. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Carazo, P. & Font, E. (2016) -
Colour signals play a key role in regulating the intensity and outcome of animal contests. Males of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) show conspicuous ventrolateral ultraviolet (UV)-blue and black patches. In addition, some populations express a striking ventral colour polymorphism (i.e., discrete orange, white and yellow morphs). In this study, we set out to evaluate the potential signalling function of these colour patches by staging pairwise combats between 60 size-matched adult lizards (20 per morph). Combats were held in a neutral arena, with each lizard facing rivals from the three morphs in a tournament with a balanced design. We then calculated a fighting ability ranking using the Bradley–Terry model, and used it to explore whether ventral colour morph, the size of UV-blue and black patches or the spectral characteristics of UV-blue patches (i.e., brightness, hue, chroma) are good predictors of fighting ability. We did not find an effect of the UV-blue patches on contest outcome, but the size of black patches emerged as a good predictor of fighting ability. We also found that winners were more aggressive when facing rivals with black patches of similar size, suggesting that black patches play a role in rival assessment and fighting rules. Finally, we found that orange males lost fights against heteromorphic males more often than yellow or white males. In light of these results, we discuss the potential signalling function of ventrolateral and ventral colour patches in mediating agonistic encounters in this species.
Ábalos, J. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Reguera, S. & Badiane, A. & Brejcha, J. & Font, E. (2017) -
Abel, E. (1951) -
1. Das Geruchsvermögen ist bei den Eidechsen (L. viridis, L. agilis, L. muralis) gut ausgebildet. Sämtliche Beute wird gerochen
2. Die Nase spielt eine bei weitem größere Rolle als das Jabobsonsche Organ. Dieses tritt, übereinstimmend mit den Befunden Kahmanns, nur akzessorisch in Funktion zum unmittelbaren Prüfen vor oder in dem Munde.
3. Der Beutegruch wird durch die Nase aus ca. 8 bis 10 cm Entfernung sichtbar wahrgenommen (durch die gesteigerte Brustatmung, die als „Pumpen“ bezeichnet wurde, erkenntlich) und löst Suchbewegungen aus.
4. Dieser allein ist bei Ausfall des optischen Sinnes befähigt, Zubeißen und Freßakt, selbst bei ungeeigneten Objekten, auszulösen. Es ist höchstwahrscheinlich, daß ein Geruchsscheme den Tieren angeboren ist.
5. Eidechsen lassen sich entgegen diesem angeborenen Geruchsscheme auf fremden Geruch positiv dressieren, wie Versuche mit stark süßlich duftenden Öl aufzeigten. Es gelang, andressierte Eidechsen nach Steinen usw., die mit Dressurduft markiert waren, beißen zu lassen, selbst als die Tiere im Besitz ihres optischen Sinnes waren.
6. Es hat den Anschein, als würden die Lacerten zirka eine Woche zur Bildung neuer Assoziationen benötigen, sobald sie täglich andressiert werden. Diese Zeitspanne wurde ungefähr bei den von mir durchgeführten Geruchs- und Geschmacksdressuren, sowie auch bei den Gehördresuren von Berger (1924) als Lernzeit benötigt.
7. Die Eidechsen konnten durch Vergällung einer bestimmten Beute mit Kochsalz dazu gebracht werden, bei gleichzeitiger Ausschaltung des optischen Sinnes diese Beute zu meiden, nahmen jedoch andere Nahrungsobjekte an. Durch Engerstellung der Verschiedenheit der Beutetiere konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Echsen in der Lage sind, selbst feinste Qualitätsunterschiede des Geruches zu registrieren. Sie vermochten Grillen von Locustiden, und weiters Locustiden untereinander geruchlich zu unterscheiden, auch wenn diese lebend und unvergällt angeboten wurden.
8. Auf dieses Vermögen dürfte die Bildung eines erworbenen Nahrungskreises zurückzuführen sein. Für sein Bestehen spricht die Bevorzugung von Lieblingsfutter, sowie die Ablehnung gewisser Beutetiere schon aus relativ großer Entfernung.
9. Freilandbeobachtungen zeigen, daß der Geruch bei Nahrungssuche, in unübersichtlichem Gelände von großer Bedeutung sein dürfte, analog zu den Feststellungen im Laborversuch.
10. Der arteigene Geruch ist bei Lacerta viridis wesentlich am endgültigen Festlegen im Verhalten gegenüber dem Artgenossen als Gegner oder Geschlechtspartner beteiligt. Ein Männchen dieser Art kämpft nicht gegen ein anderes, sobald dieser Reiz in der Reizsumme fehlt. Umgekehrt wird bei Anwesenheit des typischen Geruches gekämpft, auch wenn die optischen Merkzeichen stark verändert erscheinen; daraus wird die Bedeutung dieses Faktors im Reizsummenphänomen beim Paarungsverhalten ersichtlich. Der geschlechts-charakteristische Geruch stammt nicht aus den Schenkelporen, da eine operative Entfernung derselben keinerlei Änderung des Verhaltens bewirkte.
11. Die Nasenhöhle registriert Luftfeuchtigkeit und ermöglicht den Eidechsen das Wasser gerichtet aufzufinden. Die Nase darf daher als Alarm- und Leitsinnesorgan bezeichnet werden. Bei der Auffindung von Wasser kann der optische Sinn zusätzlich in Aktion treten, wobvei auf stark lichtbrechende Stellen angesprochen wird.
12. Bei Ausschaltung des Olfactorius sind die Tiere nicht imstande, Wasser zu finden, außer in optisch günstigen Fällen.
13. Freilandbeobachtungen zeigen, daß die Eidechsen durch Tau und Regenfall ihr Wasserbedürfnis gedeckt finden. Bei großer Trockenheit ziehen sich die Tiere zu einem Trockenschlaf zurück, den sie unterbrechen, sobald genügend Feuchtigkeit vorhanden ist. Die Luftfeuchtigkeit wird von den versteckt liegenden Tieren durch die Nase perzipiert und veranlaßt das Aufsuchen der Feuchtigkeitsquelle. Diese Annahme machen Freilandbeobachtungen auch in der natürlichen Umwelt höchst wahrscheinlich.
Abrahmsen, B. (1988) -
Ackermann, G. (2012) -
Report about an observation of juvenile Podarcis muralis as potential prey of Euscorpius sp.
Adema, J.P.H.M. & Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1980) -
Algyroides moreoticus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis melisellensis fiumana, Podarcis muralis albanica, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula campestris, Podarcis taurica ionica, Podarcis taurica taurica.
Aellen, V. & Perret, J.L. (1953) -
Akeret, B. (2017) -
Al-Sadoon, M.K. & Spellerberg, I.F. (1985) -
Oxygen consumption levels and metabolic rate temperature curves of various lizard species from three different climatic regions were examined in relation to ambient temperature. The species used in this research were as follows: Anguis fragilis, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta agilis (cool temperate species); Blanus cinereus, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi brauni, Podarcis lilfordi lilfordi, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus, Tarentola mauritanica (warm temperate species); Chalcides ocellatus, Acanthodactylus opheodurus, Acanthodactylus schmidti (desert species). A double chamber volumetric closed system was used to measure the resting oxygen consumption of the lizards. Acute oxygen consumption determinations were made, that is the lizards were not allowed to acclimate to the test temperatures. Interspecific differences in levels of resting oxygen consumption and in the characteristics of the metabolic rate temperature curves were examined in relation to methods of thermoregulation and in relation to the ecology of the respective species. Evidence for `temperature dependent shifts` and `low thermal dependence` was found in the metabolic rate temperature curves of some species. A diminishing Q10 at or below the voluntary body temperatures suggests some degree of metabolic homeostatsis and energy conservation.
Alagic, A. & Zagart, A. & Krofel, M. & Lazic, M. (2018) -
We analysed asymmetry in the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) and the Horvath`s rock lizard (Iberolacerta horvathi) from 16 populations in Slovenia and Croatia to understand their connection with potential stress factors: altitude, urbanization and the presence of another species (interspecific competition). We also compared morphological body characteristics between the two species. We used geometric morphometric methods to create landmark coordinates in the photographs of lizards` heads. Modified ANOVAs and an asymmetry index were used to find the differences in four physical characteristics: shape and size of the head, body size and the number of supraciliar scales. We found fluctuating asymmetry in the number of supraciliar scales and the shape of the head in all of our samples. Both species had more asymmetric heads in the intermediate altitudes, which might be connected with lower availability of suitable habitats. Common wall lizards from urban environment did not have more asymmetries compared to those living in natural environments. Contrary to our expectations, we found more asymmetries in allotopic than syntopic populations, indicating limited effect of interspecific interactions. Horvath`s rock lizards had more asymmetric heads, which suggests they might be exposed to greater environmental stress, although genetic effects are also possible, since directional asymmetry was also detected.
Aleksic, I. & Ivanovic, A. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Kalezic, M.L. (2009) -
We found significant variations in the pattern of sexual dimorphism in body size and shape among and within three lacertid species (Podarcis muralis, P. melisellensis and Archaeolacerta oxycephala), which live within a very restricted area (Lake Skadar, Montenegro) and under similar ecological settings. Each species has a specific pattern of size and shape relations between the sexes that proportionally changes with increase in size of the males, contrary to the expectations of Rensch`s rule. Our data do not confirm unequivocally that the level of size differences between the sexes (SSD) is affected by the body shape of two different morphotypes (cylindric vs. flattened body), or by the insularity conditions (island size, distance from mainland and the presence of syntopic lizard species). However, SSD appears to be positively correlated with clutch size at the interspecies level of comparisons.
Aleksic, I. & Ljubisavljevic, K. (2001) -
We studied male and female one-year reproductive, fat body and liver cycle of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis muralis) from the urban and suburban localities of Belgrade. The minimum size at which females attain sexual maturity was between 49.78 and 51.25 mm of the snout-vent length. Vitellogenesis started at the end of March. The size and number of vitellogenic follicles varied considerably during the season. Increase in the female size leads to a significant increase in number but not in size of vitellogenic follicles. Females with oviductal eggs were found from late May to late July. Two clutches with mean size of 3.5±0.31 were laid in 1994. We found a significant positivecorrelationbetween female size and oviductalclutch size, while partial correlationbetween SVL and mean egg volume,as well as between clutch size and mean egg volume was insignificant. Relative oviductal clutch mass had the mean value of 0.17 ± 0.01, and was not correlated with female size. Testicles and epididymides exhibited maximal weight during April-June, and minimum in late July. The increase in male SVL lead to a significant increase in testicular and epididymal mass. Viable spermatozoa were produced from March were the smallest during the mating period while female fat bodies and liver decreased in weight during vitellogenesis. Mass of fat bodies and liver were significantly positively correlated with SVL in both sexes
Alibardi, L. (2010) -
The present qualitative autoradiographic analysis aims to present the main features of morphogenesis and growth of claws in reptiles. Lizard embryos treated with tritiated thymidine reveal that epidermal cell proliferation in terminal digits is prevalent in the dorsal side and gives origin to the curved unguis of the claw. Less proliferation occurs in the ventral side of the digit tip where the concave sub-unguis is derived. Adult claws of a turtle show that thymidine-labelled cells are present along most of the epidermis of the claw, especially at the claw tip. Also, injection of tritiated histidine and proline, indicating active protein synthesis, confirm autoradiographic labelling along most of the epidermis of claws, in particular at the apical tip. The present study indicates that proximal matrix regions, as have been described in mammalian nails, are absent in reptiles. This pattern of claw growth probably derives from that of terminal digital scales. In fact reptilian (and avian) claws are formed from a modification of scales, a different condition from that present in mammals.
Alibardi, L. (2013) -
In order to study some of the proteins involved in tissue remodeling and regeneration, the stem cell marker and dynamic cytoskeletal protein nestin have been detected using immunocytochemistry in normal and regenerating tail of lizard. In tissues of the normal tail, nestin is only present in the alpha-layer of scales and in sparse cells of connective tissues. However, during tail regeneration, nestin is more commonly detected in various tissues, especially in the epidermis and regenerating scales, muscles, nerves and in the growing spinal cord. Sporadic nestin immunopositive cells are seen in the regenerating blastema and derived connective tissues. In the epidermis, nestin is expressed in the main sites of cell proliferation located in the apical alpha-keratinocytes of the forming scales, but disappears in beta-cells. In the regenerating muscles, nestin is seen in myoblasts and elongating myotubes, but disappears in mature muscles. Nestin appears in the growing nerves and in a few neurons of the regenerating spinal cord. It is present in the apical ependymal cells and in peripheral nerves and Schwann cells. The dynamic cytoskeletal protein nestin appears to be activated in the main sites of cell proliferation and cytoskeletal remodeling needed for re-epithelization and the differentiation of new scales, muscles and nervous tissue.
Alibardi, L. (2014) -
The lumbar spinal cords of lizards were transected, but after the initial paralysis most lizards recovered un-coordinated movements of hind limbs. At 25-45 days post-lesion about 50% of lizards were capable of walking with a limited coordination. Histological analysis showed that the spinal cord was transected and the ependyma of the central canal formed two enlargements to seal the proximal and distal ends of the severed spinal cord. Glial and few small neurons were formed while bridge axons crossed the gap between the proximal and the distal stumps of the transected spinal cord as was confirmed by retrograde tract-tracing technique. The bridging fibers likely derived from interneurons located in the central and dorsal grey matter of the proximal spinal cord stump suggesting they belong to the local central locomotory pattern generator circuit. The limited recovery of hind limb movements may derive from the regeneration or sprouting of short proprio-spinal axons joining the two stumps of the transected spinal cord. The present observations indicate that the study on spinal cord regeneration in lizards can give insights on the permissive conditions that favor nerve regeneration in amniotes.
Alibardi, L. (2015) -
During tail regeneration in lizards, the epidermis forms new scales comprising a hard beta-layer and a softer alpha-layer. Regenerated scales derive from a controlled folding process of the wound epidermis that gives rise to epidermal pegs where keratinocytes do not invade the dermis. Basal keratinocytes of pegs give rise to suprabasal cells that initially differentiate into a corneous wound epidermis and later in corneous layers of the regenerated scales. The immunodetection of a putative p53/63 protein in the regenerating tail of lizards shows that immunoreactivity is present in the nuclei of basal cells of the epidermis but becomes mainly cytoplasmic in suprabasal and in differentiating keratinocytes. Sparse labelled cells are present in the regenerating blastema, muscles, cartilage, ependyma and nerves of the growing tail. Ultrastructural observations on basal and suprabasal keratinocytes show that the labelling is mainly present in the euchromatin and nucleolus while labelling is more diffuse in the cytoplasm. These observations indicate that the nuclear protein in basal keratinocytes might control their proliferation avoiding an uncontrolled spreading into other tissues of the regenerating tail but that in suprabasal keratinocytes the protein moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, a process that might be associated to keratinocyte differentiation.
Cartilage regeneration is massive during tail regeneration in lizards but little is known about cartilage regeneration in other body regions of the skeleton. The recovery capability of injured epiphyses of femur and tibia of lizard knees has been studied by histology and 5BrdU immunohistochemistry in lizards kept at high environmental temperatures. Lizard epiphyses contain a secondary ossified center of variable extension surrounded peripherally by an articular cartilage and basally by columns of chondrocytes that form the mataphyseal or growth plate. After injury of the knee epiphyses, a broad degeneration of the articular cartilage during the first days post-injury is present. However a rapid regeneration of cartilaginous tissue is observed from 7 to 14 days post-injury and by 21 days post-lesions, a large part of the epiphyses are reformed by new cartilage. Labeling with 5BrdU indicates that the proliferating cells are derived from both the surface of the articular cartilage and from the metaphyseal plate, two chondrogenic regions that appear proliferating also in normal, uninjured knees. Chondroblasts proliferate by interstitial multiplication forming isogenous groups with only a scant extracellular matrix that later increases. The high regenerative power of lizard articular cartilage appears related to the permanence of growing cartilaginous centers in the epiphyses of long bones such as those of the knee during adulthood. It is likely that these regions contain resident stem cells that give rise to new chondroblasts of the articular and metaphyseal cartilage during most of the lizard’s lifetime, but can produce an excess of cartilaginous tissues when stimulated by the lesion.
After lumbar spinal cord transection, lizards recover some un-coordinated movements of the hind limbs including some walking ability. The transected spinal cord was examined using electron microscopy to study the degree of regeneration. A bridge tissue located between the two proximal and distal ends of the transected spinal cord, representing the regenerated cord, was found at 29-45 days post-lesion. The ependyma formed ampullar enlargements but no continuous central canal between the two stumps was re-established. Some cerebro-spinal fluid contacting neurons and peri-ependymal small neurons contacted by few synaptic boutons were found. Pale cells of astrocyte type were also identified. Numerous unmyelinated and sparse myelinated axons in the bridge appear connected to ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes. The origin of these axons remains unknown but previous studies have indicated that at least some of them are derived from interneurons, including those located around the central canal and in the dorsal grey matter of the proximal spinal cord stump. This limited regeneration can explain the recovery of part of the motor activity of the hind limbs in these lizards, possibly through the re-connection across the bridge of the intrinsic circuit of the central locomotory pattern generator.
The epiphysis of femur and tibia in the lizard Podarcis muralis can extensively regenerate after injury. The process involves the articular cartilage and metaphyseal (growth) plate after damage. The secondary ossification center present between the articular cartilage and the growth plate is replaced by cartilaginous epiphyses after about one month of regeneration at high temperature. The present study analyzes the origin of the chondrogenic cells from putative stem cells located in the growing centers of the epiphyses. The study is carried out using immunocytochemistry for the detection of 5BrdU-labeled long retaining cells and for the localization of telomerase, an enzyme that indicates stemness. The observations show that putative stem cells retaining 5BrdU and positive for telomerase are present in the superficial articular cartilage and metaphyseal growth plate located in the epiphyses. This observation suggests that these areas represent stem cell niches lasting for most of the lifetime of lizards. In healthy long bones of adult lizards, the addition of new chondrocytes from the stem cells population in the articular cartilage and the metaphyseal growth plate likely allows for slow, continuous longitudinal growth. When the knee is injured in the adult lizard, new populations of chondrocytes actively producing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan are derived from these stem cells to allow for the formation of completely new cartilaginous epiphyses, possibly anticipating the re-formation of secondary centers in later stages. The study suggests that in this lizard species, the regenerative ability of the epiphyses is a pre-adaptation to the regeneration of the articular cartilage.
Alibardi, L. (2017) -
Fibroblast Growth Factors 1-2 (FGF1-2) stimulate tail regeneration in lizards and therefore the distribution of their receptors, FGFR1-2, in the regenerating tail of the lizard. Podarcis muralis has been studied using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Immunoreactive protein bands at 15–16 kDa for FGF1-2 in addition to those at 50–65 kDa are detected in the regenerating epidermis, but weak bands at 35, 45 and 50 kDa appear from the regenerating connective tissues. Strongly immunolabeled bands for FGFR1 at 32, 60, and 80 kDa and less intense for FGFR2 only appear in the regenerating tail. In normal tail epidermis and dermis, higher MW forms are present at 80 and 115–140 kDa, respectively, but they disappear in the regenerating epidermis and dermis where low MW forms of FGFR1-2 are found at 50–70 kDa. Immunolocalization confirms that most FGFR1-2 are present in the wound epidermis, Apical Epidermal Peg, ependymal tube while immunolabeling lowers in regenerating muscles, blastema cells, cartilage and connectives tissues. The likely release of FGFs from the Apical Epidermal Peg and ependyma and the presence of their receptors in these tissues may determine the autocrine stimulation of proliferation and a paracrine stimulation of the blastema cells through their FGF Receptors.
Tissue regeneration in lizards represents a unique model of regeneration and scarring in amniotes. The tail and limb contain putative stem cells but also dedifferentiating cells contribute to regen- eration. Following tail amputation, inflammation is low and cell proliferation high, leading to regeneration while the intense inflammation in the limb leads to low proliferation and scarring. FGFs stimulate tail and limb regeneration and are present in the wound epidermis and blastema while they disappear in the limb wound epidermis 2–3 weeks postamputation in the scarring outgrowth. FGFs localize in the tail blastema and the apical epidermal peg (AEP), an epidermal microregion that allows tail growth but is absent in the limb. Inflammatory cells invade the limb blastema and wound epidermis, impeding the formation of an AEP. An embryonic program of growth is activated in the tail, dominated by Wnt-positive and -negative regulators of cell prolif- eration and noncoding RNAs, that represent the key regenerative genes. The balanced actions of these regulators likely impede the formation of a tumor in the tail tip. Genes for FACIT and fib- rillar collagens, protease inhibitors, and embryonic keratins are upregulated in the regenerating tail blastema. A strong downregulation of genes for both B and T-lymphocyte activation suggests the regenerating tail blastema is a temporal immune-tolerated organ, whereas a scarring pro- gram is activated in the limb. Wnt inhibitors, pro-inflammatory genes, negative regulators of cell proliferation, downregulation of myogenic genes, proteases, and oxidases favoring scarring are upregulated. The evolution of an efficient immune system may be the main limiting barrier for organ regeneration in amniotes, and the poor regeneration of mammals and birds is associated with the efficiency of their mature immune system. This does not tolerate embryonic antigens formed in reprogrammed embryonic cells (as for neoplastic cells) that are consequently elimi- natedimpedingtheregenerationoflostorgans.
Alibardi, L. (2018) -
Immunodetection of High Mobility Group Proteins (HMGs) in the regenerating tail of lizard indicates activation for cell proliferation. Acta Zoologica (Stockolm). High Mobility Group Proteins (HMGs) are involved in chromatin assembling and control of transcription, especially during development. Transcriptome data indicate that HMGs are abundantly expressed in the early regenerating tail of lizards but their cellular localization remains unknown. Protein bands at 60–62 and 28–30 kDa are detected in western blots, more intense in the regenerating blastema. Immunodetection of HMGs in regenerating tail of the lizard Podarcis muralis indicates that these proteins are mainly localized in tissues where cell proliferation is as active as the apical wound epidermis, ependyma of the spinal cord and pro‐muscle aggregates. Few immunolabelled cells were seen in the regenerating cartilage and growing myomeres or nerves. Only in the wound epidermis labelled cells show a prevalent nuclear labelling while in other tissues a cytoplasmic labelling is prevalent. Only sparse immunolabelled cells are observed in the apical mesenchymal blastema and in the derived connective tissues formed in the mature regions of the regenerating tail, also destined to form adipose cells. The study suggests that the tissues with the highest immunolabelling correspond to those containing more proliferating cells, and that HMGs are mainly activated in these cells to promote cell division for the growth of the new tail.
Regeneration of the tail in lizards suggests that a continuous remodelling process is active in the developing tissues. The present immunological study has detected Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs), previously indicated from a transcriptome study, in the lizard Podarcis muralis. Immunoblots show a main labelled band for MMPs around 68 kDa, possibly a MMP16‐like. Immunofluorescence shows that MMPs are mainly present in the central apical region of the mesenchymal blastema, in the ependyma of regenerating spinal cord, and in the basal layer and basement membrane‐region of the apical wound epidermis. The immune‐labelling decreases or disappears in differentiating tissues present in proximal regions of the regenerating tail such as the epidermis and dermis, muscles, inner connective tissues and in the axial cartilaginous tube. The prevalent localization of MMPs in the central mesenchyme of the blastema indicates a continuous remodelling of the extracellular matrix that actively contributes to the progressive distal growth of the apical blastema into a new tail. The study stresses that in regenerating organs of amniotes, a massive growth can only occur where connective tissues are maintained loose by the continuous action of extracellular matrix proteases in concert with the high production of hyaluronate and consequent tissue hydration.
The immunolocalization of the muscle segmental homoeobox protein Msx1‐2 of 27–34 kDa in the regenerating tail blastema of a lizard shows prevalent localization in the apical ependyma of the regenerating spinal cord and less intense labelling in the wound epidermis, in the apical epidermal peg (AEP), and in the regenerating segmental muscles. The AEP is a micro‐region of the regenerating epidermis located at the tail tip of the blastema, likely corresponding to the AEC of the amphibian blastema. No immunolabelling is present in the wound epidermis and scarring blastema of the limb at 18–21 days of regeneration, except for sparse repairing muscles. The presence of a proximal–distal gradient of Msx1‐2 protein, generated from the apical ependyma, is suggested by the intensity of immunolabelling. The AEP and the ependyma are believed to induce and maintain tail regeneration, and this study suggests that Msx1‐2 proteins are components of the signalling system that maintains active growth of the tail blastema. The lack of activation and production of Msx1‐2 protein in the limb are likely due to the intense inflammatory reaction following amputation. This study confirms that, like during regeneration in fishes and amphibians, also the blastema of lizards utilizes common signalling pathways for maintaining regeneration.
Lizards are key amniote models for studying organ regeneration. During tail regeneration in lizards, blastemas contain sparse granulocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes among the prevalent mesenchymal cells. Using transmission electron microscopy to examine scarring blastemas after third and fourth sequential tail amputations, the number of granulocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes increased at 3–4 weeks in comparison to the first regeneration. An increase in granulocytes and agranulocytes also occurred within a week after blastema cauterization during the process of scarring. Blood at the third and fourth regeneration also showed a significant increase in white blood cells compared with that under normal conditions and at the first regeneration. The extracellular matrix of the scarring blastema, especially after cauterization, was denser than that in the normal blastema and numerous white blood cells and fibroblasts were surrounded by electron-pale, fine fibrinoid material mixed with variable collagen fibrils. In addition to previous studies, the present observations support the hypothesis that an increase in inflammation and immune reactions determine scarring rather than regeneration. These new findings verify that an immune reaction against mesenchymal and epidermal cells of the regenerative blastema is one of the main causes for the failure of organ regeneration in amniotes.
Alibardi, L. (2019) -
The present immunohistochemical and western blotting study evaluates the localization of a proto‐cadherin which gene is overexpressed in the regenerating blastema of the lizard Podarcis muralis. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that the antibody recognizes FAT1/2 proteins. Western blot indicates a main band around 50 kDa, a likely fragment derived from the original membrane‐bound large protein. Immunofluorescence shows main labelling in differentiating wound keratinocytes, lower in ependyma, mesenchyme and extracellular matrix of the blastema. The apical epidermal peg contains keratinocytes with labelled peripheral cytoplasm, as confirmed using ultrastructural immunogold that also reveals most labelling located along the cell surface of mesenchymal cells. Myoblasts and differentiating myotubes of regenerating muscles are less intensely labelled. The regenerating cartilaginous tube contains sparse labelled chondroblasts, especially in external and internal perichondria. In regenerating scales, differentiating beta‐cells appear immunofluorescent mainly along the cell perimeter. In more differentiated muscle, cartilage and connective tissues of the new tail, the labelling lowers or disappears. The observations indicate that FAT1/2 proto‐cadherins are present in the apical blastema where an intense remodelling takes place for the growth of the new tail but where also a tight control of cell division and migration is active and may regulate potential tumorigenic process.
Ephrin receptors are the most common tyrosine kinase effectors operating during development. Ephrin receptor genes are reported to be up-regulated in the regenerating tail of the Podarcis muralis lizard. Thus, in the current study, we investigated immunolocalization of ephrin receptors in the Podarcis muralis tail during regeneration. Weak immunolabelled bands for ephrin receptors were detected at 15–17 kDa, with a stronger band also detected at 60–65 kDa. Labelled cells and nuclei were seen in the basal layer of the apical wound epidermis and ependyma, two key tissues stimulating tail regeneration. Strong nuclear and cytoplasmic labelling were present in the segmental muscles of the regenerating tail, sparse blood vessels, and perichondrium of regenerating cartilage. The immunolocalization of ephrin receptors in muscle that gives rise to large portions of new tail tissue was correlated with their segmentation. This study suggests that the high localization of ephrin receptors in differentiating epidermis, ependyma, muscle, and cartilaginous cells is connected to the regulation of cell proliferation through the activation of programs for cell differentiation in the proximal regions of the regenerating tail. The lower immunolabelling of ephrin receptors in the apical blastema, where signaling proteins stimulating cell proliferation are instead present, helps maintain the continuous growth of this region.
Alibardi, L. (2020) -
Background The regenerating blastema of the tail in the lizard Podarcis muralis contains numerous macrophages among the prevalent mesenchymal cells. Some macrophages are phagocytic but others are devoid of phagosomes suggesting that they have other roles aside phagocytosis. Methods The presence of healing macrophages (M2-like) has been tested using autoradiographic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. Results Autoradiography shows an uptake of tritiated arginine in sparse cells of the blastema and in the regenerating epidermis. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that epitopes for arginase-1 and -2, recognized by the employed antibody, are present in lizards. Immunofluorescence shows sparse arginase immunopositive macrophages in the blastema and few macrophages also in the apical wound epidermis. The ultrastructural study shows that macrophages contain dense secretory granules, most likely inactive lysosomes, and small cytoplasmic pale vesicles. Some of the small vesicles are arginase-positive while immunolabeling is very diffuse in the macrophage cytoplasm. Conclusions The presence of cells incorporating arginine and of arginase 1-positive cells suggests that M2-like macrophages are present among mesenchymal and epidermal cells of the regenerative tail blastema. M2-like macrophages may promote tail regeneration differently from the numerous pro-inflammatory macrophages previously detected in the scarring limb. The presence of M2-like macrophages in addition to hyaluronate, support the hypothesis that the regenerative blastema of the tail in lizards is an immuno-privileged organ where cell proliferation and growth occur without degenerating in a tumorigenic outgrowth.
The microscopic details of the failure of digit regeneration in lizards are not known. The present study reports some histological, ultrastructural and 5BrdU-immunohistochemical observations on healing digits after amputation in the lizard Podarcis muralis. At 7-12 days post-amputation, the stump of digits forms a multilayered wound epidermis covering a loose connective tissue that is invaded by granulocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes. In addition to macrophages also electron-pale multinuclear giant cells are seen underneath or penetrating the wound epidermis while osteoclasts are present in the degrading bone of the severed phalanges. Granulocytes and macrophages invading the wound epidermis indicate the formation of an intra-epidermal immune barrier beneath the scab where numerous bacteria remain entrapped. Immunofluorescence for 5BrdU reveals that few proliferating cells are present in the wound epidermis and the underlying connective tissue at 12 and 32 days post-amputation. Outgrowths of less than 1 mm stop growing and at 32 days they appear scaling. Most of connective cells give rise to fibrocytes and large irregular collagen bundles, as is typical for scar tissue. In conclusion, like for the amputated limb, the intense inflammatory reaction and scarring here described after digit loss appears associated with immune cells invasion.
Alibardi, L. & Borsetti, F. (2019) -
Immunolabelling for RhoV and actin in early regenerating tail of the lizard Podarcis muralis suggests involvement in epithelial and mesenchymal cell motility. Acta Zoologica, Stockolm. Immunolabelling for RhoV and α‐smooth muscle actin, genes that are highly expressed in the regenerating tail of lizards, shows that a main protein band immunolabelled for RhoV is seen at 65–70 kDa and only a weak band at 22–24 kDa. This suggests that alteration occurred during extraction or is due to biochemical processing of the protein. RhoV immunolabelled cells are present in apical and proximal regenerating epidermis during scale neogenesis. The apical ependyma is labelled but labelling fades and disappears in medial‐proximal regions, near the original spinal cord. Differentiating muscles and cartilage show low labelling. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of RhoV in wound keratinocytes shows labelling in regions containing actin filaments that associate with tonofilaments and desmosomes while a low labelling is present in mesenchymal cells. Filamentous regions of the nucleus, nuclear membrane and the nucleolus are immune‐labelled for RhoV. Similar localization is seen for actin that is present along the perimeters of keratinocytes associated with tonofilaments, in elongations of mesenchymal cells, in muscle satellite cells, endothelial and pericytes of blood vessels. It is suggested that RhoV and actin are associated in the dynamic cytoskeleton needed for the movements of epidermal and mesenchymal cells and in endothelial cells forming new blood vessels.
Alibardi, L. & Maurizii, M.G. & Taddei, C. (2000) -
Using immunocytochemistry at light- and electron-microscope levels, we studied the distribution of three monoclonal antibodies (AE1, AE2, AE3) specific for mammalian α-keratins in regenerating lizard epidermis. We also characterized the keratins expressed during this process by immunoblotting after electrophoretic separation. The AE1 antibody is localized in the basal and suprabasal layers of prescaling and scaling epidermis. During the first stages of scale neogenesis, the AE1 antibody also marks the differentiating oberhautchen and β-layer, but it disappears from these layers as they mature. This antibody does not stain the prekeratinized and keratinized outermost layers in the hinge region. The AE2 antibody labels the superficial wound epidermis, prekeratinizing and keratinized β- and α-layers, but not basal and suprabasal cells. The AE3 antibody labels all living and keratinized epidermal layers, although AE3 immunoreactivity decreases and disappears as the β-layer matures. The ultrastructural study shows that the AE2 and AE3, but not the AE1, antibodies specifically label small electron-dense areas within the β-layer, suggesting retention of α-keratins. In the stages of tail regeneration examined, immunoblotting with the three antibodies used for the immunolocalization gives a pattern similar to that of the normal epidermis, except distally, where the process of scale differentiation begins. In this region, in addition to the keratin forms discovered in the normal and in proximal regenerating epidermis, an intense low molecular weight band at 40–41 kDa, positive to all three antibodies, is clearly detectable. Furthermore, in the distal region AE1 and AE3 antibodies, but not the AE2, recognize a weak band at 77–78 kDa not present in the normal and proximal epidermis. The localization and the possible role of the different keratins in the regenerating epidermis is discussed.
Allan, G.M. & Prelypchan, C.J. & Gregory, P.T. (2006) -
Introduced species represent one of the greatest potential threats to persistence of native species. Therefore, it is important to understand the ecology of introduced species in order to develop appropriate mitigation strategies if required. In this study, using data collected in 1992-1993, we describe some fundamental population attributes of common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768), of Italian origin, introduced near Victoria, British Columbia, in the early 1970s. Male and female wall lizards reached similar snout-vent lengths, but males had relatively longer tails and were heavier. However, when gravid, females attained a body mass similar to that of males of equal snout-vent length. We found gravid females in all months from May to July, inclusive, but hatchlings did not appear in the field before late July. Growth rate was inversely related to body size, and lizards probably reached maturity in their second full summer. Larger lizards were moiré likely than smaller lizards to have experienced tail loss prior to capture, but the probability of tail loss upon capture was higher for smaller lizards than for adults. Our results suggest no fundamental differences in population characteristics between P. muralis on southern Vancouver Island and population at sites within the species natural range in Europe. Whether P. muralis on Vancouver Island is a threat to the native northern alligator lizard, Elgaria coerulea (Wiegmann, 1828), remains an open question.
Allan, M. & Prelypchan, C.J. & Gregory, P.T. & Waye, H.L. (1993) -
Allen, A. (1973) -
Aloise, G. & Cagnin, M. & Luiselli, L. (2015) -
Soricid mammals and lizards are small-sized, insectivorous vertebrates that are widespread and abundant in Mediterranean habitats. Because of their broad sympatry and their diet similarity, these taxa have been suspected to compete for food. Therefore, co-occurrence patterns between these taxa were studied at 72 sites in southern Italy by means of trapping methods. The assemblages were quite distinct depending on the site bioclimate: for the Lacertidae, Podarcis siculus dominated in the thermo-Mediterranean sites and P. muralisin the temperate sites, whereas, for the soricids, Suncus etruscusand two species of Crocidurawere dominant in thermo-Mediterranean sites and three Sorexspecies in the temperate sites. The mean number of captured soricids was statistically higher in the temperate sites, and was positively related to the first component of a Principal Component Analysis summarizing three collinear study site variables (elevation, mean annual temperature, annual rainfall), the reverse being true for lizards. Co-occurrence analysis revealed that a non-segregated structure was present in the dataset, whereas a randomization algorithm showed that the assemblage of small mammals and lizards was non-randomly structured, with the frequency distribution of shrews being non-independent by site from that of lizards. However, when we divided the sites by their bioclimatic regime (thermo-Mediterranean versus temperate), the non-randomness of the community structure disappeared, thus demonstrating that interspecific competition was not the main force driving these assemblages of species. The number of shrews captured in each sampling site was however significantly negatively related to the number of lizards, this pattern being linked to the bioclimate of the various sampling sites. Overall, our data indicated that the assemblage of shrews and lizards was likely regulated essentially by local climate and not by synecological (interspecific competition) dynamics.
Ambrogio, A. & Mezzadri, S. (2003) -
Ambrogio, AS. & Mezzadri, S. (2003) -
Amo, L. & López Martinez, P. & Martin Rueda, J. (2014) -
Amo, L. & Lopez, P. & Martin, J. (2003) -
Animals should tend to adjust the magnitude and characteristics of their escape responses according to the perceived levels of predation risk to cope with risk without incurring excessive costs. We analyze in the field the factors that determine the choice of escape behavior and patterns of refuge use of Wall Lizards under two simulated levels of predation risk and under variable environmental conditions, which may affect risk perception and costs of refuge use. The results show that Wall Lizards adjusted their antipredatory response according to several factors. The threat of predation posed by the predator affected the initial type of response of lizards but not the subsequent escape strategies employed. The escape strategy depended on the vulnerability to be captured (i.e., height on the wall and air temperature) and costs of refuge use (temperature and potential predation by ambush snakes). The initial risk of predation and thermal costs of refuge use affected emergence times from the refuge. The antipredator decisions of Wall Lizards, therefore, were influenced not only by the probability of mortality in the immediate future, such as the initial threat of predation and perceived susceptibility but also by consequences for long-term expected fitness, such as physiological costs of refuge use, and by the eventual risk of mortality associated with the use of unsafe refuges.
Amo, L. & Lopez, P. & Martin, J. (2004) -
The threat sensitivity hypothesis assumes that multiple cues from a predator should contribute in an additive way to determine the degree of risk-sensitive behaviour. The ability to use multiple cues in assessing the current level of predation risk should be especially important to prey exposed to multiple predators. Wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, respond to predatory attacks from birds or mammals by hiding inside rock crevices, where they may encounter another predator, the smooth snake, Coronella austriaca. We investigated in the laboratory whether chemical cues may be important to wall lizards for detection of snakes. The greater tongue-flick rate and shorter latency to first tongue-flick in response to predator scents indicated that lizards were able to detect the snakes` chemical cues. We also investigated the use of different predatory cues by lizards when detecting the presence of snakes within refuges. We simulated successive predator attacks and compared the propensity of lizards to enter the refuge and time spent within it for predator-free refuges, refuges containing either only visual or chemical cues of a snake, or a combination of these. The antipredatory response of lizards was greater when they were exposed to both visual and chemical cues than when only one cue was presented, supporting the threat sensitivity hypothesis. This ability may improve the accuracy of assessments of the current level of predation risk inside the refuge. It could be especially important in allowing lizards to cope with threats posed by two types of predators requiring conflicting prey defences.
Prey often respond to predators by increasing refuge use, but some refuges may expose prey to other types of predators. Because predators are not always visible inside refuges, their chemical stimuli may provide early warning of their presence. However, in ectotherms, chemosensory detection of predators may be thermally dependent. Lizards often hide in cold refuges, where their body temperature (Tb) may decrease, and this might affect their ability to detect chemicals of saurophagous snakes that ambush inside refuges. We examined the effects of Tb of wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, on their ability to detect chemicals of smooth snakes, Coronella austriaca. Differential tongue flick (TF) rates and behavioral patterns of lizards in response to scent of smooth snakes showed that lizards with optimal Tb discriminated and avoided the snake`s scent, whereas lizards with suboptimal Tb did not. We also examined the importance of this effect on movement patterns and refuge use by lizards in terraria with safe (odorless) or unsafe refuges (snake-scented). While results of this experiment were variable, there was evidence of snake avoidance in that lizards at optimal Tb spent less time in snake-scented refuges relative to odorless refuges. Therefore, this study provides evidence that chemosensory discrimination of snake chemicals is thermally dependent, and, thus, suboptimal Tb impedes a lizard`s ability to avoid snake-scented refuges.
Many animals use chemical cues to detect predators. However, according to the threat sensitivity hypothesis, natural selection should favor individuals able to respond differentially to the chemical cues of predators that pose different levels of risk rather than responding to chemical cues of all predators in a similar way. The behavioral responses of prey to chemical cues of predators might depend, for example, on the degree to which predators include prey in their diets. The Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis) is under high predation pressure by saurophagous-specialist Smooth Snakes (Coronella austriaca). Wall Lizards are also an important part of the diet of the Montpellier Snake (Malpolon monspessulanus) and occasional prey of the Ladder Snake (Elaphe scalaris). Also, Wall Lizards are sympatric with the non-saurophagous Viperine Snake (Natrix maura). In the laboratory, we compared the tongue-flick rates and behavioral patterns of Wall Lizards in response to exposure to chemical signals of these four snake species that pose different risks of predation. Results suggested that Wall Lizards were able to discriminate the chemical cues of the predatory snakes from the non-saurophagous snake. However, lizards did not respond differentially to chemical cues of different predatory snakes. We suggest that other additional cues are probably needed to elicit an adequate, specific defensive response.
Amo, L. & López, P. & Martín, J. (2004) -
Multiple predators can have risk-enhancing effects due to conflicting predator-specific prey defenses. Wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) escape from searching predators by fleeing into refuges where they can also encounter ambush snakes (Coronella austri- aca). We simulated attacks to lizards in the laboratory to compare their use of preda- tor-scented refuges with that of control refuges, and examined whether lizards that suf- fered a second attack changed the refuge used in the first attack if they had been hidden before in an unsafe refuge. The presence of snake cues neither influenced time to enter the refuge nor refuge choice. However, appearance time was greater in the snake- scented refuge, probably due to time spent acquiring information to ensure the absence of the snake. This was supported because once lizards appeared, they resumed their activities in the same interval of time. Our results suggest a case of predator facilitation due to conflicting prey defenses.
Amo, L. & López, P. & Martín, J. (2005) -
Animals in natural environments usually face different types of predators, and conflict- ing prey defenses can increase risk of predation if prey responses to one predator result in a greater risk from another predator. Wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) respond to predators in the open, such as birds or mammals, by hiding inside rock crevices, where they may be exposed to predation by ambushing saurophagous smooth snakes (Coro- nella austriaca). This offers an excellent system to study how prey behave to avoid multiple predators acting simultaneously. We first performed a field study to examine the escape behavior and refuge use of wall lizards. Lizards mainly responded to the simulated attack by fleeing to hide in the nearest refuge. However, lizards that were far from known refuges sometimes used an alternative escape behavior; lizards fled for longer while passing potential refuges without hiding, thus, presumably avoiding hiding when their reliance in refuge safety was low. This was supported by a further analysis of movement patterns of wall lizards. Spontaneous locomotor patterns could be described as an amount of bursts of locomotion separated by short and long pauses. Lizards stopped near refuges more often, but previously they spent more time in short pauses when moving in or close to refuges exploring them by tongue flicking, than in open rocks. This agreed with a laboratory experiment where we analyzed responses of lizards to substrate scent deposits of smooth snakes. Lizards detected the snake’s scent, and responded by increasing their movement rate in an effort to leave the risky area. However, in the field, after a simulated attack in the open, lizards emerged from the refuge and left the area quickly, decreasing the frequency of short pauses, probably to avoid a new attack in the open. Flexibility in antipredatory behavior may help wall lizards to avoid the risk enhancing effect of two types of predators requiring conflict- ing prey defenses.
Amo, L. & Lopez, P. & Martin, J. (2005) -
We describe the general field population biology of haemogregarines and mites in the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, examining the factors that determine the prevalence and intensity of infection. The intensity of infection by haemogregarines in females was slightly lower in summer than in spring, whereas males maintained similar levels of intensity among all the seasons, probably due to immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. This is also supported because the prevalence and the infection intensity by mites were higher in males than in females. Parasite load was higher in lizards with better body condition, which could be reflecting the mortality of infected lizards with poor condition.
Lizards often respond to predator presence by increasing refuge use. However, this behaviour may expose lizards to saurophagous snakes, which inhabit the same refuges to ambush their lizard prey. Snakes, which are not always visible, deposit chemical trails that can be detected by lizards. Even though there are obvious advantages of using chemical cues, chemical detection of predators might lead to very conservative estimates of risk. This is because chemical cues might indicate that an area was risky in the recent past, but not necessarily at the current time. We examined experimentally whether wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) avoid using refuges that contain chemical cues of smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca), and whether this avoidance response is maintained long term or whether it can be modified. Results suggest that wall lizards detected the chemical cues of smooth snakes inside refuges, and, in the short term, decreased the use of predator-scented refuges and increased their escape movements. However, this avoidance response seemed to decrease in the long term. By investigating the refuge again over subsequent time periods, lizards reassessed whether the snake was actually present, modified their refuge use and decreased their avoidance response. Therefore, wall lizards seem able to assess temporal variations in predation risk by snakes inside refuges and to respond accordingly.
Amo, L. & Lopez, P. & Martin, J. (2006) -
Nature-based tourism has experienced a greater increase, and, even although it might have deleterious effects for many wildlife species, its consequences remains little explored. Many lizard species are endangered and tourism has been proposed as a potential factor responsible of the decline of several lizards` populations, but no study has examined the effect of tourism on lizards` behaviour, body condition and health state. Many lizards respond to people as if they were predators, by readily escaping to refuges. However, an increase in the frequency of these antipredatory strategies can lead to a loss of body condition, which may have important consequences for short and long term fitness. We analysed the effects of tourism on escape behaviour of common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, as well as on their body condition and health state (ectoparasites, blood parasites, and cell mediated immune response). Results showed that lizards did not modify their escape behaviour in response to tourism. Lizards had similar approach and flight distances, and escape strategies regardless of the level of tourism pressure. However, lizards inhabiting areas with high tourism levels, where they presumably needed to perform antipredatory behaviours more often, showed higher intensity of infection by ticks and lower body condition at the end of the breeding period. Moreover, lizards with poorer body condition had lower cell mediated immune responses. Therefore, tourism seems to have deleterious effects on body condition and on host-parasite relationships in this lizard species. These effects should be taking into account when designing walking paths in protected areas. Our study reports evidence that regardless lizards showed similar escape behaviour in tourist than in natural areas, their body condition and health state should be also examined to accurately assess the actual effects of tourism on lizards` populations.
The ability to use multiple cues in assessing predation risk is especially important to prey animals exposed to multiple predators. Wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, respond to predatory attacks from birds in the open by hiding inside rock crevices, where they may encounter saurophagous ambush smooth snakes. Lizards should avoid refuges with these snakes, but in refuges lizards can also find non-saurophagous viperine snakes, which lizards do not need to avoid. We investigated in the laboratory whether wall lizards used different predator cues to detect and discriminate between snake species within refuges. We simulated predatory attacks in the open to lizards, and compared their refuge use, and the variation in the responses after a repeated attack, between predator-free refuges and refuges containing visual, chemical, or visual and chemical cues of saurophagous or non-saurophagous snakes. Time to enter a refuge was not influenced by potential risk inside the refuge. In contrast, in a successive second attack, lizards sought cover faster and tended to increase time spent hidden in the refuge. This suggests a case of predator facilitation because persistent predators in the open may force lizards to hide faster and for longer in hazardous refuges. However, after hiding, lizards spent less time in refuges with both chemical and visual cues of snakes, or with chemical cues alone, than in predator-free refuges or in refuges with snake visual cues alone, but there were no differences in response to the two snake species. Therefore, lizards could be overestimating predation risk inside refuges. We discuss which selection pressures might explain this lack of discrimination of predatory from similar non-predatory snakes.
Amo, L. & López, P. & Martin, J. (2007) -
Natural vegetation in Europe appears nowadays deeply modified by human activities. In the Guadarrama Mountains (Central Spain), ancient reforestations with Scots pines, Pinus sylvestris, replaced original deciduous pyrenean oak, Quercus pyrenaica, forests (since the Roman period). However, the effect of reforestations on fauna remains little known, especially in reptiles. We described patterns of microhabitat selection in several species of Lacertid lizards, and analyzed whether the modification of the original vegetation affected distribution and population densities of lizards. The species of lacertid lizards found in oak forests (Psammodromus algirus, Lacerta lepida and Podarcis hispanica) were different to those of in pine plantations (Podarcis muralis and Podarcis hispanica). Lizards did not use habitat at random and this could explain differences in species found in both forests, which differed in some microhabitat structure characteristics. Most lizards selected microhabitats with rocky outcrops, with low cover of trees, and close to refuges. These microhabitat preferences also explained abundance of lizards in transects. From the perspective of conservation and management of lizards, pine plantations seem not to contribute too much to the diversity of lizard species because species typical from oak forests were lost. This study has implications for pine reforestation management, because allowing the recolonization by understory oaks, and leaving some open areas, without trees but with dense shrubs and rocks inside reforestations would contributed to maintain lizard populations.
Amore, G. & Tomassone, L. & Grego, E. & Ragagli, C. & Bertolotti, L. & Nebbia, P. & Rosati, S. & Mannelli, A. (2007) -
Lizards and small rodents were live captured in Tuscany, central Italy, from May through August 2005. Prevalence of infestation by larval Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) and mean numbers of larvae per host were not significantly different for common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis Laurenti, and Apodemus spp. mice, whereas infestation levels by nymphs were significantly greater on lizards. Borrelia lusitaniae, which was previously shown to be dominant in host-seeking I. ricinus in the same study area, was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 19.8% (95% confidence interval: 14.4, 26.0) of larval ticks and in 52.9% (27.8, 77.0) of nymphs that were collected from lizards. Moreover, 18.8% (7.2, 36.4) and 25.0 (3.2, 65.1) of lizards` tail biopsies and blood samples, respectively, were positive for B. lusitaniae. Conversely, attached ticks and ear biopsies from Apodemus spp. mice were PCR negative. Passerine birds belonging to 10 species were live captured in March 2005, and Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 57.1% (18.4, 90.1) of I. ricinus nymphs feeding on Eurasian blackbirds, Turdus merula L. Results of this study suggest that lizards play an important role as reservoirs for B. lusitanae and may affect the dominance of this genospecies in the Mediterranean area.
Andrada, J. (1980) -
Andrade, P. & Pinho, C. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Alfonso, S. & Brejcha, J. & Rubin, C.-J. & Wallerman, O. & Pereira, P. & Sabatino, S.J. & Bellati, A. & Pelitteri-Rosa, D. & Bosakova, Z. & Bunikis, I. & Carretero, M.A. & Feiner, N. & Marsik, P. & Paupério, F. & Salvi, D. & Soler, L. & While, G.M. & Uller, T. & Font, E. & Andersson, L. & Carneiro, M. (2019) -
Reptiles use pterin and carotenoid pigments to produce yellow, orange, and red colors. These conspicuous colors serve a diversity of signaling functions, but their molecular basis remains unresolved. Here, we show that the genomes of sympatric color morphs of the European common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis), which differ in orange and yellow pigmentation and in their ecology and behavior, are virtually undifferentiated. Genetic differences are restricted to two small regulatory regions near genes associated with pterin [sepiapterin reductase (SPR)] and carotenoid [beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2)] metabolism, demonstrating that a core gene in the house-keeping pathway of pterin biosynthesis has been coopted for bright coloration in reptiles and indicating that these loci exert pleiotropic effects on other aspects of physiology. Pigmentation differences are explained by extremely divergent alleles, and haplotype analysis revealed abundant transspecific allele sharing with other lacertids exhibiting color polymorphisms. The evolution of these conspicuous color ornaments is the result of ancient genetic variation and cross-species hybridization.
Andrei, M.-D. (2002) -
The author updates the knowledge on the herpetofauna of southern Dobruja according to his
own studies within the area, during 1993-1998, when he identified 18 taxa. They represent 37.5% of
the total amphibian and reptile species from Romania. Also the author makes some remarks on
respective ecosystems and on the urgent protection need of some species.
Andreone, F. (2003) -
Andreone, F. & Sindaco, R. (1989) -
Andriopoulos, P. & Pafilis, P. (2019) -
Angel, F. (1946) -
Angelov, P. & Tomov, V. & Gruev, B. (1972) -
Angot, D. (2015) -
Anonymous (1904) -
Anonymous (2014) -
Anonymous (2016) -
Arets, M.H.M. (2000) -
I visited southern France to search for Timon lepidus for the third time in 1998. Sites visited included (among others) Maussane, Lac du Salagou and the surroundings of this lake, St. Rémy-de-Provence, the surrounding hills of Le petit Crau and Avignon. I did not find Timon lepidus this time, but did see Natrix maura, Malpolon monspessulanus, Lacerta bilineata, Podarcis muralis and many Psammodromus hispanicus. There were not very many amphibians visible because of the hot weather.
The author describes a herpetological vacation in southern France. Reptiles and amphibians were abundant in this region. Areas of interest were: La Petite Crau, La Plaine de Ia Crau, Les Alpilles, Les Rochers de Ia Pene and Le Barrage de Sr. Remy. The author was especially interested in spotting Ocellared Lizards (Timon lepida) bur didn` r succeed in finding them. Nevertheless a lot of other animals were seen, as is shown in the table. Nor mentioned in the table are several Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), that were seen at Le Barrage de St. Remy. In addition the author visited Le Village de Torrue at Gonfaron (breeding-center for Testudo hermanni and Testudo graeca) and several other pla- ces in the Sr. Remy region.
Arikan, H. & Göçmen, B. & Yildiz, M.Z. & Ilgaz, Ç. & Kumlutas, Y. (2009) -
The present study is on the morphologies and sizes of peripheral blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes) on blood smears, stained with Wright`s stain, in some lacertid lizards species [Apathya cappadocica (Werner, 1902), Acanthodactylus boskianus (Daudin, 1802), Acanthodactylus harranensis Baran et al. 2005, Anatolacerta danfordi (Günther, 1876), Darevskia praticola (Eversmann, 1834), D. uzzelli (Darevsky and Danielyan, 1977), D. valentini (Boettger, 1892), Parvilacerta parva (Boulenger, 1887), Lacerta pamphylica Schmidtler, 1975, L. trilineata Bedriaga, 1886, L. viridis (Laurenti, 1768), Ophisops elegans Menetries, 1832, Mesalina brevirostris Blanford, 1876, Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768), P. sicula (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1810), Timon princeps (Blanford, 1874)] from Turkey. As a result of our survey, it was determined that the blood cells of the investigated species are shows significant variations in sizes and of leukocytes, agranulocytic leukocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes) are present as predominant cells. Moreover, of granulocytes, neutrophils were no observed in A. danfordi, D. praticola, D. uzzelli, and P. parva.
Arnau, M.A.M. & Liberos Saura, C. & Serrano Elzaguerri, F.J. & Rosado Romero, F. (2002) -
In this article we provide new data of amphibians and reptiles distribution in Teruel province: 81 unpublished records. These records constitute the first observation for a given herpetological specie in a 10 km x 10 UTM square. As a result of a bibliographical review until January 2004, the species cited in Teruel province are 30: 8 species of amphibians and 22 of reptiles, one of these reptiles has been introduced, Trachemys scripta.
Arndt, S. (1993) -
Arndt, S. (1999) -
Im Jahre 1999 wurde Podarcis muralis merremia in einer kleinen
Population inmitten der Bonner Innenstadt festgestellt. Das Vorkommen
befindet sich in einem künstlichen Habitat und ist nicht autochthon.
Arnold, A. (2012) -
Mit der Ausbreitung von Arten durch menschliche Einflüsse in Gebiete, in denen die zuvor nicht heimisch waren, beschäftigt sich ein ganzer Zweig der Biologie, die Invasionsbiologie. Zwei eher kurios anmutende Beispiele belegen die unbeabsichtigte Verschleppung von Eidechsen in menschlicher Kleidung bzw. im Gepäck.
Arnold, E.N. (1973) -
Algyroides fitzingeri, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta princeps, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta andreanszkyi, Lacerta armeniaca, Lacerta bedriagae, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta cyanura, Lacerta danfordi, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta dugesii, Lacerta fraasii, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta jayakari, Lacerta laevis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta parva, Lacerta perspicillata, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta rudis, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta vivipara, Gallotia atlantica, Gallotia galloti, Gallotia simonyi, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis filfolensis, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis pityusensis, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis tiliguerta, Podarcis wagleriana, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus blanci, Psammodromus hispanicus, Psammodromus microdactylus.
Arnold, E.N. (1984) -
The ability to shed (autotomize) all or part of the tail, usually in response to predator attack, and often to subsequently regenerate it is widespread in lizards and amphisbaenians and also occurs in a few snakes and in the tuatara. Most species possess a sophisticated intravertebral autotomy mechanism which seems to be primitive in the Squamata. This appears to have been independently lost in members of many groups, but some agamids and snakes have regained the ability to shed their tails by a simpler intervertebral means and a -number of agamids have also redeveloped tail regeneration as well. Breakable tails are used to evade capture in two main ways: by enabling reptiles to break away from predators that have grasped them by the tail and by providing a distraction which deflects the attention of the attacker away from the vulnerable head and body. It is argued that loss of caudal autotomy has occurred when the costs of tail shedding outweigh its benefits. Likely costs include the expense of regrowing the tail and the loss of a variety of possible tail functions that may cause partial incapacitation, at least until the tail regenerates. Benefits of autotomy are liable to be low if predation is rare, if the animal is able to protect itself effectively in other ways, if it is too slow to evade further pursuit after the tail is shed, or if the tail is small or unpalatable and consequently not likely to distract a predator. Benefit variation may well be greater than cost variation and therefore more important in initiating the loss of autotomy mechanisms. Many taxa that do not shed the tail appear to conform to the above interpretation, but in some cases, such as the Platynota, Agamidae and Chamaeleonidae, lack of intravertebral autotomy may reflect the history of these groups rather than being a direct result of present ecological pressures. The distribution of intervertebral autotomy in the Agamidae suggests that it may have evolved only in rather special circumstances where tail fragility is advantageous even in the absence of the ability to regenerate. Restriction ot autotomy planes to the tail-base, so that the whole organ is lost, a condition found in a number of relatively slow-moving geckoes, is interpreted as a means of ensuring that enough of the tail is shed to distract a predator from further pursuit. The stimulus necessary to induce autotomy can vary rapidly in individual lizards and at least some of these changes probably maximize the effectiveness of the tail-shedding mechanism. Differences in the readiness with which all or part of the tail is shed exist between species and are likely to reflect the balance of costs and benefits in particular cases. Variations in incidence of broken tails between species and populations may be due to such differences in fragility but many other factors may play a part, including the age structure of samples, incidence of unsuccessful attacks by predators and ability to evade predators after autotomy. There is a clear tendency for climbing lizards, especially those living on rock surfaces, to have higher incidences of broken tails than ground-dwelling species, perhaps because the tail is usually less important in locomotion in the first group. Many lizards possess conspicuously coloured tails and tail movements that seem likely to help distract attention from the head and body. Conspicuous tail colouring is more frequent and often better developed in young animals, which tend to be more vulnerable than adults, and in active species from open habitats where crypsis may not always be very effective. Conspicuous tails usually have contrasting light and dark areas in nocturnal forms but are often a single bright colour in diurnal ones, probably reflecting the visual capacities of their respective predators. The predominance of blue tails in day-active species may be because this colour is striking close to but not very arresting at a distance, so it may not attract predators from far away while still drawing their attention at close quarters.
Arnold, E.N. (1986) -
The basic anatomy of the lacertid hemipenis (intromittent organ) and methods for its investigation are described. In many members of the Lacertidae, the hemipenis has a structure quite unlike that of other squamate reptiles: the distal lobes of the retracted organ are complexly folded and there is a well-defined supporting structure of dense connective tissue, the armature. This incorporates blood sinuses and has an intramuscular portion embedded in the m. retractor penis magnus and two club-shaped bodies, the clavulae, that support the lobes in the erect organ. Unarmatured hemipenes occur in some lacertids and, like those of other squamates, possess sac-like lobes in the retracted state, but they are singular in having the lobes invested by the m. retractor penis magnus. It is argued that many of these apparently primitive hemipenes are in fact secondary derivatives of the armatured type.
There is considerable inter-specific variation in hemipenial structure which is described systematically. In some cases this involves differences in size, asymmetry and simplification, which may arise as physical isolating mechanisms and is useful in distinguishing otherwise very similar species, particularly in the genus Mesalina (p. 1253). Other shared derived hemipenial features provide useful information about relationships between species and higher taxa and a summary of the hypotheses that they support is given (p. 1254).
Arnold, E.N. (1987) -
Twenty-four species of lacertid lizards were examined at 31 sites in western Yogoslavia, Greece and Iberia. Comparative observations were made on over 4500 individual lizards, noting such features as times of activitiy, hunting methods, diet, micro- and macrohabitat, refuges used and body temperature. These data are used as a basis for assessing resource partition in related sympatric species, for find out whether different systematic groups have characteristic types of niche, and for comparing cumminity structures in the peninsulas of southern Europa.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Arribas, O.J. (1991) -
Arribas, O.J. (1999) -
Archaeolacerta s. l., in the currently utilized sense results to be a polyphyletic taxon, composed of three monophyletic and phylogenetically well differentiated taxa: a)-Archaeolacerta (s. str.) Mertens, 1921, which includes three species: A. bedriagae, A. oxycephala, and A. mosorensis, distributed by the northern part of the Central Mediterranean (Corsica, Sardinia, and west Balcanic Peninsula). His most related genera seem to be Teira (his adelphotaxon in our study), Apathya, and Omanosaura. b)-Iberolacerta gen. nov., with two subgenera: Iberolacerta s. str. and Pyrenesaura subgen. nov. includes six species: I. monticola, I. cyreni, I. bonnali, I. aranica, I. aurelioi, and I. horvathi. They are distributed by the mountains of Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula, Pyrenees, Central and Eastern Alps and the north of the Dinaric Chains). His adelphotaxon are the Caucasian and Near East species of Darevskia gen. nov. c)-The third taxa is Darevskia gen. nov., which includes the species of the `L.` saxicola complex besides `L.` derjugini, `L.` praticola, and `L.` chlorogaster. They are distributed by Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Near East. Other clear relationships among some taxa of the Eurasian Radiation [= `Eurasische linie` from (Mayer and Benyr, 1994)] have been found: Algyroides seems to be the sister group of the species considered of uncertain phylogenetic relationships belonging to the `L.` danfordi-laevis group and of Podarcis. `L.` brandtii seems to be a very primitive species within the Eurasian Radiation. Omanosaura and Apathya appear as sister taxa. `L.` graeca occupies a very basal position in the sister group of Podarcis and relatives (see above). `L.` andreanskyi is the sister species of the Darevskia nov. and Iberolacerta nov. clade. The assimilation of `L.` andreanskyi to Teira is very problematic. Also the `L.` parva group seems to be related to Timon. Some groups of species like `L.` brandtii, `L.` parva-fraasii and `L.` danfordi-laevis probably merit generic rank, but it is necessary a more deep study before to take a decision.
Arribas, O.J. (2000) -
Iberolacerta bonnali (LANTZ, 1927), ein Endemit der axialen Zentralpyrenäen, bewohnt die Gebirgsstöcke Arriel, Balaitous, Vignemale (oder Comachibosa), Panticosa, Monte Perdido, Punta Suelza,Posets, Maladeta, Ballibierna und die Gebirge des Sant Maurici-Aigüestortes Nationalparks (Besiberris, Muntanyó de Llacs, Peguera und Encantats) samt einer kleinen nördlichen Exklave in den Massiven von Neouvielle und Bigorre. Das Artareal umfaßt das Gebiet zwischen den Pässen von Portalé (im Westen) und Bonaigua (im Osten). Die Eidechse lebt in der alpinen Region, gewöhnlich in Höhen oberhalb 2000 m (zwischen 1700 m und 3062 m) und kommt dort in kleinen bis mittelgroßen, gewöhnlich eng begrenzten Populationen auf unterschiedlichem Gestein (Kalk, Schiefer, seltener und weniger dicht auf Gneis und Granit) und häufig in der Nähe von Seen und Bächen vor.
Die Stichproben von Posets und Maladeta erscheinen als morphologisch zentral bzw. intermediär. An sie lassen sich die übrigen Stichproben aus verschiedenen Richtungen anschließen. Unter den gut repräsentierten Stichproben scheinen die von Bigorre und Ballibierna denen von Maladeta, Monte Perdido und Posets am nächsten zu stehen. Unter den weniger gut vertretenen Samples nähern sich die von Neouvielle und Arriel an Bigorre an. Punta Suelza Exemplare sind intermediär und nahezu nicht von M. Perdido und Posets Tieren unterscheidbar. Die Stichproben Maladeta, Besibierri, Aigüestortes and Ballibierna sind alle gleichermaßen gegenüber den intermediären Populationen differenziert. Insgesamt entsteht der Eindruck, daß die U-förmige Gebirgsformation von Posets, Maladeta und Ballibierna von einer Gruppe „zentraler Populationen“ bewohnt ist, von denen sich drei Stichproben morphologisch am stärksten abheben: Bigorre im Norden, M. Perdido westlich und Aigüestortes im Osten. Dieses Modell positioniert einen möglichen Refugialstandort der Art im Würm auf die Südhänge jenes U-förmigen Gebirgskomplexes, doch bleibt die Möglichkeit anderer kleiner Refugialräume, etwas im Gebiet von Aigüestortes. Das Szenario der Ausbreitung aus diesen Refugialräumen am Ende der letzten Vereisung wird dargestellt, eine das Gesamtmaterial einbeziehende vollständige Diagnose von I. bonnali wird gegeben.
Arribas, O.J. (2006) -
Arribas, O.J. & Rivera, X. (2015) -
Lowland localities of Wall lizard Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) in La Selva district (Girona, NE Iberian Penin-sula) are presented. This kind of isolated and extreme localities, in the boundaries of their distribution area are vanishing due to habitat destruction. A review of other reptile species in Catalonia that maintain or maintained populations in this same situation is done, with special account to the case of Zamenis longissimus.
Asmussen, U.-C. (1997) -
In the Ahr valley near Heimersheim (federal state of Rheinland-Pfalz) a case of canibalism in Podarcis muralis was recorded. An adult male of this species swallowed a juvenile. The habitat is described and causes for cannibalism are discussed.
Astudillo, G. & Garcia-Paris, M. & Prieto, J. & Rubio, J.L. (1993) -
In this paper we provide the first data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the province of Guadalajara (Castilla – La Mancha, Spain). From a heropetological point of view Guadalajara is one of the most unknown provinces in Spain. At this time we have recorded 30 species, 15 of which were not previously cited in the area. Provisional maps of distribution are presented in 10 x 10 km U.T.M. squares.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta schreiberi, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Ausanneau, M. & Baudouin, A. de & Fossé, C. & Gagnier, S. & Lelièvre, H. & Lise, H. & Lolive, N. & Oleszczynski, S. & Veron, F. (2018) -
Ausanneau, M. & Baudouin, A. de & Fossé, C. & Gagnier, S. & Lelièvre, H. & Lisse, H. & Lolive, N. & Oleszczynski, S. & Veron, F. (2018) -
Avery, R.A. (1978) -
(1) Two sympatric lizard species, Podarcis (=Lacerta) muralis brueggemanni and P. sicula campestris, were studied in Tuscany. (2) The daily cycle of behaviour is strongly influenced by weather conditions. P. muralis is active for approximately 255 days per year. (3) The mean active body temperatures maintained by the two species in the laboratory did not differ significantly, but in the field in August they differed by 1.6 degrees C (P. muralis 33.6 degrees C; P. sicula 35.2 degrees C), although the maxima were identical (36.6 degrees C). It is suggested that the difference in mean body temperature is a consequence of differences in habitat and foraging behaviour between the species. (4) Daily food consumption was estimated by method (b) of Avery (1971), using pooled data for the two species. Consumption during hot weather in August was given by C=34.6W0.65 and during cooler weather in April by C=19.3W0.71 where C=food consumption in mg dry wt day-1 and W=live wt in grams. Estimated annual food consumption of P. muralis for 3 years ranged from 162.8-168.8 kJ g live wt-0.7yr-1. (5) Stomach volume (combined data for the two species) was given by V=0.092W0.79 where V=volume in ml and W=live wt in grams. (6) P. muralis differs from Lacerta vivipara in Britain in the following respects: (i) individuals are active on 83 (=48%) more days yr-1; (ii) active body temperature is 3.4 degrees C higher; (iii) daily weight-specific food consumption is 50-59% greater; (iv) annual weight-specific food consumption is 127-151% greater; (v) stomach volume is greater, by an amount which varies with body weight. The significance of these differences is discussed.
Avery, R.A. (1994) -
Male, female and juvenile wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) observed living on a high, south- facing brick wall in April and August were sometimes (4% of total observation time in adult males) seen immobile, facing downwards in an orientation equivalent to the `survey` posture of Anolis and other Iguanidae. Some aspects of the temporal dynamics of the behaviour were investigated. It was most commonly seen in adult males during August, when there were significant trends for the frequency of the posture to increase towards the base of the wall and for the mean time spent immobile in the posture to be greater than the mean times immobile at other orientations. The `survey` posture at the middle and higher levels of the wall appeared to be associated with topographical features such as small tufts of vegetation or bricks which stood proud from the remainder. This association could not be tested directly, but fixing a small strip of wood to the wall increased the duration of locomotor pauses and the frequency of `survey` postures of lizards when they were immediately above it.
Avery, R.A. & Basker, A. & Corti, C. (1993) -
Two adult Podarcis muralis whose normal movements incorporated the flat top of a wall, frequently paused so that they were looking outwards from an edge (“scan” posture), especially during longer (>9 s) periods immobile. Investigations of the posture onraised wooden platform in outdoor enclosures, using two juvenile lizards, showed that (1) lizards spent significantly more time on platforms than would be expected from random movement, and this was not because wood is a favoured substrate for basking; (2) lizards which were immobile on platforms spent significantly more time at edge than would be expected by chance; (3) body orientations at 67.5-112.5° to the edge were the most frequent and these were maintained for significantly longer periods than the remaining roetations; exceptions were from 0800-0900 h when orientation was often parallel to the edge facing the sun and from 1200-1300 h with only a thin strip of shade at 45°, into which the lizards fitted themselves. Lizards basking in the laboratory beneath a tungsten bulb at the edge of a raised platform adopted outward-facing orientations when the platform height was >6 mm. When presented with a choice between basking more effectively (i.e. rapid heating rate) or adopting the “scan” posture at an edge with a lower heating rate or with no heating, they opted for the former. Podarcis sicula, P. filfolensis, Lacerta viridis and L. vivipara all showed an excess of outward-facing orienatations when the basking bilbs were place near edges of platforms, but Psammodromus hispanicus did not. Only the two Podarcis species, however, spent more time on raised platforms than would be excepted by chance when basking was possible at many sites in an arena.
Avery, R.A. & Mueller, C.F. & Jones, S.M. & Smith, J.A. & Bond, D.J. (1987) -
Four species of lacertid lizards (Podarcis muralis, Podarcis pityusensis, Lacerta viridis, and Lacerta trilineata) moving in laboratory arenas alternated bursts of locomotion with short (<1 s) pauses. Variables relating to this movement are compared under two conditions, defined as `standard` and `fleeing,` with values previously recorded for Lacerta vivipara. Mean speeds of the five species (U, in cm s-1) increased with increasing body mass (M, in g) as U = 15.1 M 0.17. When expressed in body lengths per second, however, mean speeds decreased with increasing body mass. The ratio of `fleeing` to `standard` speed was lower in adult L. vivipara than in adults of P. muralis, P. pityusensis, and L. trilineata and was lower in juvenile L. vivipara than in juvenile L. viridis; possible reasons for these differences are discussed. The incidence and duration of pauses in the five species decreased with increasing body mass.
Avery, R.A. & Perkins, C.M. (1989) -
Measurements of the rates at which droppings of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) on Jersey appeared in, and disappeared from, the environment made it possible to formulate a simple mathematical model for the dynamics of faecal pellet populations. The model shows how, for a given lizard population, the number of droppings changes with time according to weather conditions. It was used to estimate lizard densities at a number of sites from daily pellet counts. There were significant differences in the densities of lizards between sites; possible reasons for these are discussed.
Avery, R.A. & Tosini, G. (1995) -
The propability that lizards would capture crickets declined with distance from the snout, at rates which were significantly more rapid in all directions in Lacerta vivipara than in Podarcis muralis or L. viridis, i.e. the former species responded to potential prey over a smaller area. Capture probabilities at any distance in front of or behind the snout were lower in P. muralis or L. viridis which were pausing during locomotion than in basking lizards, confirming previous results with L. vivipara. Using capture probabilities for pausing lizards to calculate the average time it would take to find a single item of prey (tf) in relation to the mean length of locomotor bursts, on the assumption that prey could only be detected while a lizard was pausing, showed that actual mean burst distance corresponded exactly with the burst distance which gave rise to minimum tf in L. vivipara. Mean locomotor burst distances in P. muralis and L. viridis were lower than the distances which gave minimum tf values. It is suggested that, in these species, the mean burst length has evolved as a compromise between minimising tf and avoiding the high overall energy expenditures which would result from long burst lengths.
Ayllón Lopez, E. & Barbera Luna, J.C. (2011) -
Babocsay, G. (2011) -
Bacci, M. & Lanza, B. & Linari, R. & Tosini, G. (1992) -
A portable optical-fiber spectrum analyzer operating in the visible and near-infrared range was used to measure in vivo the skin reflectance of lizards of the genus Podarcis. The investigations, which we performed in connection with a study of the biological problem of the microinsular melanism, are quite safe for the examined animals and can be easily extended to spectroscopic and/or energy input studies in other animals.
Bachhausen, P. (2017) -
Bachmann, M. (1979) -
Badiane, A. (2017) -
Caudal autotomy is a process usually used by numerous lizards to escape from predators. During the regeneration, morphological anomalies can appear such as the poly-furcation of the tail. Here, we report here the presence of a tail trifurcation in a Croatian Podarcis muralis.
Badiane, A. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Carmen Garcia-Custodio, M. del & Carazo, P. & Font, E. (2017) -
1. Over the past 20 years, portable and relatively affordable spectrophotometers have greatly advanced the study of animal coloration.However, the small size ofmany colour patches poses methodological challenges that have not, to date, been assessed in the literature. Here, we tackle this issue for a reflectance spectrophotometry set-up widely used in ecology and evolution (the beam method). 2. We reviewed the literature on animal coloration reporting the use of reflectance spectrophotometry to explore how theminimummeasurable size of a colour patch is determined.We then used coloured plastic sheets to create artificial colour patches, and quantify the relationship between colour patch size and distortions induced by resulting chimeric spectra (spectra contaminated by an adjacent colour patch). Finally, we assessed the generality of our findings using natural colour spots in the lizard Podarcis muralis, as a biologically realistic model. 3. We found a lack of consensus in the literature, frequently resulting in the rejection of valid data or the potential inclusion of unreliable data. As expected, we show that decreasing colour patch size reduces the reliability of reflectance measurements, but also that spectral distortions resulting from chimeric spectra depend on patch/background colour combinations.We found similar results using natural colour spots in P. muralis. 4. We propose a series of steps to avoid the pitfalls described above. First, we provide guidelines on how to identify chimeric spectra and estimate the minimum size of a measurable colour patch in order to avoid them. Second, we show that reducing the probe-to-surface distance allows for more accurate measurements and therefore improves the spectrophotometric assessment of small colour patches. Third, we suggest that, as a general rule of thumb, very small (< 2 mm) colour patches should be avoided when using traditional spectrophotometry methods.
Bády, F. & Vági, B. (2012) -
The common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis LAURENTI, 1768) is the most abundant reptile species in the urban environments of Hungary. Like other lacertids, it is an effective heliothermic thermoregulator, which prefers sunny, open surfaces. This type of habitat could be found in higher numbers in cities and suburbs than in the natural environment of the species, which are rocky outcrops in hilly landscapes. In our research we compared the activity, thermoregulatory behaviour and thermal environment of common wall lizards in an urban and a close-to-natural habitat during three seasons. Thermal preferences of the lizards were measured in a laboratory thermal gradient. Available body temperatures in the field (operative temperatures) were estimated using a digital contact thermometer and hollow copper pipe lizard models. Actual field body temperatures were also measured in captured lizard specimens. The activity of lizards was observed during three days in both habitats in three seasons. According to our results the thermal quality of the two habitats are similar, however, the actual patterns of daily temperature changes are different, and there is great difference between seasons as well. The lizards living in urban environment proved to be efficient and accurate thermoregulators in each season. Population density was higher in the urban habitat, but the activity period was similar between the habitats. Urban environment had a better thermal quality in autumn, but not in the other parts of the year. Higher population density in the urban habitat could be caused by other than thermal factors, such as better food supply or decreased number of competitors and predators.
A fali gyík (Podarcis muralis LAURENTI, 1768) a legtöbb nyakörvösgyíkhoz hason- lóan hatékony, helioterm hőszabályozó, mely számára a napsütötte, nyílt felszínek igen fontos élőhe- lyet képeznek. A városokban, lakótelepeken ezek ugyanúgy rendelkezésre állnak, mint a fali gyík egyes természetes élőhelyein, a középhegységi sziklakibúvások környezetében. Vizsgálatunkban egy városi és egy természetközeli élőhelyen élő gyíkpopuláció termoregulációs környezetét és aktivitását hasonlítottuk össze három évszakban. A gyíkok hőmérsékleti preferenciáját terráriumi kísérlettel mér- tük ki. Mindkét élőhelyen gyíkmodellek segítségével vettük fel a gyíkok által elérhető hőmérséklete- ket, az urbanizált élőhelyen a szabadon élő gyíkok aktivitási testhőmérsékletét is lemértük. Évszakon- ként három napon át vizsgáltuk a gyíkok aktivitását. Eredményeink alapján a két élőhely hőmérsékleti minősége a gyíkok számára nem mutat nagy eltérést. Az urbanizált élőhelyen élő gyíkok hatékony és pontos hőszabályozónak bizonyultak minden évszakban. Az egyedsűrűség a városi élőhelyen lénye- gesen magasabb volt, az aktivitási időszak gyakorlatilag megegyezett. Az urbanizált élőhely hőszabá- lyozási szempontból ősszel kedvezőbb a fali gyíkok számára, de az élőhely jobb hőmérsékleti minő- sége nem általánosítható minden időszakra. A magasabb egyedsűrűségnek egyéb okai is lehetnek, például a jobb táplálékellátottság vagy a versenytársak és a ragadozók hiánya.
Baeckens, S. & Huyghe, K. & Palme, R. & Van Damme R. (2017) -
Chemical signals are essential for intersexual communication in many animals, including lizards. While faeces have been suggested to contain socially relevant chemical stimuli, epidermal gland secretions are generally believed to be the leading source of chemosignals involved in lizard communication. Early research has shown that sex hormones affect epidermal gland activity, with androgens stimulating gland/pore size and/or gland productivity. However, the functional significance of hormone-induced glandular activity in lizard chemical communication remains unclear. In this study, we manipulated testosterone (T) concentrations in male Podarcis muralis lizards. While T-supplementation did not change pore size, it did increase secretion production substantially. Chemosensory tests showed that female conspecifics tongue-flick at a higher rate and more quickly towards the secretion of males with experimentally increased T levels than towards the secretion of control males, suggesting that females can discriminate between males with dissimilar T levels based on chemical cues of secretion alone. Based on the scent of faeces, however, females were unable to discriminate between males with differential T levels. Also, females reacted more quickly when offered larger amounts of secretion – irrespective of whether secretions were obtained from control or T-increased males. This result indicates that secretion quantity affects chemosignal detectability in Podarcis muralis.
Baier, F. (2006) -
The climbing patterns of the adult wall lizards are not restricted by the masking paint, whereas those of the juveniles might be influenced. The temperature readings of the painted wall areas were at average 0,61°C lesser than those of the not painted areas. This might have an effect on periods of activity of the juveniles. Additionally, data on the population size and the distribution of Podarcis muralis at the Neckar in Heidelberg are updated.
Bakker, A. (1988) -
In June and July 1986 observations were made on the reptiles and amphibians in the surroundings of a camping in the Perigord (France). Eight species were observed: Rana dalmatina, Alytes obstetricans, Bufo bufo, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta viridis, Natrix maura, Elaphe longissima and Coluber viridiflavus.
Balázs Attila, V. (2015) -
The Common Lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823), has the largest distribution of all known lizard species. In the European continent the intraspecific phylogeographical pattern of Zootoca vivipara is characterized by seven haplogroups. Several previous studies were published about the phylogenetic relationships of viviparous and oviparous haplogroups of the species, according to them in the Carpathian Basin there are four haplogroups present. Samples were collected from 161 individuals in eighteen locations in the Carpathian Basin, during the collection period some new populations were found at different locations. Two target genes were selected for the phylogenetic analysis: a 429 bp segment of mtDNA, that contains 406 bp from protein-coding cytochrome b and 23 bp from the adjacent Glu-tRNA genes, as well as about 500 bp (depending on the haplotype) of the non-protein-coding 16S rRNA gene. According to the results, there is no evidence to the existence of the connection between the two main distribution areas of clade „F”. A north-south corridor of clade „E” across eastern Hungary and western Romania has recently been suggested, but the distribution area was found discontinuous between Western Europe and the Balkan. The populations studied in the Făgăraş Mountains and Bucegi Mountains were characterised as a new, previously undescribed presumably ancient haplogroup.
Balli, A. (1940) -
Balli, A. (1941) -
Balli, A. (1944) -
L’A. ha fatto osservazioni ed ha emesso considerazioni intorno alla svernamento di Rana esculenta Lin., Rana dalmatina Bonp. e Lacerta muralis Laur., prendendone in esame i luoghi e l`epoca, in rapporto al sesso ed all` età degli animali.
Bammerlin, R. & Bitz, A. & Thiele, R. (1996) -
Bank, J., Kruyntjens, B. & P. Paulissen (1982) -
The authors give a description of the herpetofauna of some area´s in Yougoslavia they visited in june 1979. Some attention is given to the habitat of several species. The differences between certain island and mainland populations of some Lacerta- and Podarcis-species are discussed to some extend.
Bannert, B. (1991) -
Es gibt sicherlich verschiedene Möglichkeiten, im Terrarium gehaltene Eidechsen zu überwintern. Der eine schwört auf seinen Keller, der andere auf eine laubgefüllte Grube in seinem Garten. Nun, wem beides nicht zur Verfügung steht, dem kann auch ein Kühlschrank ganz ausgezeichnete Dienste leisten. Freilich ist nicht gemeint, die Eidechsen frei zwischen Wurst und Käse zu betten, vielmehr bedarf es einiger Vorbereitungen. Im wesentlichen stellen sich zur Überwinterung von Eidechsen 4 Fragen: 1. wen? 2. wann? 3. wie? Und 4. wie lange? Auf diese 4 Fragen soll im in diesem Bericht eine Antwort gegeben werden.
Bannert, B. (1993) -
Baracsy, Á. (2007) -
Barahona, F. & Barbadillo, L. (1997) -
We carried out a morphometric study of the skull throughout postnatal ontogeny in 14 species of Iberian lacertid lizards belonging to the genera Acanthodactylus, Algyroides, Psammodromus, Podarcis, Zootoca, Timon and Lacerta s. latu with the aim of elaborating a key of identification for the studies species. A total of sixty one characters showing interspecific variation are identified. The characters are defined in articulated and disarticulated skulls.
Barahona, F. & Barbadillo, L. J. (1998) -
Intra- und interspecific variation are analysed fpr the post-natal skull of the lacertid lizards Gallotia galloti, Actnhodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus and Psammodromus hispanicus. Individual variations identified include: the prsence/absence, number and morphology of some structures, mainly in the lacrimal, sclerotic ossicles and macilla; the number and location of foramina and the degree of ossification of some processes in chondrocranial bones. No differences bones. No differences have been found between the sexes with respect to presence and morphology of the bones but some species show sexual dimorphism in the size and robustness of the head and this may be reflected in the individual. The most substantial variations seen are ontogenetic: the appearances of new traits; development of articulations; differences between species in the timing of the stages of development of a given structure; changes in the relative position of some cranial elements; and the degree of calcification or ossification of processes. A total of 63 characters showing interspecific variations are identified. Some have not previously been described while others used in previous studies are redefined here on the basis of new morphological information obtained.
Baran, I. & Atatür, M.K. (1998) -
Baran, I. & Gruber, U. (1981) -
A new subspecies of Podarcis muralis from the island Kefken at the Turkish coast of the Black Sea is described. It is characterized by the occurrence of 2 praeocularia, a tendency of forming a small praeoccipital scale and by on an average less scales around midbody than the nominate form. The new subspecies is named Podarcis muralis kefkenensis.
Barbadillo, L.J. & Bauwens, D. (1997) -
Males of many lizard species have longer tails than similarly-sized females. We hypothesized that this dimorphism is induced by a longer non-autotomous tail part in males, which is associated with the presence of the copulatory organs at the tail base, and presumably reduces the males` ability to escape predation by tail shedding. A compensatory mechanism would be an increase of total tail length in males, to achieve equal lengths of the autotomous tail part in both sexes. A critical prediction of this `morphological constraint` hypothesis is that the extent of dimorphism in total tail length increases with the magnitude of sexual differences in length of the non-autotomous tail base. We tested this prediction through a comparative study in a small clade of lacertid lizards. Within each of nine species, sexual differences in length of the non-autotomous tail base and in total tail length do not change with body size. All species, except one, exhibit a clear male-biased dimorphism in length of the non-breakable tail base. In all species studied, males have longer tails than females. We used the method of phylogenetically independent contrasts to explore the interspecific relation between dimorphism in length of the tail base and sexual differences in total tail length. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence for a positive correlation between the extent of dimorphism in both traits. Thus, constraints imposed by the male copulatory organs on tail autotomy do not seem to be a significant factor in the evolution of dimorphism in tail length in this clade of lacertid lizards.
Barbadillo, L.J. & Lacomba, J.I. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Sancho, V. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
Barbadillo, L.J. & Sánchez-Herraiz, M.J. (1992) -
Barbault, R. & Mou, Y.P. (1986) -
Within the last twenty years, emphasis has been placed on the quantitative approach to the structure and function of natural populations. Nonetheless, data that document temporal and geographic variation in life histories and demographic patterns among populations and species of European lizards are still very scarce, except for Lacerta vivipara (Pilorge, 1981; Pilorge and Castanet, 1981; Heulin, 1985). Although it is a common and abundant species in central and southern Europe, the wall lizard Podarcis muralis (Laurenti) has been poorly studies from a demographic point of view. If we except a note of Castanet and Roche (1981) about age structure, the only known demographic study is that of Strijbosch et al. (1980) for the northernmost population in the Netherlands.
The present study provides data on life history of a population of Podarcis muralis from southwestern France, as a first step of a comparative approach to population dynamics of the species within southern France.
Barbault, R. & Mou, Y.P. (1988) -
A population study of the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, was conducted from 1979-1981 with occasional surveys until 1985. The study site was a 0.52-ha cemetery. Lizards required 2 yr to reach sexual maturity. An average of two clutches are produced per breeding season (April-July), and clutch size decreases with time. Some older females may produce a third clutch in late July. Clutch size is strongly correlated with female body size. Population size showed little variation throughout this study, and average absolute density (excluding hatchlings) was 531/ha. The 1-yr-old cohort represented between 66% and 71% of the population. Maximum longevity approximates 5 yr.
Barisic, F. & Bogdanovic, T. (2011) -
Research of fauna and biology of particular species of reptiles in the area of Nature park Papuk were done in the period from February 2009 to September 2009, in 15 locations. The transect method was used in data gathering on reptiles. The sampled units were measured for length or photographed, and during sampling the environmental parametres were measured. The collected data were entered in the database and with the help of GIS technology distribution maps of particular species on the examined area were made. The species Natrix natrix and Lacerta viridis had the largest quantitative structure. The eudominant species were established to be Natrix natrix, Lacerta viridis, Natrix tessellata and Lacerta vivipara, while the recent species are Vipera berus and Ablepharus kitaibelii. The numerousness of species in the researched area as well as their distribution are the result of various conditions in microhabitats, where species find the optimal conditions for survival. Furthermore, seasonal and daily dynamics were analysed. Daily activities, of species and of individuals, show a decrease of value from morning to afternoon, and as far as seasonal dynamics is concerned, the most intensive period of appearance of reptile is in the period from July to September.
Barrioz, M. & Voeltzel, V. (2012) -
Bartheau, F. & Dusoulier, F. & Gouret, L. & Grosselet, O. (1999) -
Bas-López, S. (1980) -
Basoglu, M. & I. Baran (1977) -
Battisti, C. & Luiselli, L. (2011) -
In connectivity conservation and ecological network planning, the selection of focal fragmentationsensitive species represents a priority step. Nevertheless, despite their strategic role, selection of focal species has traditionally been carried out using charismatic and/or non objective approaches. In this way, actions of planning and conservation could be ineffective. Using as a case study Italian reptiles, we apply an expert-based approach for the selection of focal species on the basis of sensitivity to components of habitat fragmentation (habitat area reduction, increase of habitat isolation, increase of edge effect and landscape matrix disturbance) and of intrinsic ecological traits of the species (trophic level, dispersal ability, body size, niche breadth, rarity). The threshold values for each component of fragmentation defined a set of 21 focal species that can be divided into the three macro-components of human-induced habitat fragmentation (HIHF) towards which they show a sensitivity, the suitable spatial scale of populations and relative suitable habitat categories. Among these species, seven can be sampled easily with standard, low-cost field protocols. The selected species largely coincide with the species known in literature as fragmentation-sensitive.
Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. (1995) -
A complete catalogue is provided for the type specimens of lacertid lizards in the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, Berlin, as of December, 1993. The collection contains a total of 514 type specimens, representing 63 taxa, of which 42 are currently regarded as valid at the specific or subspecific level. Types representing an additional four taxa appear to have been lost from the collection. The collections are especially rich in African lacertid types and in historically significant specimens collected early in the Nineteenth Century by Pallas, Eversmann, and Hemprich & Ehrenberg. Also present are the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis described by Eisentraut.
Bauer, L. (2011) -
Baumann, T. (2002) -
Baumgarten, H.G. & Braak, H. (1968) -
The distribution of catecholamines in the central nervous system of Lacerta viridis and muralis was investigated by means of the method for fluorescence-microscopical detection of catechol- and tryptamines. Most nuclear areas of the mes-, di- and telencephalon receive terminal ramifications of catecholamine-containing neurones, the distribution pattern of which is typical for each nucleus; these neurones originate in the tegmentum (nucleus reticularis mesencephali) and in the hypothalamus (nucleus diffusus tuberis). Apart from these nuclei another paraventricular nucleus (nucleus ependymalis hypothalami) was found to contain catecholamines. The short neurones of this nucleus mainly innervate the nucleus ventromedialis tuberis and the area praeoptica. It is assumed that these neurones also supply the nuclei commissurales of the telencephalon.
According to the results of spectrographical and histochemical tests it is assumed that the fluorescent substance in the palaeostriatum of Lacerta is mainly noradrenaline and that the neurones of the nucleus ependymalis hypothalami besides little adrenaline contain huge amounts of primary catecholamines. The possibility of the fluorescent substances acting as transmitters is discussed.
Baumgarten, H.G. & Braak, H. & Wartenberg, H. (1969) -
Difficulties to demonstrate the storage sites of noradrenaline by means of electronmicroscopy in neurones from the nucleus ependymalis hypothalami of Lacerta have been overcome by pretreatment of animals with 5-hydroxydopamine and 5-hydroxydopa. 5-hydroxydopamine which has been shown to act as a false sympathetic transmitter in the peripheral nervous system is specifically taken up and stored by dense core vesicles from the noradrenaline neurones while the storage sites of serotonin containing neurones do not concentrate this pyrogallol analogue. A reduction in the number of dense core vesicles from the serotonin storing neurones might indicate that both substances are capable of releasing tryptamine-like substances besides replacing catecholamines. This observation was confirmed by measurements of the noradrenaline- and serotonin-depletion from the brain following pretreatment of animals with both pyrogallol analogues. Moderate doses of 5-hydroxydopamine and 5-hydroxydopa (100 mg/kg) caused a considerable decrease in the concentration of serotonin whereas the loss of noradrenaline was lower. The effect of the amino acid on the content of brain-monoamines was more pronounced than the effect of the amine itself. It is suggested that a pretreatment of animals with 5-hydroxydopa and/or 5-hydroxydopamine will provide a safe identification of catecholamine storing neurones in the central nervous system — a prerequisite for studies of the organization of synaptic connections from noradernergic and dopaminergic neurones to their effectors.
Baus, M. (2006) -
Bauwens, D. (1999) -
The life history of an organism is the combination of age-specific survival probabilities and fecundities
it displays in its natural environment. Hence, an organism`s life history is characterised
by its age and size at maturity, frequency of reproduction, clutch or litter size, size of eggs and
hatchlings, and survivorship at different life stages (as embryos, neonates, immatures, adults).
Variation in these traits can be studied at different levels: within a population, among populations
of a single species, and among different species. I here give an overview of studies that explored
life history variation in European lacertid lizards.
Bauwens, D. & Garland, T. & Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. (1995) -
Oganismal performance abilities occupy a central position in phenotypic evolution; they are determined by suites of interacting lower-level traits (e.g., morphology and physiology) and they are a primary focus of natural selection. The mechanisms by which higher levels of organismal performance are achieved during evolution are therefore fundamentally important for understanding correlated evolution in general and coadaptation in particular. Here we address correlated evolution of morphological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that influence interspecific variation in sprint speed in a clade of lacertid lizards. Phylogenetic analyses using independent contrasts indicate that the evolution of high maximum sprinting abilities (measured on a photocell-timed racetrack) has occurred via the evolution of (1) longer hind limbs relative to body size, and (2) a higher physiologically optimum temperature for sprinting. For ectotherms, which experience variable body temperatures while active, sprinting abilities in nature depend on both maximum capacities and relative performance levels (i.e., percent of maximum) that can be attained. With respect to temperature effects, relative performance levels are determined by the interaction between thermal physiology and thermoregulatory behavior. Among the 13 species or subspecies of lizards in the present study, differences in the optimal temperature for sprinting (body temperature at which lizards run fastest) closely matched interspecific variation in median preferred body temperature (measured in a laboratory photothermal gradient), in- dicating correlated evolution of thermal physiology and thermal preferences. variability of the preferred body tem- peratures maintained by each species is, across species, negatively correlated with the thermal-performance breadth (range of body temperatures over which lizards can run relatively fast). This pattern leads to interspecific differences in the levels of relative sprint speed that lizards are predicted to attain while active at their preferred temperatures. The highest levels of predicted relative performance are achieved by species that combine a narrow, precise distribution of preferred temperatures with the ability to sprint at near-maximum speeds over a wide range of body temperatures. The observed among-species differences in predicted relative speed were positively correlated with the interspecific variation in maximum sprinting capacities. Thus, species that attain the highest maximum speeds are (1) also able to run at near-maximum levels over a wide range of temperatures and (2) also maintain body temperatures within a narrow zone near the optimal temperature for sprinting. The observed pattern of correlated evolution therefore has involved traits at distinct levels of biological organization, that is, morphology, physiology, and behavior; and trade- offs are not evident. We hypothesize that this particular trait combination has evolved in response to coadaptational selection pressures. We also discuss our results in the context of possible evolutionary responses to global climatic change.
Bea, A. (1981) -
A description of the geographical area, soil. vegetation, clima and herpetofauna from the province of Guipuzcoa (Spain) has been made. From a climatical point of view, it has been set that average rain-full was 1727.9 l/year, with 170.5 rain days. Temperatures are mild. During the year the average temperature is 12.6ºC. Along 1978-1979, 796 observations of amphibians and reptiles species have been made. Quotations are distributed by months and by species. For taxonomicals groups correlations have been calculated in order to see the relationship with climatology. At the same time multiple regresion methods have been also used in both the cases results have been positive. Reptiles and lizards species presents a negative correlation with precipitation. Lizards species also with the days of rain-full. All the species, reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures. Reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum-minimum difference temperature. By the other hand, we comment the relationship between environmental factors and the sun`s time, and the catchings of amphibians and reptiles. Among considered environmental variables, the slope orientation, insolation, cloudness and wind have been choosen. Lastly, spatial distribution of every species has been presented. The 89.6% of the grid squares presents at least one observation. So, for each species found in Guipuzcoa, temporal and spatial distribution and habitat are comented. Up to present, in Guipuzcoa the following species of amphibians and reptiles have been found: Salamandra salamandra, Triturus helveticus, T. marmoratus, Bufo bufo, Alytes obstetricans, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana temporaria, Anguis fragilis, Lacerta schreiberi, L. viridis. L. vivipara, Podarcis muralis, Coronella austriaca, C. girondica, Elaphe longissima, Natrix maura, N. natrix y Vipera seoanei.
Beaune, D. & Savier, H.-P. (2019) -
Beck, P. (1943) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1874) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1877) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1878) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1879) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1882) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1886) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1892) -
Behrens, M. & Fartmann, T. & Hölzel, N. (2009) -
Bejakovic, D. & Aleksic, I. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Džukić, G. & Kalezic, M.L. (1996) -
Bejakovic, D. & Aleksic, I. & Tarasjev, A. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J.& Dzukic, G. & Kalezic, M.L. (1996) -
Bellati, A. (2011) -
Color polymorphisms are widespread in nature and may show a high variability not only within the same
population, but also among populations of the same species., Color polymorphism is a common feature
among reptiles and is often linked to evolution of alternative strategies. Alternative and discrete color
morphs have been reported in the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, which show six different ventral
colorations in both sexes: three pure phenotypes (i.e., white, yellow and red) and three intermediate phenotypes
(i.e., white-yellow, white-red and yellow-red). The relative frequencies of color morphs show micro-
geographic variations at local scale, which could be related to gene flow reduction among populations.
Therefore, in this work I studied genetic polymorphism by using molecular markers in order to assess
gene flow and dispersal among populations of common wall lizard, with the aim to describe the geographic
structure of polymorphic populations at local scale. Moreover, nuclear markers were used to investigate
the presence of genetic divergence among sympatric color morphs of common wall lizard.
Bellati, A. & Pellitteri-Rosa, A. & Sacchi, R. & Nistri, A. & Galimberti, A. & Casiraghi, M. & Fasola, M. & Galeotti, P. (2011) -
Recent analyses of molecular markers have significantly revised the traditional taxonomy of Podarcis species (Squamata: Lacertidae), leading to critically reconsider the taxonomic value of several subspecies described only on morphological bases. In fact, lizards often exhibit high morphological plasticity both at the intra-specific and the intra-population level, especially on islands, where phenotypic divergences are mainly due to local adaptation, rather than to evolutionary differentiation. The Common wall lizard Podarcis muralis exhibits high morphological variability in biometry, pholidosis values and colour pattern. Molecular analyses have confirmed the key role played by the Italian Peninsula as a multi-glacial refuge for P.muralis, pointing out the lack of congruence between mitochondrial lineages and the four peninsular subspecies currently recognized. Here, we analyse a portion of the protein-encoding cytochrome b gene in the seven subspecies described for the Tuscan Archipelago (Italy), in order to test whether the mitochondrial haplotypes match the morphologically based taxonomy proposed for Common wall lizard. We also compare our haplotypes with all the others from the Italian Peninsula to investigate the presence of unique genetic lineages in insular populations. Our results do not agree completely with the subspecific division based on morphology. In particular, the phylogenetic analyses show that at least four subspecies are characterized by very similar haplotypes and fall into the same monophyletic clade, whereas the other three subspecies are closer to peninsular populations from central Italy. From these results, we conclude that at least some subspecies could be better regarded as simple eco-phenotypes; in addition, we provide an explanation for the distinctiveness of exclusive lineages found in the archipelago, which constituted a refuge for this species during last glacial periods.
Bellati, A. & Pellitteri-Rosa, D. & Cocca, W. & Sacchi, R. & Casiraghi, M. & Fasola, M. & Galeotti, P. (2013) -
Colour polymorphism is widespread in reptiles, but the mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of alternative morphs are still poorly understood. Among lizards, several studies have been carried out to investigate the adaptive value of alternative colourations, which are often associated with several life-history traits (immunological, physiological and behavioural) as a result of correlational selection favouring co-adapted gene complexes in a sexually-selected runaway process. The common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) shows three pure ventral colour morphs (white, yellow and red) and two intermediate, di-chromatic phenotypes (yellow-red and white-red) in both sexes and within the same population. Colourations are expressed at the time of sexual maturity and no continuous variation occurs among them. Moreover, they do not shift to one another once expressed; strongly suggesting that morph might be, at least partially, genetically determined. Previous studies have shown that morphs differ in immunological, haematological and physiological traits, as they play alternative strategies to achieve different fitness optima to cope with selective pressures. Recently, evidence of non-random mating has been provided both by field observations and captive-breeding experiments. In theory, positive assortative mating within the same morph and selection against hybrids could increase the potential for polymorphism in driving divergent evolution among morphs, as a first step towards eventual reproductive isolation and sympatric speciation. We selected hypervariable molecular markers (8 microsatellite loci) to study genetic differentiation among morphs in three northern Italian populations, by estimating and comparing allele frequencies and deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium between morph classes and in the populations considered as single panmictic units. Observed variation in the genetic composition of morph classes within each population matched previous evidence of non-random mating between colour morphs, suggesting intra-specific genetic divergence driven by colour polymorphism in common wall lizards.
Bellenque, S. & Gadot, A.-S. & Mionnet, A. (2014) -
Belliure, J. & Clobert, J. (2004) -
Reptiles exposed to stressful conditions respond with increases in plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT). The outcome of such hormonal fluctuations can affect the organism`s physiology and behavior; however, relatively few studies in reptiles have progressed past the effects of stress on the plasma levels of CORT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CORT on lizard behavior. We focused on activity and thermoregulation of juveniles of the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis. Juveniles with experimentally elevated plasma CORT concentrations showed a higher moving rate and spent a greater amount of time moving. They also spent more time being involved in attempts to escape from a terrarium. This enhanced locomotor activity was associated with significant changes in thermoregulatory behavior, as CORT-increased individuals had reduced thermoregulatory activity than the controls. The same pattern of results was obtained in nature and under laboratory conditions. Thus, CORT levels appear to mediate an important trade-off between locomotor activity and thermoregulation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the effect of CORT on lizard thermoregulation has been examined.
Beltra, S. (2013) -
The list of amphibians and reptiles living in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur constitutes an inventory of up-to-date knowledge on herpetofauna.
Beltremieux, E. (1863) -
Beltremieux, E. (1884) -
Bender, C. (1995) -
Bender, C. (1997) -
Bender, C. (1999) -
Bender, C. & Asmussen, U. & Hildenbrandt, H. (1999) -
Bender, C. & Fuhrmann, M. (2000) -
Bender, C. & Fuhrmann, M. (2001) -
Bender, C. & Hildebrandt, H. & Schmidt-Loske, K. & Grimm, V. & Henle, K. (1996) -
Bender, C. & Schmidt-Loske, K. & Asmussen, U. & Hildenbrandt, H. (1999) -
Beninde, J. & Feldmeier, S. & Veith, M. & Hochkirch, A. (2018) -
Introductions of non-native lineages increase opportunities for hybridization. Non-native lineages of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, are frequently introduced in cities where they hybridize with native populations. We aimed at unravelling the invasion history and admixture of native and non-native wall lizards in four German cities using citywide, comprehensive sampling. We barcoded and genotyped 826 lizards and tested if gene flow in populations composed of admixed native and introduced lineages is facilitated by similar environmental factors to those in native populations by comparing fine-scale landscape genetic patterns. In cities with non-native lineages, lizards commonly occurred in numerous clusters of hybrid swarms, which showed variable lineage composition, consisting of up to four distinct evolutionary lineages. Hybrid swarms held vast genetic diversity and showed recent admixture with other hybrid swarms. Landscape genetic analyses showed differential effects of cityscape structures across cities, but identified water bodies as strong barriers to gene flow in both native and admixed populations. By contrast, railway tracks facilitated gene flow of admixed populations only. Our study shows that cities represent unique settings for hybridization, caused by multiple introductions of non-native taxa. Cityscape structure and invasion histories of cities will determine future evolutionary pathways at these novel hybrid zones.
Beninde, J. & Feldmeier, S. & Werner, M. & Perverse, D. & Schulte, U. & Hochkroch, A. & Veith, M. (2016) -
Functional connectivity is essential for the long-term persistence of populations. However, many studies assess connectivity with a focus on structural connectivity only. Cityscapes, namely urban landscapes, are particularly dynamic and include numerous potential anthropogenic barriers to animal movements, such as roads, traffic or buildings. In order to assess and compare structural connectivity of habitats and functional connectivity of gene flow of an urban lizard, we here combined species distribution models (SDMs) with an individual- based landscape genetic optimization procedure. The most important environmental factors of the SDMs are structural diversity and substrate type, with high and medium levels of structural diversity as well as open and rocky/gravel substrates contributing most to structural connectivity. By contrast, water cover was the best model of all environmental factors following landscape genetic optimization. The river is thus a major barrier to gene flow, while of the typical anthropogenic factors only buildings showed an effect. Nonetheless, using SDMs as a basis for landscape genetic optimization provided the highest ranked model for functional connectivity. Optimizing SDMs in this way can provide a sound basis for models of gene flow of the cityscape, and elsewhere, while presence-only- and presence-absence-modelling approaches showed differences in performance. Additionally, interpretation of results based on SDM factor importance can be misleading, dictating more thorough analyses following optimization of SDMs. Such approaches can be adopted for management strategies, e.g. aiming to connect native common wall lizard populations or disconnect them from non-native introduced populations, which are currently spreading in many cities in Central Europe.
Beninde, J. & Hochkirch, A. & Veith, M. & Proess, A. (2016) -
Bennati, R. (1988) -
The author describes the results of many years of research on the erpetological fauna of Mount Adamello.
Berg, M.P. van den (2019) -
A report is made of a visit to the Belvédère area in Maastricht on Saturday the 21st of September 2019. This is shortly after the completion of major changes in this area, which is also the location of the northernmost native population of Podarcis muralis.
Berg, P. & Berg, R. (2010) -
Bergmans, W. (1984) -
Of the 14 published and 3 as yet unpublished Dutch localities of the Wall Lizard, Lacerta mura- lis (Laurenti, 1768), only Maastricht can be given credit. The species reached that locality in histori- cal times, via the east bank of the river Maas. If there were ever any Wall Lizards on Sint-Pie- tersberg, a marl hill south of Maastricht, they pro- bably reached the hill by way of Maastricht, rather than the other way around. Because of the pre- sence of suitable dispersal routes, i.e. stony or rocky slopes with sun-exposed spots, amidst fo- rests, and of favourable climatic conditions, one might be led to expect that the species should be found in other localities in southern Zuid-Limburg - especially in the western part where summers are relatively dry. North of this region there are no dispersal routes and climatic conditions gradually worsen. However, material from Slenaken and Valkenburg, originally identified as Lacerta mura- lis, proved to respresent Lacerta vivipara Jacquin, 1787. The locality Epen, published with reservati- on, was subsequently rejected by the same au- thor. Data concerning an observation at Bemelen indicate Lacerta vivipara. The same goes for an unpublished observation in the surroundings of Valkenburg. A quite recent observation at Meche- len calls for confirmation. An unpublished archive not on an observation at Noorbeek does not indi- cate Lacerta muralis.
Bergmans, W. & Zuiderwijk, A. (1986) -
Bernini, F. & Candiotto, A. & Nardi, P.A. & Rossi, S. & Razzetti, E. (2006) -
The authors report on predation by salmonid fish on some reptile species in two tributaries of the Tanaro river in the Alessandria province (NW Italy). The remains of Podarcis muralis, Anguis fragilis and of an undetermined colubrid of the genus Natrix were found in bromatological analyses performed on 117 Oncorhynchus mykiss specimens. Salmonid predation on herpetofauna once again confirms the alimentary opportunism of these fishes; however, predation is an occasional phenomenon and not a threat to the local reptile populations.
Bertram, N.A. (2004) -
Determining the past, present and future effects of alien species on native biodiversity is a globally recognized problem. The Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, was introduced to Vancouver Island from Europe in 1970. To assess potential competitive interactions with the native Northern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria coerulea), I investigated several aspects of P. muralis ecology. D i h i o n along manmade corridors (e.g. roads and powerlines) and human-facilitated jump dispersal are contributing to range expansion; three separate populations currently exist. Reproductive output of P. muralis was not affected by amount eaten while gravid, but feeding level and incubation temperature affected offspring phenotypes. In comparative tests of locomotor performance, P. muralis was faster than Z. coerulea, but only at moderate temperatures. I found no effect of P. muralis dour on E. coeruela behaviour, but E. coeruela avoided cover objects that housed P. muralis. These two species use similar habitats, but were found on different substrates and mesoslopes. Based on the results of these experiments there is a potential for comvetition between these two lizard species.
Beshkov, V. & Beron, P. (1964) -
Beshkov, V. & Nanev, K. (2006) -
Beutler, A. & Heckes, U. (1984) -
Beutler, A. & Kaule, G. (1984) -
Biaggini, M. & Bombi, P. & Capula, M. & Corti, C. (2011) -
Biaggini, M. & Corti, C. (2015) -
Reptile assemblages across agricultural landscapes: where does biodiversity hide?— The transition from traditional to intensive farming, aimed at large–scale production, has rapidly altered agricultural landscapes, leading to the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats and to the consequent loss of biodiversity. Herpetofauna is seriously threatened by agriculture intensification worldwide, but less is known about its distribution in agro–ecosystems, especially at field scale. We analysed reptile abundance and diversity in eight agricultural and semi–natural land uses, and inside vegetated buffer strips interspersed among fields. Interestingly, most reptiles were recorded in the buffer strips while intensive crops and pastures hosted just one lizard species. Richness of individuals and species increased when strips were connected to semi–natural areas, independently of their width and vegetation structure. In view of our results, that highlight the role of minor landscape features for the presence of vertebrates in intensive agro–ecosystems, we recommend the implementation of buffer strips among the measures for vertebrate conservation in agricultural landscapes.
Biaggini, M. & Dapporto, L. & Paggetti, E. & Corti, C. (2006) -
Biaggini, M. & Paggetti, E. & Bazzoffi, P. & Brizzi, R. & Corti, C. (2004) -
Biard, H. (1991) -
Bird, C.G. (1936) -
Birukow, G. & Fischer, K. & Böttcher, H. (1969) -
Das Vermögen, sich kompaBgerecht nach dem Stand der Sonne zu orientieren und ihre tageszeitliche Wanderung einzurechnen, ist seit den grundlegenden Entdeckungen von K. v. Frisch (1950, 1951) an der Biene auch bei zahlreichen anderen Vertretern der Arthropoden und Wirbeltiere nachgewiesen worden. Soweit wir heute wissen, setzt das Richtungsfinden mittels eines Himmelsgestirnes mindestens zwei Grundleistungen des tierischen Organismus voraus: erstens die Fähigkeit, „Zeit zu messen“ (physiologische oder innere Uhr; vgl. Bünning, 1958; Aschoff, 1960); zweitens den zeitgerechten Gebrauch eines Orientierungsmechanismus, der die tageszeitlichen Azimutänderungen des Gestirnes „rechnerisch“ mit Hilfe der inneren Uhr kompensiert. Während das erste Grundvermögen wohl eine sehr allgemeine Eigenschaft von Lebewesen ist, wie es der tagesrhythmische, annähernd mit der Erdumdrehung synchronisierte Ablauf zahlreicher Lebensprozesse bei Tieren und Pflanzen zeigt, sichert das zweite Vermögen speziellere Lebensbedürfnisse des tierischen Organismus; die Fähigkeit, Zeit zu messen, wird dabei in den Dienst der Orientierungsfunktion gestellt.
Bischoff, W. (1966) -
Bischoff, W. (1969) -
Bischoff, W. (1973) -
Bischoff, W. & Deichsel, G. (2002) -
A museum specimen misidentified as a common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, from Van Wert County, Ohio, USA was re-determined as a Caucasian rock lizard, Darevskia valentini. The specimen displays characteristics of Darevskia, the most notable of which are alternating broad and narrow whorls of scales around the tail. Scalation of the specimen is described and compared to sister taxa in detail.
Biserkov, V. (2007) -
Biserkov, V. & Naumov, B. & Tsankov, N. & Stoyanov, A. & Petrov, B. &Dobrev, D. & Stoev , P. (2007) -
The current book provides a synthesis of the information concern-
ing field identification of all the species and subspecies of Amphibia
and Reptilia hitherto registered in Bulgaria. It comprises 61 species
and 23 subspecies, among which 5 species (Pelophylax lessonae, P.
kurtmuelleri, Hemidactylus turcicus, Eremias arguta, Montivipera
xanthina) that have not been found yet on the territory of the
country, but which are known from sites in proximity to Bulgar-
ian frontiers. The frogs and toads are represented with 14 spe-
cies, newts and salamanders with 6 species, turtles and tortoises
with 7 species (Trachemys scripta introduced; Caretta caretta and
Chelonia mydas considered extinct), and snakes with 19 species
(Vipera aspis and V. ursinii considered extinct). The structure of
each species’ description includes the following headings: Name,
Diagnosis, General Distribution, Distribution in Bulgaria, Habitats,
and Biology. Besides in Bulgarian and Latin, all species are sup-
plemented with their English, French, German and Russian names.
All synonyms in the main herpetological literature are listed after
the currently accepted Latin name. Original keys for identification
of the families, genera and species, based entirely on morphologi-
cal characters of adult specimens, as well as on the structure of
amphibians’ eggs and larvae, are elaborated to facilitate the users.
A photo gallery, comprising original colour photos shot in nature,
and numerous line drawings of different key characters are made
for better distinction between the species. For purely conservation-
al reasons, the distribution maps not only indicate the scientifically
confirmed species distribution in the country, but also show the
areas with suitable habitats where a given species is likely to oc-
cur. The degree of suitability is indicated with a different degree
of shading: optimal (black); suboptimal (80% gray); suitable (60%
gray); less suitable (20% gray); white means unsuitable. The guide
is also introducing the readers to some general aspects of the tax-
onomy, systematics, morphology, biology and ecology of herpeto-
fauna. Special chapters are devoted to the methods of observation
and capture of amphibians and reptiles, first aid after a snake’s
bite, and the relationship between herpetofauna – humans. The
status of each species according to main biodiversity conservation
acts and conventions is given in Table 1. Being the first publication
of its kind, the book is intended for professional herpetologists,
students or nature lovers.
Blab, J. (1980) -
Reptiles range in the Federal Republic of Germany with the most endangered groups of animals and conservation measures are therefore of great importance for their sur- vival.
The ecological requirements of all twelve native species are precisely stated: climatic and microclimatic conditions, substrate humidity, vegetation structures, animals for prey, microstructures, hiding places, hibernation quarters and oviposition sites are decisive factors for the absence or presence of the particular species. The climatic factors are most important for those xerothermic species, which usually reach the northern limit of their range in our country. According to their habitat preference the following three eco- logical groups of reptiles can be separated: (a) Species dependent on open water, (b) species of open to semi-open dry habitats, (c) ecological generalists. The species-specific data regarding the minimal population and habitat size are mostly unknown, but some experimentally obtained data are available.
The indigenous species of reptiles are especially endangered through the following factors: (1) Destruction of habitats; (2) direct and indirect poisoning; (3) direct pro- secution and indirect destruction; (4) expulsion through human interference; (5) natural harmful effects (especially of climatic nature).
The extent and effects of endangering and corresponding counter-measures are dis- cussed. Special attention is paid to the general aspects of habitat protection, the priorities and model representation of conservation and development measures for reptile habitats.
The occurence of reptiles in xerothermic grassland can be secured only if the direct destruction of the habitat by building up, afforestation, wine growing, fertilization and other kinds of intensive use of the land are run down, however, also the secondary fac- tors must forma part of the management: natural succession of crops as in extensive agri- cultural methods, sheep grazing, mowing or combination of mowing and burning.
The maintenance and reproduction of reptile populations ·of woodlands needs the provision of light woods, managed according to old methods, and additionally the pro- vision and maintenance of extended and structurally abundant forest edges. The typical reptile population in an area of intensive agriculture requires at least four hectare of extensively managed grassland per each square kilometre; chis area can be either in one part or consist of small scattered `ecological cells`.
In order eo maincain ehe reptiles inhabiting wetlands, all efforcs regarding an in- creased draining of these areas must be strict!y prevented. The semi-natural fens and wet meadows need regular management: mowing and removal of mowed grass. For ehe Euro- pean pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) and the Dice snake (Natrix tessellata) it is pos- sible eo increase ehe qualicy of ehe habitat if additional undisturbed sites for oviposition and sunbathing could be provided. This equally applies to ehe Adder (Vipera berus) and the Grass snake (Natrix natrix). The shortage of food for ehe young specimens could be obviated by establishing amphibian habitats.
Blab, J. & Nowak, E. (1976) -
Blanchard, R. (1880) -
Blanchard, R. (1891) -
Blanckaert, A. & Hermans, J. (2009) -
The very rare common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768)) is in the Netherlands
only present in Maastricht. This is the utmost Northern limit of the range of the species.
For a long time it only lived in the Hoge- and Lage Fronten. The species has enlarged its
range in the first half of the twentieth century. Part of the railroad between Maastricht and
Lanaken, Belgium, which has not been used since the 1980s, was colonized.
ProRail B.V., the supervisor of the railroad, plans to reactivate the railroad. An exemption
of the Flora- en faunawet (Flora- and fauna-law), requiring the creation of an
compensation area, has been obtained. In order to realize this, RAVON (Reptiles,
amphibians and Fish Research Netherlands) was given the assignment to formulate a
design plan, an implementation plan, and a management plan for the compensation of the
lost habitat of the common wall lizard and some other reptile and plant species. The
restoration of the railroad and the realisation of the alternative area commenced in 2008.
The main components of the area are 25 stacked walls. The population, consisting of 107
individuals, was translocated to 10 of these walls.
Translocation projects are rarely successful. Projects (worldwide) regarding reptiles and
amphibians fail in 65% of the time when the motivation for translocation is due to a
conflict with humanity. Realisation of compensation for lost habitat is problematic due to
insufficient inventories, lack of expertise, lack of supervision and absence of monitoring
The goal of this study is to gain insight in the quality of the compensatory project. In order
to evaluate the compensatory habitat the quality (durable state of preservation) is evaluated
by comparing it with successful/dense populated areas (Hoge Fronten and Lage Fronten)
and literature. Additionally, 190 (focal animal) observations, which take up to 34hrs in total,
were carried out in the Hoge- and Lage Fronten in order to determine which components
of the habitat of the common wall lizard are intensely used and thus considered essential.
Furthermore, the current condition of the population was mapped.
The components of the habitat which are evaluated in this study are: design and positioning
of the walls and the vegetation on and around the walls. Concerning the population:
numbers, demography, use of territories and the presence of reproduction. The
compensatory habitat is situated alongside the railroad between Maastricht and Lanaken.
The successful habitats are also situated in Maastricht.
In order to evaluate the design of the walls, the building style and use of materials are
compared to those of successful habitats. The frost resistance was measured by
determining the width of possible winter holes. Positioning of the walls was evaluated by
measuring exposure to sun, wind and human disturbances. Wall vegetation coverage and
mapping of vegetation around the walls was compared to that of three densely populated
walls in the Hoge- and Lage Fronten. Population size was measured by two observers who
walked along transects that are alongside all components of the compensatory area and they
recorded all observed individuals. Here, individual recognition, in the form of photography,
was used. Mapping of territories was also done by individual recognition.
It was found that the compensation area differs from the successful habitats and literature
on several areas. Walls were homogeneously built, 38% of the walls were sufficiently frost
resistant. Researchers have speculated about hibernation in the ground. It is well know that the common wall lizard usually hibernates in walls. There is also a heavy disturbance from
transport truck traffic.
Currently, the population consists of 11 individuals of which 8 are adults. It cannot be
determined whether the decrease in population size was due to emigration or mortality. It is
also possible that observed individuals colonized the compensation area from other nearby
In conclusion, the compensatory area is of insufficient quality in its current condition for a
durable state of preservation. The population size is too low to speak of a viable population.
Relatively uncomplicated adjustments can improve the habitat substantially, such as:
creating openings in the flanks of the walls and placing bricks of large rocks alongside the
walls. More radical adaptations would be to improve the frost resistance and narrow the
Industrieweg. Considering colonization is plausible the future outlook for certain regions of
the area is positive.
Blanco Alvarez, Y. (2016) -
Blanford, W.T. (1876) -
Blanke, I. (2020) -
Blanke, I. & Lorenz, S. (2019) -
Blanke, I. & Schulte, U. (2016) -
Verschiedene Regionen von Niedersachsen und Rheinland-Pfalz werden vorgestellt und die dortigen typischen Lebensräume von Reptilien beschrieben. An den örtlichen Gegebenheiten (Naturraum, am Standort vorkommenden Reptilienarten, Biotope und Pflanzen) sollten sich Schutzmaßnahmen orientieren. Vorrangige landschaftstypische Schutzmaßnahmen sind insbesondere die Sicherung und Wiederherstellung von Lebensräumen und Vergrößerungen ihrer Fläche sowie eine reptilienfreundliche Pflege. Gabionen und Steinriegel kommen als Maßnahme vor allem in Rebgebieten mit autochthonen Vorkommen der Mauereidechse in Betracht. Die Eignung von Gabionen und anderen Durchlässen als Querungshilfe in Lärmschutzwänden wird diskutiert.
Hinweis: Bezieht sich auch auf Zaun- und Waldeidechse. Die Querungsexperimente an Lärmschutzwänden erfolgten mit Zauneidechsen.
Boag, D.A. (1973) -
Wall lizards occupied overlapping territories, the size of which seemed to vary directly with the dominance level of the individual. Average territories of both males and females encompassed about 25 square meters. The overlap in territories among males was about 8 percent, and among females, about 18 percent. When both sexes were considered, overlap was 100 percent. This spacing mechanism appeared to be effective in governing the number of resident males but less so in governing number of resident females.
In each of three years, females outnumbered males by 3.5 to one, probably because, among non-resident individuals, males were forced to move about more than females in order to avoid resident males, and as a consequence were subjected to greater predation pressure. Of 47 lizards marked on the study area, 60 percent were resident; the remainder were apparently wandering in search of unoccupied habitat.
The number of resident lizards increased over the 5-year period of study from 10 to 21 individuals. Over the same period the average snout-to-vent length of this population decreased from 70.7 mm to 68.2 mm among males and 63.2 mm to 57.3 mm among females, probably reflecting a younger age structure. Correlated with these changes in population size was an increase in predation pressure from feral cats as reflected in the incidence of caudal autotomy among lizards.
Böckl, W. & Zauner, J. (2014) -
From 10/05/2014 to 05/17/2014 we traveled some selected areas in the south of France together with two terrarium friends. We have already known the lizards that occur in this area from former trips to other countries in southern Europe. Thus, our interest was in the following landscapes, outstanding by their particular circumstances, such as substrate, vegetation, moisture and color. Of course we also wanted to observe and photograph the resident reptiles and amphibians and in particular the „king“ of the Provence – the Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus lepidus).
Bodenheimer, F.S. (1944) -
Boettger, O. (1880) -
Boettger, O. (1881) -
Boettger, O. (1893) -
Bogaerts, S. (2003) -
In 2001 and 2002 I visited the Drulon estate in the Cher Department, France. On this estate, extensive cattle farming, nature and art are tightly interwoven. Apart from many insects, such as the Staghorn Beetle, Lucanus cervus, and Praying Mantis, Mantis religiosa, at least five species of reptile and five amphibian species occur here: Podarcis muralis, Lacerta bilineata, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Vipera aspis, Triturus helveticus, Triturus cristatus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina and Rana esculenta. The latter species also occurs in a blue colour mutation with some frequency. There is a good chance that additional species will be found here, but I only briefly visited the area twice during the summer months and missed out on the spring – an important time for amphibian inventories.
Böhme, W. (1974) -
Böhme, W. (1982) -
Within a species one can often distinguish between groupings which correspond to objectively different levels of differentiation. The level of these differentiations may vary
between semlspecies and local population rank. On the other hand the zoological system
supplies us with only one category for the nomenclatoral expression of infraspeclflc relative relationship. Several examples taken from the European herpetofauna are used to demonstrate the absurdity of infraspeclflc concepts currently accepted for many European, especially Mediterranean reptile species. An alternative to this unsatisfactory situation would be the concept of `megasubspecies` as developed by American ornithologists. This concept would allow to express Infraspeclflc relationship also in herpetology better than before, but nevertheless in harmony with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Böhme, W. (1997) -
Böhme, W. & Caputo, V. & Corti, C. & Garavelli, P. (1994) -
Die vorliegende Arbeit fasst neue Erkenntnisse zum Vorkommen der Mauereidechse im südlichen und östlichen Teil der Apennin-Halbinsel zusammen. Im Süden ist die Mauereidechse weiter verbreitet als bisher angenommen, jedoch auf Regionen über 700m beschränkt. Entlang der Adriaküste ist die Verbreitung lückenhaft. Als neue Fundorte werden genannt: Region Marche: Monte Conero, Porto d+Ascoli, San Benedetto del Tronto, Ascoli Piceno. Region Molise: nur im Apennin Region Apulia: nur Vorbergzone und Gargano; Foresta Umbra, Bosco Quarto, Monte S. Angelo.
Böhme, W. & Corti, C. (1993) -
Böhme, W. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Cheylan, M. & Nettmann, H.K. & Krecsák, L. & Sterijkovski, B. & Schmidt, B. & Lymerakis, P. & Podloucky, R. & Sindaco, R. & Avci, A. (2009) -
Böhme, W. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Cheylan, M. & Nettmann, H.K. & Sterijkovski, B. & Schmidt, B. (2006) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1921) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1928) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1929) -
Bolkay, St. J. (1928) -
Bologna, G.M. & Capula, M. & Carpaneto, G.M. & Cignini, B. & Marangoni, C. & Venchi, A. & Zapparoli, M. (2003) -
Mit dem Verbreitungsatlas der Amphibien und Reptilien Roms legt das vielköpfige Autorenteam ein Werk vor, das -soweit dem Rezensenten bekannt - erstmalig detailliert Auskunft über die urbane Herpetofauna einer mediterranen, international bedeutsamen Großstadt liefert. Allein schon die Abgrenzung des Untersuchungsraumes ist bemerkenswert, die sich nämlich nicht an der Stadtgrenze orientiert, sondern an der ringförmig das Stadtzentrum umgebenden Autobahn (Grande Raccordo Annulare) und damit statt eines administrativen einen funktionalen Charakter besitzt. Die Vielfalt der römischen Stadtlandschaften innerhalb des 360 km² großen Untersuchungsraumes wird anhand zahlreicher Photos belegt, die von der historischen Altstadt und den hochgradig versiegelten Innenstadtbereichen zur Peripherie hin über zunehmend aufgelockerte Stadtteile bis hin zu agrarisch genutzten Randzonen reichen. Gleichzeitig liefern die Photos einen ersten Hinweis auf das Angebot herpetologisch relevanter Lebensraumtypen. Exemplarisch seien hier die archäologischen Fundstätten und historische Parkanlagen aber auch weitere naturnahe Flächen genannt, denen als innerstädtischen Refugialbiotopen eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Die Genese des 1996 gestarteten Kartierungsprojektes, die von über hundert Mitarbeitern stammende Datenbasis sowie der verwendete Erfassungsbogen werden kurz vorgestellt. Grundlage der Verbreitungskarten ist ein UTM-km²-Raster. Den eigentlichen Artkapiteln wird ein mit Zeichnungen unterstützer Bestimmungsschlüssel vorangestellt. Die doppelseitigen Artkapitel sind jeweils nach folgendem Schema aufgebaut: Photo, Gesamtverbreitung, Vorkommen in Rom, Verbreitungskarte, tab. Angabe der Präsenzwerte für die Zeitintervalle 1980-1995, 1996-2002, 1980-2002, Biologie und ökologie. Das aktuelle, seit 1996 dokumentierte Artenspektrum setzt sich aus 10 Amhibien- und 16 Reptilienarten zusammen, darunter mit T. scripta eine allochthone Art. Die meisten Amphibienarten sind nur noch relikthaft im Stadtgebiet nachweisbar. So liegen die aktuellen Präsenzwerte von S. terdigitata, R. dalmatina, R. italica, T. carnifex und H. intermedia zwischen 0,3 und 2,2% und selbst T. vulgaris wurde nur in 3% der Untersuchungsraster nachgewiesen. Höhere Präsenzwerte werden für B. viridis (8%) angegeben, aber lediglich der Wasserfroschkomplex R. bergeri / R. kl. hispanica (16,7%) und B. bufo (17,2%) sind im Stadtgebiet von Rom noch relativ verbreitet. Ein deutlich anderes Bild ergibt sich für die Reptilienfauna: Während auch hier neun Arten nur Präsenzwerte zwischen 0,8 und 5% erreichen (in aufsteigender Reihenfolge: N. tesselata, T. hermanni, E. orbicularis, E. quattuorlineata, V. aspis, A. fragilis, T. scripta, E. longissima, N. natrix), sind die übrigen 7 Taxa noch relativ verbreitet und z.T. sogar bemerkenswert häufig. So liegen die Präsenzwerte von Ch. chalcides, H. turcicus und L. bilineata zwischen 15,5 und 17,2 und C. viridiflavus ist mit 19,4 die mit Abstand am weitesten verbreitete Schlangenart in der Großstadt Rom. Noch deutlich höhere Werte werden von T. mauritanica (28%), P. muralis (45,5%) und schließlich P. sicula (62,2) erreicht, die selbst in der Innenstadt regelmäßig auftreten und die die urbanen Raumstrukturen offensichtlich erfolgreich zu nutzen wissen. Ein Vergleich mit älteren Daten belegt, dass vier Arten ausgestorben sind (S. salamandra, B. variegata, C. austriaca, C. girondica) und dass die Bestände mehrerer weiterer Taxa in den letzten Jahren einen dramatischen Rückgang aufweisen (S. terdigitata, B. viridis, R. dalmatina, R. italica, E. orbicularis, L. bilineata, E. quattuorlineata, E. longissima). Abschließend kann dem kompetenten Autorenteam sowie dem Umwelt- und Kulturamt der Stadt Rom, die als Herausgeber des Verbreitungsatlas fungieren, ein großes Lob ausgesprochen werden. Italienische Sprachkenntnisse sind für das Verständnis der Arbeit nicht zwingend notwendig, da die wichtigsten Aussagen des klar gegliederten und sehr ansprechend gestalteten Heftes selbsterklärend sind. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist dieser Herpetofauna von Rom eine weite Verbreitung – und Folgeprojekte aus weiteren Großstädten! - zu wünschen.
Bologna, M.A. & Capula, M. & Carpaneto, G.M. (2000) -
Gegenstand des A4-formatigen und 160 Seiten umfassenden Buches ist eine erstmalige, detaillierte Zusammenstellung der Amphibien- und Reptilienfauna der Region Lazio in Mittelitalien. Das über 17.000 km² große Untersuchungsgebiet umfasst die drei küstennahen Provinzen Viterbo, Rom und Latina sowie die beiden „inländischen“ Provinzen Rieti und Frosinone, deren Hügel- und Berglandschaften lokal bis in alpine Höhenstufen von 2.000 bis 2.300 mNN hinaufreichen. Entsprechend artenreich ist die Herpetofauna (14 Amphibien / 19 Reptilien). Das einleitende Kapitel gilt einem Rückblick in die herpetologische Erforschung der Region seit Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts. Anschließend wird die Datenbasis erläutert, die auf den mittels Erfassungsbögen dokumentierten Fundmeldungen von über 200 namentlich aufgeführten Personen beruht. Das folgende Kapitel enthält einen ausführlichen und von Zeichnungen unterstützten Bestimmungs- und Larvenschlüssel. Das eigentliche Kernstück des Buches sind die Artkapitel, in denen jede Art auf einer Doppelseite nach folgendem Schema vorgestellt wird: Wissenschaftlicher Name: Synonyme, italienischer, englischer und französischer Name, Lokalnamen – Gesamtverbreitung, Italien, Unterarten, Lazio - ökologische Daten aus Lazio, Phänologie und Fortpflanzung - Status und Schutzaspekte – Literatur.
Bombi, P. & Bologna, M.A. (2002) -
The trophic niche of two sympatric species of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis and P. sicula) was studied by the analysis of both stomach contents and faecal pellets, and differences in trophic spectra, food niche breadth, and niche overlap were compared. The analysis based on stomach contents provided more complete and detailed data. Podarcis sicula appeared to be a more generalist predator than P. muralis, and the niche overlap between the two species was very Jow. Differences from literature data showing a higher overlap can be due to local food preferences and different methods of analysis.
Bonaparte, C.L. (1838) -
Bonaparte, C.L. (1839) -
Bonati, B. & Csermely, D. (2011) -
Several ectotherms show lateralisation, particularly visual lateralisation. Such brain specialisation has an ancient origin and is still present in living vertebrates. One important advantage is the possibility for lateralised animals to carry out two tasks at the same time, without altering the efficiency of either one. Recent studies on the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) found right eye/left hemisphere bias for attention to the cues of prey, and left eye/right hemisphere bias for controlling antipredatory and exploratory behaviours. However, these studies were independent of each other and therefore were not empirical demonstrations that the directions of visual lateralisation found in this species are present in the same individual, allowing the simultaneous performance of dual tasks. In our study the same Podarcis muralis individuals carried out one exploratory and one predatory test each. We allowed each lizard to move freely in a circular arena, with opaque walls, with either nothing or mealworm larvae in the centre. In the first case the test was an exploratory test, while in the second case it was a predatory one. The results indicated that lizards preferentially used the left eye to observe the environment—i.e., during exploration—and just tended to use the right eye during predation. Hence we conclude that in the Podarcis muralis lizard lateralisation is expressed in the same individual in opposite directions, in accordance with previous observations.
Bonati, B. & Csermely, D. (2013) -
Recent research has provided information about the right-eye mediation of predatory tasks in several taxa of ectotherms, while antipredatory and exploratory behaviours are generally mediated by the left eye. This type of visual specialisation allows individuals to hunt and to remain vigilant at the same time. However, very little is known about such specialisation in sauropsids. In this study, we report on several different experiments which have investigated the presence of lateralization in the lacertid Podarcis muralis lizard, for predatory, antipredatory, and exploratory behaviours. We found right-eye control in prey detection in a T-maze and in a detour test. In contrast, in escape behaviour from a simulated predator, we found that lizards significantly preferred to escape to the right, and once at a safe distance, to turn their head back towards the left in order to review the source of the threat, thereby supporting a left-eye mediated processing of antipredatory stimuli. In experiments investigating the exploration of a new environment, a strong left-eye bias was found once again. Finally, with individual lizards tested in experimental situations of both predation and exploration, we confirmed once again a right-eye visual system for controlling predatory cues and a left-eye visual system for controlling exploratory cues, supporting the hypothesis that cerebral specialisation of functions allows the simultaneous performance of important tasks as part of the daily routine.
Bonati, B. & Csermely, D. & López, P. & Martín, J. (2010) -
Lateralization in ectotherms is now as well studied as in endotherms. Bias in eye use seems widespread, particularly in several ectotherms, most of them having lateral eyes. Several studies evidenced that the right eye/left hemisphere is involved in predatory behaviour and food searching while the left eye/right hemisphere seems to control predator monitoring, making lateralized individuals able to carry out both tasks simultaneously. Starting from previous observations that demonstrated a right-eye/left-hemisphere preference for observing a prey in common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, we investigated whether a visual lateralization in antipredatory behaviour is present too. In a first experiment, we induced lizards in a terrarium to escape from a simulated predator attacking from behind, recording the direction of the escape path in relation to the starting point. We found that the preferred escape direction of most lateralized individuals was to the right and there was also a strong rightward preference in escape direction as a whole. In a second experiment the lizards, again stimulated from behind, had to choose to run down either the right or the left arm of a semi-circular tunnel (“ram-horn” maze). The rightward preference in escape behaviour was confirmed in this experiment too. We conclude that the constant rightward escape could be due to a left-eye early perception of the threatening cue and to the possibility it gives of better monitoring of most of the terrarium surface. Moreover, we found a left bias in turning the head for monitoring the predatory stimulus during escape, supporting the hypothesis that such a preference is likely due to visual lateralization rather than to motor lateralization.
Bonati, B. & Csermely, D. & Romani, R. (2008) -
Bonati, B. & Csermely, D. & Sovrano, V.A. (2013) -
Lizards (Podarcis muralis) preferentially use the left eye during spatial exploration in a binocular condition. Here we allowed 44 adult wild lizards to explore an unknown maze for 20 min under a temporary monocular condition whilst recording their movements, particularly the direction of turns made whilst walking within the maze. Lizards with a patch on their right eye, i.e. using their left eye to monitor the environment, moved faster than lizards with a patch on their left eye when turning both leftward and rightward in a T-cross. Hence, right eye-patched lizards were faster than left eye-patched lizards also in turning right, although their right eye was covered. Thus, lizards that could use the left eye/right hemisphere to attend spatial cues appeared to have more control and to be more prompt in exploring the maze. In addition, female lizards with their left eye covered stopped very frequently when they reached crosses, showing a high level of indecision. Results confirm that P. muralis lizards using their left eye only in exploring a new environment react faster and more efficiently than those using the right eye only in exploration. Hence lateralisation of spatial stimuli mediated by the left eye/right hemisphere could provide an advantage to this species.
Studies carried out with the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) revealed preferential use of the left eye during responses to predatory threat in laboratory settings and in the wild. Here we tested lizards under monocular conditions of vision, using temporary eye-patching. Lizards were facing a (simulated) predatory threat laterally, from the side of the non-patched eye. Results showed that lizards with the left eye uncovered during predatory threat used the left eye to monitor the predator, whereas lizards with the right eye uncovered nonetheless tried to use the covered left eye. Moreover, lizards frequently tried to change the eye exposition, making a body C-bend behaviour. Right-eyed lizards showed more frequent and faster C-bending responses than left-eyed lizards, trying to monitor the predator with the left eye even though it was patched. Results fit with asymmetries in spontaneous eye use observed in laboratory conditions and in the wild in this species, confirming that structures located on the right side of the brain (mainly served by the left eye) predominantly attend to predatory threat.
Bonati, B. & Quaresmini, C. & Stancher, G. & Sovrano, V.A. (2017) -
As recent studies have shown a left-eye preference during exploration in Podarcis muralis, which could be strictly related to its territoriality, we tested the same behaviour in a similar species, but one living in different habitats and showing a different ecology. In particular, we assessed the preferential turning direction in adults of a non-territorial lizard, Zootoca vivipara, during the exploration of an unknown maze. At the population level, no significant preference emerged, possibly for the lack of the territorial habit and the characteristics of the natural environment. Nevertheless, females turned to the left more frequently than males did. We hypothesize this as a motor bias, possibly due to a necessity for females to be coordinated and fast in moving in the environment, because of their viviparous condition and the resultant reduction of physical performance during pregnant periods, which are likely to increase vulnerability to predators.
Bonato, L. (2011) -
Bonnemayer, J.J.A.M. & Dietvorst, P.J.M. (1979) -
De dreigende verdwijning van de muurhagedis Lacerta muralis (Laurenti) vormde de aanleiding tot onderzoek. De restauratie van de `Hoge Fronten`, vestigingswerken stammend uit de 18e eeuw, verstoort de populatie zodanig en brengt zodanige wijzigingen aan in het biotoop, dat de soort in Nederland op uitsterven staat. Het onderzoek omvat een populatieonderzoek en een onderzoek naar de betrekkingen van de soort met abiotische, biotische en antropogene factoren. Het onderzoek levert gegevens over welke ingrepen nodig of toelaatbaar zijn voor het behoud van de muurhagedis in de `Hoge Fronten`.
De populatie is zo klein, er werden slechts 44 exemplaren gemerkt, dat bij verdere achteruitgang de levensvatbaarheid zal verminderen en de populatie tenslotte zal uitsterven. De populatie-opbouw bleek door de slechte zomers duidelijk vergrijsd te zijn, en zich nog niet hersteld te hebben van de achteruitgang door de ingreep (egalisatie) van 1974. De paartijd en het verschijnen van de juvenielen vonden door de slechte weersomstandigheden laat in het jaar plaats, hetgeen weer consequenties heeft voor de aanwas en de sterfte van de juvenielen. De populatie bestond uit verschillende `deelpopulaties`, die niet allen tot voortplanting kunnen komen door het slechts voorkomen van één sexe. Uitwisseling tussen deelpopulaties werd niet geconstateerd, wel enkele malen migratie naar onbezette plaatsen. De dieren hebben een home range die in horizontale richting een gemiddelde doorsnede heeft van ongeveer 10 meter en in vertikale richting doorsnede van ongeveer 1.2 meter. De home range van de overlappen slechts aan de randen, die van de overlappen soms geheel. Totale overlap tussen home range van en kwam meerdere malen voor, vooral in de paartijd. Belangrijke structuren in de home range bleken te zijn: holen, zonplaatsen, schuilgelegenheid en overgangen tussen de muur en de vegetatie. In het voor- en najaar bevonden de dieren zich gezamenlijk op plaatsen waar diepe holen aanwezig waren. In de zomerperiode hadden de dieren meestal een eigen hol.
Het voorkomen van de muurhagedis in het noorden van zijn verspreidingsgebied blijkt ten nauwste samen te hangen met klimaat en substraat. De soort wordt daar slechts gevonden in rivierdalen (hier heerst een gunstig klimaat, dat overeenkomt met het klimaat in het hoofdverspreidingsgebied) met stenig substraat ( hier heersen gunstige microklimatologische omstandigheden). In dit substraat komen droge, vorstvrije holen voor, welke bescherming bieden tegen strenge winters, die kunnen voorkomen in dit noordelijk verspreidingsgebied.
Alle muren met een zuid-, oost- en westexpositie zijn, mits niet te veel beschaduwd of en te vervallen staat, geschikt als biotoop. De aktiviteit van de hagedissen is afhankelijk van de expositie van de muur, het seizoen en de weersomstandigheden. De thermoregulatie van de dieren kan optimaal verlopen, indien plaatsen aanwezig zijn met verschillend microklimaat zoals holen met een constant klimaat, een gevarieerd gestructureerde muur met verschillende exposities en inclinaties en vegetatie met een fijnkorrelige structuur, dat wil zeggen met veel afwisseling in zonbeschenen en beschaduwde plaatsen.
Lacerta m. muralis blijkt zijn voedsel min of meer aselect te kiezen, er werden zowel bodemdieren als soorten van spleten en gaten in de muur, als ook soorten die in de vegetatie voorkomen, gegeten. De evertebratenfauna is meer gevarieerd in soortensamenstelling indien ook het milieu meer gevarieerd van samenstelling is. Dit wil zeggen voor de `Hoge Fronten`: veel spleten en gaten in de muren, een losse bodemstructuur van de vegetatie. Er werd eenmaal een parasiet aangetroffen op Lacerta m. muralis, namelijk de mijt Ophionyssus lacertinus (Berlese), een mediterrane soort. De belangrijkste predatoren op de `Hoge Fronten`zijn waarschijnlijk de lijsterachtigen en verwilderde huiskatten. Voldoende beschutting tegen deze dieren in de vorm van holen en spleten en ondoordringbare vegetatie, zoals Rubus spec. En Rosa spec., zijn noodzakelijk.
De invloed van de recreatie op de populatie omvat predatie door huisdieren, wegvangen door `terrariumhouders`en kinderen, verstoring en verandering in het biotoop door betreding en muurafbraak. De negatieve invoed van de recreatie kan worden tegengegaan c.q. verminderd door meer toezicht op het bezoek, het veranderen van het padenpatroon, het instellen van rustgebieden en het creren van barrires in de vorm van hekken en/of ondoordringbare vegetatie. De invloed van de restauratie omvat het doden van de dieren door werktuigen of vallend puin, het versperren van de holen, het tijdelijk of misschien wel blijvend verlies van schuilgelegenheid, het vernietigen of veranderen van de voedselplaatsen en een ernstige verstoring van het gedrag. De restauratie heeft alles bij elkaar een sterk nivellerende werking, waardoor de fijnkorrelige structuur van het substraat wen de vegetatie, die onontbeerlijk is voor Lacerta m. muralis, verloren gaat. Het consolideren van matig verweerde muren en het enigszins restaureren met daarbij creren van voor de muurhagedis noodzakelijke structuren zoals holen en zonplaatsen, zou de achteruitgang van de populatie kunnen stoppen en zelfs het biotoop en daarmee het aantal dieren aanzienlijk uit kunnen breiden.
Bönsel, D. & Malten, A. & Wagner, S. & Zizka, G. (2000) -
Borcea, M. (1976) -
Borg, J.P. ter (2000) -
Borg, J.P. ter (2006) -
Common wall lizards are territorial animals. In the second week of October 2005, during sunny weather, basking Common wall lizards were found in the Jura and the Vosges (France). October 12 at 15.30 h, near Ammerswihr in the Jura, a large concentration of these animals (100-150) were seen basking on a dry-stone wall, 5 meter long and 1,5 meter high. At one very favourable spot more than 25 animals were lying side by side and on top of each other. It is suggested, that the animals were going to hibernate there as a group and showed themselves only because of the nice weather. It is highly unlikely that the animals stay there the whole year, given their territorial behaviour. In the spring they will probably scatter over the surrounding countryside. It is postulated that in this region there are only a few optimum hibernation-places and that there is a strong urge for the juveniles to find such a place. If they don’t succeed they will likely not survive the winter. On the other hand it is very favourable for the (sub)adults to return to the same hibernation-place as the previous winter. Both mechanisms would result in a limited number of hibernation-places with a high number of animals. This doesn’t have to be valid for the whole range. The price of migration in the autumn would be exposure to predators. In other areas there is possibly a greater number of good hibernation-places, so it would be more favourable not to migrate. A comparison is made with the hibernation in large groups of the North-American Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) and the Common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) in their northern ranges. In the literature not much was found concerning the observation described here, although a few inconclusive clues are available.
Borg, J.P. ter (2016) -
Börner, A.-R. (2014) -
Börner, A.-R. (2015) -
The area on the right bank of the Middle Rhine with the Lahn as the main tributary and the Rheingau is a German area rich in reptiles. 50 years of own observations in the area are summarized. The slowworm is widely distributed, while the common lizard is found on the heights and the sand lizard mostly in the valleys. The wall lizard is found in the valleys of the Middle Rhine and the Lahn up to the Limburg basin as well as in the Rheingau; it is not restricted to boulders and walls and has some dense populations which show a great variety. The Western emerald lizard is found only in a few places of the upper Middle Rhine valley; short-time concentrations, as can be observed in crows, lead to false conclusions about the population density. The protection of habitats and the exclusion of house cats and crows are absolutely essential for the conservation of this endangered lizard diversity.
Die Eidechsen im Lahn- und Rheintal gelten als seit Jahrzehnten gut erforscht: Neben der weit verbreiteten Blindschleiche sind Wald-, Zaun- und Mauereidechse und die westliche Smaragdeidechse zu finden. Wichtige, aktuelle Daten enthalten insbesondere die zweibändige Studie der Gesellschaft für Ornithologie und Naturschutz Rheinland.-Pfalz e.V über die Amphibien und Reptilien von Rheinland-Pfalz (1996, Britz et al. (Hrsg.)), die für Rheinland- Pfalz, und die Broschüre der Eheleute Braun (1995), die für den Naturpark Nassau, insbesondere den Rhein-Lahn-Kreis, die Beobachtungen der Vergangenheit zusammenfasst und den aktuellen Stand der Verbreitung wiedergibt. Dennoch erschließt die langjährige Beobachtung vor Ort, wie sie meine über fünfzigjährige Ferienasässigkeit in Bad Ems ermöglicht hat, zusätzliche Erkenntnisse. Das Gebiet der Beobachtungen umfasst im wesentlichen das Lahntal flußab von Limburg und die angrenzenden Mittelgebirge von Westerwald (nördlich) und Taunus (südlich) sowie das rechte Mittelrheintal, vor allem das obere Mittelrheintal (von Koblenz bis Bingen/Rüdesheim), und den angrenzenden Rheingau (von Rüdesheim bis Wiesbaden) (Abb. 1).
Börner, A.-R. (2017) -
The emerald lizard reaches the northern limit of its distribution in the upper Middle Rhine Valley and has stringent, narrow requirements for its habitat. In the last years, habitats, populations, and the number of individuals have been in decline, mainly because of eutrophy and suboptimal grazing in the protected areas as well as an increasing civilization pressure (including domestic cats, tourists, and presumably poachers), less by the rationalized viticulture. The mere protection of the few remaining habitats is not sufficient. It is necessary to restore the historical habitats and to release captive-bred specimens there. A special initiative for the protection of the green lizards in the upper Middle Rhine Valley is required.
Börner, A.-R. (2019) -
The 2015 strip clearing of forest in a width of 50 m along a south-bound hill enabled the population of the domestic wall lizard (Podarcis muralis brongniardii), which was isolated in a former quarry due to a spreading of forest, to regain by 2019 the full length of 1.2 km of the clearing. Progress was measured by determining the most distant resident male. This example is important for the connection of stepstone habitats via corridors.
Hardenberg Castle north of Göttingen, Germany harbours two introduced species of wall lizard, the Eurpean Wall Lizard Podarcis muralis brogniardii and the Catalonian Wall Lizards Podarcis liolepis. The genetic study by Schulte et al. (2012a) has found that the European Wall Lizards belong the the Western France clade and that the Catalonian Wall Lizards come from near Girona in NE Spain, thus representing the nominal subspecies, and that the import was from the Eastern central Pyrenees. A visit to the locality in October 2019 throws some doubt on this, as both species seem to be mixed up from various sources, the new populations being harder to distinguish fom each other than their natural ancestors in case of syntopy. It is suggested that there have been two sources for each species, namely that the European Wall Lizards are a mixture with animals of the Eastern France clade, and the Catalonian Wall Lizards have been mixed with specimens from the Northwestern Pyrenees belonging to the subspecies sebastiani. Observations on behaviour, habitat preference, and relative abundance of the species are also reported, and the criteria for distinction of the two species at Hardenberg castle are tested.
Börner, A.-R. (2020) -
The protected Area „Engerser Feld“ ist part of the Neuwied basin between the Upper and the Lower Middle Rhine Valley. On the shore of the Rhine, the village-enclosed „Engerser Feld“ is charcteeized by agricultural use and sand and gravel quarries. In the ensuing man-made habitats, there are European Wall Lizards (Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768). Some lizards of the subspecies brongniardii came from the surrounding hills with stone transportation by carriage and truck, mainly in the second half of the last century, and some dispersed along the railroad line; in xeric habitat, which was enlarged by the tearing down of buildings and paved storage areas, they live in flat areas, but prefer little loamy or sandy slopes where the usually light brown or light gray lizards tend to a more yellowish coloration. In the xeric areas, these lizards replace the Sand Lizard (Lacerta a. agilis Linnaeus 1758), which used to be the only lacertid in the area, but prefers a less sunny and more mesic habitat,. On a southern-oriented, partly unshaded bulwark wall, a southern clade (Southern Alps clade) of the Wall Lizard (subspecies maculiventris) has established a small population. These lizards prefer a vertical structure as a center habitat and only forages into flat areas. They need a higher temperature for activity (about two centigrades). In spite oft he last warm summers, the wall now shows individuals with a darker coloration (ground colour and markings); they heat up more easily especially in spring and fall, and they have driven the individuals with lighter coloration into less favorable habitats. Both subspecies are in contact, but mix only slowly, maybe due to their different preferred activity temperatures.
In view of the import of allochthonous clades of the Common Wall Lizard Podarcis muralis into Germany, the Mainz Basin presents an interesting situation. Rhineland-Palatinate and Hessen have the indigenous subspecies brongniardii, Eastern France clade. It is restricted to the hill areas. On the south bank of the Rhine in the Mainz Basin it has its southernmost locality at Bingen-Gaulsheim. On the north bank its distribution in the Mainz Basin becomes spottier towards the East, because the south-facing slopes of the Rheingau get less and less steep; along the Rhine the contingent distribution area ends near Oestrich-Winkel. Some 30 km east of Gaulsheim, the Mainz-Budenheim quarry and its vicinity harbour the subspecies brongniardii, Western France clade. This is due to a relocation in 2007-2009 from the “llmenauer Aue”, a railway track habitat in central Mainz along the lower Gonsbach creek. The Ilmenauer Aue and the adjacent industrial park near the freight harbour have been under substantial construction, but some lizards can still be found in the area. The wall lizards of the south embankment of the harbour peninsula near the harbour entry have a yellow brown basic dorsal colouration, which may have given rise to the buckskin type of colouration and pattern which may be observed in the Budenheim quarry. East of the quarry and its vicinity, the lizards are found at Budenheim in the gardens of Kreuzer Hof, a small settlement on the Rhine. As some lizards of the relocation effort may not have arrived in the quarry, they may have been released in supposedly suitable habitats. This rather than rafting with the Rhine currents may explain their suspected mixing with the indigenous clade on the opposite, northern bank of the Rhine in two locations:
- the wall along the towing path between Eltville and Walluf (east of Oestrich-Winkel), where they form a large population, which is basically tied to the wall, and has expanded neither into the city of Eltville nor into the Rheingau hills of the hinterland nor into the eastern part of Walluf;
- the Rhine embankment of Mainz-Kastel (near Theodor-Heuss bridge), where they drive the Eastern France clade into the shadier areas, particularly those on the edge of the distribution area; the Western France clade has spread to the nearby railway tracks, southeast at least to Mainz-Kastel railway station.
While the protected meadowlands of the Schierstein water works on the Rhine east of Walluf are without lizards, a small population of wall lizards exists at Schierstein harbour entry and the eastern end of the harbour. Predominantly these lizards show the characters of the indigenous Eastern France clade, but sporadic Western France clade influence cannot be excluded. In the southeast of Wiesbaden, in the lower portion of a south-facing slope of a former, now long abandoned vineyard, there is the Cyperus population of wall lizards. It stems from imports mainly from Northern Italy before, during and shortly after WW I. It is said to have extended to the Dyckerhoff quarries in the northwest, to the Erbenheim cemetary and its vicinity in the north where it is now extinct due to the harsher uphill climate and a lack of unshaded vertical structures, and to the allotment gardens in the east while elsewise being surrounded by impenetrable fields and woods. This population is dominated by the subspecies maculiventris, Southern Alps clade. In the main population the green dorsum, which characteristic of the subspecies nigriventris, has been reduced to yellow spots; this is explained by the eutrophy in the main new habitat. However, the green colour still exists in some rare individuals and especially in the Hessler farm subpopulation Most other locality reports for wall lizards at least in the Wiesbaden area are erroneous; they are based on juvenile sand lizards; the sand lizard Lacerta a. agilis is common in the Mainz Basin. The morphology and behaviour of the three main wall lizard clades in the Mainz basin (ssp. brongniadii, Eastern Facne clade and Western France clade, as well as ssp. maculiventris) are compared in order to facilitate recognition in the field and to substantiate the lack of substantial threat for the indigenous lizard fauna. The special temperature and habitat requirements as well as the lack of inherited specific threat avoidance techniques (beyond avoiding the flood-prone areas) of the southern clades of the Common Wall Lizard restrict them to a spotty distribution in Germany.
Borrás, A. & Polls, M. (1987) -
The eastern Pre-Pyrenees were prospected using 5x5 UTM square from 1974 to 1986. Nineteen reptiles were found. Their geographical and altimetric distribution is given, and its corology discussed taking into account other data from the Pyrenees. The topoclimatical effects and the particular disposition of the mountain range, are the key factors to understand the corology and the altimetric distribution of herpetofauna. The study area shows mediterranean elements as well as Pyrenean and mid-european ones. Cerdaña basin acts as a bndge between the herpetofauna from France and the more meridional species from Spain. The Segre nver divides the Pre-Pyrenees in two big biogeographical areas: the eastem one very close to axial Pyrenees and characterized by boreal and the western one with a more mediterranean faunistic elements.
Bosca, E. (1880) -
Boscá, E. (1916) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1994) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1996) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Bout, R.G. (1998) -
The interspecific relationships among female size, clutch size, egg size, and hatchling size were examined for 64 European lacertids. The eggs of all species increased linearly in both linear dimensions and mass during incubation. Across species initial egg mass was positively correlated with juvenile mass, with an allometric relationship exponent of 0.87. Initial egg mass across species increased proportionally with female mass to the power of 0.57. Moreover, an increase in maternal mass was also accompanied by an increase in clutch size. The number of eggs per clutch across species scaled with female mass to the power of 0.39. Removing the effect of female mass resulted in a negative correlation between egg mass and clutch size. Species for which the average egg size was lower than expected on the basis of female mass, tended to have larger relative clutch size. The total egg mass per clutch was about one third of female mass (exponent 0.94).
Boscherini, A. (2015) -
Bosman, W. & Spikmans, F. (2011) -
Böttcher, H. (1967) -
Boudjemadi, K. & Martin, O. & Simón, J.C. & Estoup, A. (1999) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1887) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1888) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1905) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1907) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1910) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1913) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1916) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1920) -
Bousbouras, D. & Ioannidis, Y. (1994) -
Eleven species of amphibians and 22 species of reptiles are recorded from the mountainous Florina prefecture on the Greek borders of Albania and the Republic Macedonia. Some ecological notes and the distribution of these species are also reported.
Bovero, S. & Canalis, L. & Crosetto, S. (2013) -
Bowles, F.D. (2002) -
Braak, H. & Baumgarten, H.G. & Falck, B. (1968) -
The distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system of the lizards Lacerta viridis and muralis was investigated with the fluorescence method of Falck and Hillarp. Microspectrometric analyses revealed that the yellow fluorescence had the characteristics of the fluorophore of 5-hydroxytryptamine and chemical determinations on whole brains demonstrated the presence of considerable quantities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5,2–6,4 μg/g). Nuclear areas of the mesencephalon, di and telencephalon, which are mainly intercalated in sensory pathways, receive terminal ramifications of 5-hydroxytryptaminecontaining neurons. These fibres are presumed to originate from cells situated in the tegmentum. The nucleus reticularis mesencephali is shown to contain numerous perikarya of nerve cells rich in 5-hydroxytryptamine.
Braña, F. (1991) -
Body temperature of active Podarcis muralis from Norena (Asturias; Northern Spain) during summer averages 33.8 degree C (SD = 2.0, n = 116), and similar values were found in other close populations (grand mean: 33.8 degree C, SD = 2.3, n = 171). There were no significant differences neither in body temperatures between populations nor between sex/age groups within populations. Daily activity pattern is bimodal, with depressed activity during the warmer hours at the midday. This pattern of activity, as well as the significant negative correlation between the percentage of lizards at sun and the environmental temperatures, are indicative of behavioural thermoregulation. The standard deviations of the mean body temperature and the slopes of the regressions of body temperature on environment temperatures are indicative of a relatively imprecise thermoregulation. Populations from the highest altitudes show a higher variability in body temperature and a greater dependence on the thermal environment.
Braña, F. (1993) -
Average field body temperatures of pregnant female Podarcis muralis (32.62°C) were significantly lower than that of males and non-pregnant females (overall average: 33.74°C). However, when tested in terrarium with a strong thermal gradient in a limited space, which represents a low-cost environment for thermoregulation, neither body temperature nor position in the thermal gradient differed among groups of sex and reproductive condition. Body temperatures selected in thermal gradient (overall average: 33.77°C) was similar to those exhibited in the field by males and non-pregnant females. This means that low body temperature exhibited by pregnant females in the field is not a consequence of a change of the thermal preferences at this stage, but might be explained on the basis of constraints related to their reproductive condition. Pregnant females stay closer to the refuge and allow approach to a shorter distance than do males and non-pregnant females. Approach distance was partially explained by the distance to refuge, but even when the effects of the distance to refuge were removed by applying the residuals of the regression, the approach distance for pregnant females was significantly lower than for other individuals. This reflects the existence of a behavioural component of motion-less in addition to the tendency to remain closer to a shelter, and means a shift in the predator-avoidance tactic from flight to crypsis, presumably because effectiveness of the flight tactic would be reduced during pregnancy. The behavioural changes associated with pregnancy may preclude careful thermoregulation, as this requires frequent movements to exploit the variability of the thermal environment.
Braña, F. (1996) -
Die Arbeit basiert auf der Messung verschiedener metrischer Charaktere (Kopf-Rumpf-Länge, Kopflänge, maximale Kopfhöhe, maximale Kopfbreite und Rumpf-Länge) an insgesamt knapp 500 nordspanischen Eidechsen. In die Analyse gingen Mesungen an Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta viridis (=L. bilineata) ein. Demnach ist das ontogenetische Wachstum von Kopf und Rumpf bei männlichen Tieren isometrisch, während Weibchen hingegen ein allometrisches Wachstum des Rumpfes aufweisen. Mit der verwendeten Methodik (Felsenstein) ließ sich der Geschlechtsdimorphismus am besten durch den weiblichen Fortpflanzungsaufwandes (u. a. Gelegegröße) und damit durch die überproportionale Rumpflänge weiblicher Tiere erklären. Bei Arten mit geringer Fruchtbarkeit bzw. konstanter Gelegegröße (hier: Podarcis hispanica) besteht hingegen nur ein geringer Selektionsdruck in Richtung auf große Weibchen. Dann können Männchen zum größten Geschlecht werden. Ebenfalls durchgeführte Größenmessungen an Beutetieren (Magen-Darminhalte) ergaben vergleichsweise gering abweichende Einnischungen männlicher und weiblicher Eidechsen. Eine Analyse der Mechanismen, die zur Ausprägung von Geschlechtsdimorphismen beitragen, ist sicherlich verdienstvoll. Allerdings ist fraglich, ob die hier verwendeten Methoden allein zu einer befriedigenden Klärung führen. Zum einen wurden pro Art nur wenige Individuen (zwischen 22 und 90) untersucht, was - auch nach Ansicht des Autors - statistisch unbefriedigend ist. Wichtiger dürfte aber wohl sein, dass keinerlei Hinweise darauf vorliegen, inwieweit die aus einem relativ begrenzten Gebiet stammenden Freilandfänge als “typisch“ für die Art gelten können. Hinzu kommt, dass sich mit der verwendeten Methode nur die Parameter weiblicher Fortpflanzungsaufwand und unterschiedliche Nahrungseinnischung, nicht jedoch der dritte vom Autor angesprochene Parameter “Kämpfe zwischen den Männchen“ untersuchen lässt. Zumindest in diesem Kontext bedarf es weiterer Daten, die nur durch Verhaltensbeobachtungen lebender Eidechsen zu gewinnen sind.
Braña, F. (2003) -
Locomotion of lizards has clear morphological determinants and is important for developing activities such as feeding, social interaction and predator avoidance. Thus, morphological variation is believed to have fitness consequences through affecting locomotor performance. This paper firstly evaluates the dependence of burst speed on morphology, and secondly examines the movement patterns of free-ranging undisturbed wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) engaged in several kinds of activity. Body size was the most important correlate of burst speed as performed at the optimal temperature for running in the laboratory. After removing size effects from performance and morphological traits, the length of some particular limb segments had positive influence on burst speed, but these effects were weak, each trait explaining less than 16% of variance in burst speed. Free-ranging P. muralis exhibited intermittent locomotion, with movement sequences interrupted by frequent short pauses. Field movement patterns greatly differed depending upon the kind of activity and were in most aspects independent of the size and sex of the animal. P. muralis involved in thermoregulation performed short and low-speed displacements; exploratory activities were characterized by frequent, slow and short movements. On the contrary, lizards involved in intraspecific pursuits and predator escape developed comparatively high speeds, although only exceptionally did they attain the size-specific burst speed predicted from the laboratory trials. Speed of escape increased with distance to the refuge and the animals are able to assess predation risks to modulate approach distance, speed and pauses, so maximum exertion is seldom required. The evolution of locomotor capacities exceeding routine needs is discussed in the context of the principle of ‘excessive construction’.
Braña, F. & Bea, A. & Arrayago, M.J. (1991) -
We examined stages of embryonic development at the time of oviposition in 10 populations of seven species of lacertids from northern Spain, including one of the few species of lizards that exhibits reproductive bimodality (Lacerta vivipara). In the species studied, embryonic development at the time of oviposition ranges, as a whole, from stage 22-34 in the classification of Dufaure and Hubert, showing highly significant differences between populations. Lacerta vivipara (two populations; stages from 30-34) and L. monticola (28-31) are the species with a more advanced intrauterine embryogenesis, while at the opposite end one can find Podarcis bocagei (22-26) and P. hispanica (two subspecies: stages from 24-27). Lacerta viridis, L. schreiberi and P. muralis are in an intermediate situation (stages 25-29), without appreciable differences among species. Our data show that species with more advanced egg retention reach the highest elevations in the study area, and there also seems to exist a relationship between the egg retention level and the northern distribution limit for oviparous lizards in Europe. However, there is no evidence of intraspecific variability in that regard. No significant correlations were found between developmental stage at oviposition and female size, clutch size, or egg mass, but relative clutch mass (RCM) was significantly larger in species with a more advanced embryonic development at oviposition. This difference in RCM was mainly due to an increase in clutch size (adjusted for female size) and not to an increase in the mass of individual eggs, which tended to be lower in relation to female mass in those species with a more prolonged egg retention.
Braña, F. & González, F. & Barahona, A. (1992) -
Braña, F. & Ji, X. (2000) -
Eggs of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) were incubated at three temperatures approaching the upper limit of viability for embryonic development in this species (26, 29, and 32°C) to assess the influence of temperature on various aspects of hatchling phenotype likely affecting fitness. The thermal environment affected size and several morphometric characteristics of hatchling lizards. Hatchlings from eggs incubated at 32°C were smaller (snout-vent length, SVL) than those from 26 and 29°C and had smaller mass residuals (from the regression on SVL) as well as shorter tail, head, and femur relative to SVL. Variation in the level of fluctuating asymmetry in meristic and morphometric traits associated with incubation temperatures was quite high but not clearly consistent with the prediction that environmental stress associated with the highest incubation temperatures might produce the highest level of asymmetry. When tested for locomotor capacity in trials developed at body temperatures of 32 and 35°C, hatchlings from the 32°C incubation treatment exhibited the worst performance in any aspect considered (burst speed, maximal length, and number of stops in the complete run). Repeated measures ANCOVAs (with initial egg mass as covariate) of snout-vent length and mass of lizards at days 0 and 20 revealed significant effects of incubation temperature only for mass, being again the hatchlings from eggs incubated at 32°C those exhibiting the smallest final size. All together, our results evidenced a pervasive effect of thermal regime during incubation (and hence of nest site selection) on hatchling phenotypes. However, incubation temperature does not affect hatchling phenotypes in a continuous way; for most of the analysed traits a critical threshold seems to exist between 29 and 32°C, so that hatchlings incubated at 32°C exhibited major detrimental effects.
Braña, F. & Ji, X. (2007) -
The thermal environment during development influences many aspects of the phenotype of hatchling reptiles. We hypothesized that temperature should differentially affect early incubation stages, in which differentiation dominates over growth, and late incubation stages, characterized by high growth rates. To test this idea, we incubated eggs of wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) under three regimes with the same mean temperature (29 °C), one constant and two variable with opposite sequences: first cold (25 °C) and then hot (32 °C), and vice versa. Hatchlings incubated at high temperature during the initial period had shorter hindlimbs and tails than those incubated under the other two temperature regimes and shorter heads than those incubated initially at low temperature. Thus, temperature experienced by embryos during the early external incubation period produced similar phenotypic responses compared to those reported in previous studies for the same constant temperature applied over the whole incubation period. Because female wall lizards select lower body temperatures during pregnancy, an increase of intrauterine retention would extend the time of exposure of developing embryos to suitable temperatures. Diminution of body temperature during pregnancy is contrary to the expected pattern under the hypothesis that egg retention has evolved to accelerate development, as proposed by the cold-climate model for evolution of viviparity in squamates, and the results of the present study support the alternative hypothesis of developmental optimization as a special case of the broader maternal manipulation view.
Braun, M. (1877) -
Braun, M. (1886) -
Braun, M. & Braun, U. (1995) -
Bree, P.J.H. van (1958) -
Breg, A. & Janota, B. & Peganc, M. & Petrovič, I. & Tome, S. & Vamberger, M. (2010) -
Brelih, S. (1962) -
Brelih, S. (1963) -
Brelih, S. & Džukić, G. (1974) -
Bressi N. (1995) -
Bressi, N. (1999) -
The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has almost 700 specimens of European Sauria belonging to about 33 taxa, including all the lacertids of northern Adriatic re- gions. The origin of the collection dates back to the foundation of the Museum of Trieste in 1846, but it was increased mainly between 1871 and 1939. The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has a great scientific and historical importance; it documents the varia- tion of the composition and distribution of northern Adriatic Sauria fauna during this century, in- cluding endemic varieties typical of little islands.
Bringsøe, H. (2005) -
Lacertid species are rarely seen entering water in the wild, but a male Podarcis muralis was observed entering the water of a cold, fast-running stream voluntarily or deliberately on Mt. Dirfis on the Ae- gean island of Evvia, Greece on 19 April 2005. The lizard was not disturbed by the two observers. Figures show the lizard in the various positions during that action in its habitat. The exact reason why the lizard made this move remains unknown. It is speculated that its home range might have extended to both sides of the stream and that the shaded area that it eventually reached had better feeding opportunities.
Brongersma, L.D. (1958) -
Brown, R. & Gist, D. & Taylor, D. (1995) -
A 2-yr field study of introduced wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, revealed a resident population which remained remarkably stable (n = 37 lizards for each year). Slightly more than half of the 167 wall lizards originally captured and marked disappeared from the study sites and were classified as nonresidents. Males occupied significantly larger home ranges than females and, in 1991, had higher instances of intersexual home range overlap than did females. Instances of female-female home range overlaps in 1991 were more numerous than corresponding overlap between males. There was no difference between the sexes with respect to mean percentage of home range overlap in 1990, but females exhibited greater percent overlap in 1991. Small home range size and high home range overlap suggest that the Cincinnati population may have switched from territorial behaviour (reported for European populations) to a hierarchical dominance system, possibly in response to unique pressure (high lizard densities, high predation pressures and low availability of preferred habitat) in the Cincinnati area. We interpret our results in light of recent findings regarding lizard spacing patterns, optimality theory and predictions concerning introduced lizard populations. We also compare our data on one of the only successfully introduced lacertid lizards in North America to data from native European populations.
Brown, R. & Taylor, D. & Gist, D. (1995) -
Brown, R.P. (2005) -
A phylogenetic-comparative approach was used to assess and refine existing secondary structure models for a frequently studied region of the mitochondrial encoded large subunit (16S) rRNA in two large lizard lineages within the Scincomorpha, namely the Scincidae and the Lacertidae. Potential pairings and mutual information were analyzed to identify site interactions present within each lineage and provide consensus secondary structures. Many of the interactions proposed by previous models were supported, but several refinements were possible. The consensus structures allowed a detailed analysis of rRNA sequence evolution. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from Bayesian analyses of all sites, and the topologies used for maximum likelihood estimation of sequence evolution parameters. Assigning gamma-distributed relative rate categories to all interacting sites that were homologous between lineages revealed substantial differences between helices. In both lineages, sites within helix G2 were mostly conserved, while those within helix E18 evolved rapidly. Clear evidence of substantial site-specific rate variation (covarion-like evolution) was also detected, although this was not strongly associated with specific helices. This study, in conjunction with comparable findings on different, higher-level taxa, supports the ubiquitous nature of site-specific rate variation in this gene and justifies the incorporation of covarion models in phylogenetic inference.
Bruekers, J. (2006) -
The author highlights his observations regard-
ing the Wall lizards in a little park near the
harbour of the capital of the Greek island of
Corfu in 2005. This lizard species is a recent
introduction to this island where originally
only one Podarcis-species occurs (Podarcis
taurica). A friend of the author observed the
Wall lizard for the first time in 1993 but took
no notes or photographs than.
Research by others determined that these Wall
lizards belong to the subspecies P. muralis
albanica. The present author studied 9 indi-
viduals. One of these was a juvenile.
The morpholoy, habitat, sumpatric species,
predation and probable ways of the introduc-
tion are discussed.
Bruekers, J. (2010) -
In 2004 several Podarcis sicula were discovered for the first time at a nursery near Padenghe sul Garda (Italy).
Some of them were juveniles. It was believed that these lizards could start a viable population (Bruekers,
2006). In 2009 the site was checked again. Podarcis muralis maculiventris was abundant. It was obvious that
Podarcis muralis used every suitable niche. After a while only one adult female Podarcis sicula could be found.
This one and only specimen was difficult to photograph.
The author speculates that competition between these lizards species is the main reason that P. sicula failed
to establish a viable population. Maybe there were not enough P. sicula to start a new population? In addition
the less favourable climate conditions could be another disadvantage for these introduced P. sicula
which probably originate from the southern parts of Italy (Bruekers, 2006).
This small population of Podarcis s. sicula near Padenghe is presumed to be extinct, only five years after its
first discovery in 2004.
Bruner, E. & Costantini, D. (2007) -
The geometry of the cephalic scales in lizards is easily represented by using landmark based approaches. The
cephalic scales may prove useful structures in the investigation of the evolution and morphogenesis of lizards because of their
biomechanical relationships with the underlying bones and muscular anatomy. In the present paper the head morphology in
Podarcis muralis and Podarcis sicula is compared by using geometric morphometrics and Euclidean distance matrix analysis.
The head shape in these two species is largely influenced by a shared allometric pattern, with P. sicula displaying a reduced
range of variation. This pattern is probably influenced by the cranial morphogenesis at the fronto-parietal suture, and by the
parieto-occipital musculature involved in diet and social behaviours. Minor species-specific differences are evidenced, and
should be further investigated.
Bruner, E. & Costantini, D. (2009) -
The morphology of cephalic scales in Lacertids is organised in well defined geometrical structures. The variation of these elements is related to the underlying bone growth and morphogenesis, but it is also associated with the muscular system and the sutural dynamics. In this paper, the patterns of variation of the cephalic scales have been compared between three common Mediterranean species: Podarcis muralis, Podarcis sicula and Lacerta bilineata. The morphospace generated by the morphological relationships within the cephalic system in these three species is investigated in order to consider their degree of variation and their anatomical peculiarities. Generally, Lacerta is 64% larger than Podarcis, shows a relative reduction of the frontal scale, enlarged fronto-parietal structures, and stretched occipital area. L. bilineata shows the smaller degree of variation within the shape space, while P. muralis shows the highest values. The morphology of the two genera is definitely different mostly because of allometric variation. Non-allometric distinctions between the three species are subtle but detectable. The degree and pattern of variation are interpreted in terms of possible environmental pressures and of functional cranial dynamics associated with the fronto-parietal suture, respectively. In this sense, the structural relationships between bones and scales are of particular interest to further investigate ontogeny and phylogeny in reptiles.
Bruno, S. (1971) -
Bruno, S. (1979) -
The herpetologic fauna of the Torricchio Mountain Nature Reserve includes the following species: Salamandra s. gigliolii, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus vulgaris meridionalis, Hydromantes i. italicus, Bufo bufo, Bufo v. viridis, Bombina variegata pachypus, Hyla a. arborea, Rana graeca, Rana cfr. esculenta, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis sicula campestris, Lacerta v. viridis, Chalcides c. chalcides, Anguis f. fragilis, Coluber viridiflavus, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe l. longissima, Elaphe q. quatuorlineata, Natrix natrix cfr. lanzai and Vipera aspis francisciredi. This Reserve (about 300 ha.) is owned by the University of Camerino and it lies on the county of Macerata, in Marche Region. It extends from 750 m to 1440 m asl, on the Umbria-Marche Apennines, west of the Sibillini mountains. The climax zone of Quercus pubescens characterises the vegetation of the hill level, whereas the climax zone of Fagus silvatica characterises that of the mountain level. The grass vegetation belongs to the phytosociologic Cynosurion and Xenobromion alliance; shrubs and trees belong to Orno-Ostryon and Eu-Fagion. The following herpetologic species are the most representative of the area: Salamandrina terdigitata, Hydromantes italicus and Elaphe quatuorlineata.
Bruno, S. (1980) -
Bruno, S. (1986) -
Bruno, S. (1988) -
Bruno, S. (1989) -
Brusina, S. (1874) -
Buades Payeras, J.M. (2017) -
This thesis comprises part of a wider project that addresses the evolution of Mediterranean lizards of the genus Podarcis (Wagler, 1830), and is mainly focused on insular populations. This genus is widespread across the Mediterranean basin. They exhibit a great intraspecific variability in morphological traits. In particular, melanic and non-melanic populations (which are completely green or brown, and/or with intermediate coloration) are found on different islands. The causes for this variability remain unknown. The Podarcis genus contains various insular endemism such as Podarcis tiliguerta from Corsica and Sardinia islands, and P. lilfordi and P. pityusensis from the Balearic archipelago. The Mediterranean basin is considered a biodiversity hotspot due to the presence of an exceptional number of endemic species and Podarcis provides an important component of this biodiversity. It can provide information on the effects of fragmentation and/or degradation of habitat. Analyses of Podarcis also have important implications for conservation of the group itself: understanding the evolutionary framework provides a basis for future conservation actions. The present thesis is focused on the molecular study of the evolution of several Mediterranean Podarcis. It aims to build on and extend previous studies that made evolutionary inferences from just the mitochondrial DNA. This is achieved by analysing several nuclear markers (MC1R, RAG1, APOBE28, BLC9L, KIAA2018 and KIF24) in combination with mtDNA data. The main aim is to address two important evolutionary questions: i) Factors determining melanism in insular populations P. lilfordi and P. pityusensis present an important colour variation and polymorphism in the MC1R gene has been related to pigmentation in other species. Therefore, the relationship between DNA substitutions and melanism in different populations was studied. We did not detect any differences in the MC1R sequence that we analysed and so this sequence does not appear to be the basis of the colour variation in these Balearic Podarcis. Differences in gene expression were also compared between melanic and nonmelanic individuals, but no differences that were directly related to MC1R expression were detected. Nevertheless, the transcriptome profiles of melanic and non-melanic individuals from two populations of P. lilfordi did show some differences. The main differences found between the two groups were: non-melanic samples showed overexpression of stress-response genes, while melanic individuals had higher metabolic rates and an increased inflammatory response to exogenous antigens. Despite finding differences in expression, our study was unable to reveal major insights into the genetic basis of melanism in these island lizards. ii) Phylogeny and phylogeography of different endemic species. This work contributes important findings relevant to the systematics and evolution of the species P. tiliguerta endemic to Corsica and Sardina. Using Bayesian phylogenetic dating, we determined that this species originated ~11 Ma ago. Both markers (nuclear genes and mtDNA) showed a high level of intraspecific divergence, especially between Corsica and Sardinia. Ancient divergence (which was estimated at 9.5 Ma ago) and associated high levels of between-island lineage sorting in nuclear markers support the view that Corsican and Sardinian populations should be recognized as two different species. Podarcis were also studied from the Columbretes archipelago, a small island group off the coast east of Spain. Populations were previously recognized as a subspecies of P. hispanica or as P. atrata species. However, the suitability of this taxonomic designation has been made unclear by recent systematics studies of Podarcis that have led to major taxonomic changes. We used nuclear and mitochondrial genes to define their phylogenetic relationships. Columbretes populations were found to be most closely related to the new taxon P. liolepis.
Bufkens, M. (2014) -
Bühler, M. (2014) -
Bulcsú, D. (2014) -
Bund-Duisburg (2005) -
Bund, C.F. van de (1964) -
Burda, R. & Weickmann, D. (2001) -
Buresch, I. & Zonkow, J. (1933) -
Buric, I. & Merdan, S. & Lisicic, D. (2018) -
Burke, R.L. & Goldberg, S.R. & Bursey, C.R. & & Perkins, S.L. & Andreadis, P.T. (2007) -
We surveyed all four extant North America populations of introduced Podarcis (Podarcis muralis and Podarcis sicula) for helminths and hematozoans; both parasite groups infect these lizards in their native European habitats. We found only small numbers of helminths and no hematozoans. We conclude that either these two Podarcis species did not bring many parasites with them, appropriate intermediate hosts are lacking, or that these populations have not been in North America long enough for new parasite faunas to become established.
Burneleau, G. & Duguy, R. (1981) -
Buttle, D. (1989) -
Cabana, M. & Vázquez, R. & Galán, P. (2016) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Happ, H. & Happ, F. & Koller, R. (1992) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Tiedemann, F. (1997) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Tiedemann, F. (2007) -
Im Untersuchungsgebiet in den Lienzer Dolomiten (Kärnten, Österreich) kommen Iberolacerta horvathi (MÉHELY, 1904) und Podarcis muralis (LAURENTI, 1768) zwischen 714 und 1285 m ü. M. sympatrisch, zwischen 919 und 1057 m syntop vor. Rund 10 % der Eidechsenstandorte sind von beiden Arten etwa 50 % bzw. 40 % nur von P. muralis bzw. I. horvathi besetzt. Die beobachteten Individuendichten liegen bei I. horvathi mehrfach höher als bei P. muralis. Die felsig-steinigen Eidechsenhabitate – vom glatten, steilen Fels bis zur porösen, flachen Schutthalde – wurden nach ihrer Kompaktheit, Höhe, Neigung, Spaltenbildung und Oberflächenstruktur vier Typen zugeordnet, zu deren Besiedlung unterschiedliche Kletterfähigkeiten erforderlich sind. Auf dem glatten steilen Felsformationen kam nur I. horvathi vor, auf Schuttflächen nahezu ausschließlich P. muralis, Übergangsformen konnten beide Arten beherbergen.
Cakmak, M. & Akman, B. & Yildiz, M.Z. (2017) -
In this investigation, we aimed to determine the amphibian and reptile species distributed in Bartın province (Northwest Blacksea Region of Turkey). As a result of previously and current studies, we recorded two Urodela amphibian species (Ommatotriton ophryticus and Triturus ivanbureschi), six Anura amphibian species (Bufo bufo, Bufotes variabilis, Hyla orientalis, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana macrocnemis and R. dalmatina), three turtle species (Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata and Testudo graeca), four lizard species (Anguis fragilis, Darevskia rudis, Lacerta viridis and Podarcis muralis) and eight snake species (Coronella austriaca, Dolichophis caspius, Eirenis modestus, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, N. megalocephala, Vipera transcaucasiana and Zamenis longissimus) in Bartın Province, which totally 23 species. There are no endemic species in our country among them. Natrix megalocephala is also a new record for Bartın province.
Calsbeek, B. & Hasselquist, D. & Clobert, J. (2010) -
A major goal in evolutionary biology is to determine how phenotypic variation arises and is maintained in natural populations. Recent studies examining the morphological, physiological and behavioural differences among discrete colour morphotypes (morphs) have revealed several mechanisms that maintain discrete variation within populations, including frequency-dependence, density-dependence and correlational selection. For example, trade-offs over resource allocation to morphological, physiological and behavioural traits can drive correlational selection for morph-specific phenotypic optima. Here, we describe a ventral colour polymorphism in the wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) and test the hypothesis that morphs differ along multivariate axes defined by trade-offs in morphological, physiological, and immunological traits. We show that ventral colour is a discrete trait and that morphs differ in body size, prevalence of infection by parasites and infection intensity. We also find that morphs differ along multivariate phenotypic axes and experience different multivariate selection pressures. Our results suggest that multivariate selection pressures may favour alternative optimal morph-specific phenotypes in P. muralis.
Camerano, L. (1885) -
Camerano, L. & Lessona, M. (1885) -
Cantini, M. & Menchettgi, M. & Vannini, A. & Bruni, G. & Borri, B. & Mori, E. (2013) -
We present the results of a two year field survey on the herpetofauna of the Poggi di Prata area in Central Italy. A total of 2,653 records were made on nine Amphibian and sixteen Reptile species. Eleven species had not been recorded before. Bombina pachypus has not been observed since 2004 and represents a conservation concern. Among the main threats to the local herpetofauna, we consider the filling-in of the ponds, the abandonment of the traditional agricultural practices, road kills, killings of snakes by lay people, fish introductions and, possibly, climate change.
Capula, M. (1997) -
Allozyme electrophoresis was used to study genetic variability in Italian insular populations of the ecologically variable lizard Podarcis muralis. To test the theory predicting more genetic variation in mainland than in island populations, polymorphism and heterozygosity also were estimated in mainland populations of P. muralis from Italy, Spain and Austria. The results of this investigation showed that levels of genetic variability in insular populations were significantly higher than those in mainland populations. This is probably because the insular populations inhabit marginal environments characterized by temporal-ecological instability. In these environments high heterozygosity levels can be preserved after colonization events, unless founder populations are so small that bottleneck effects occur.
Capula, M. (2000) -
Capula, M. & Ceccarelli, A. (2003) -
The genetic structure and heterogeneity of Podarcis sicula (Reptilia, Lacertidae) was studied in insular (Pontine Archipelago) and mainland (central and southern Italy) populations by means of allozyme electrophoresis at 20 presumptive gene loci. Genetic variability in the species is low and genetic subdivision is high. The highest values of percent polymorphism and heterozygosity were found in the samples from the southernmost part of Italy (Calabria). The insular samples from the Pontine Archipelago were characterized by loss of alleles and erosion of genetic variability. Population heterogeneity analysis carried out by the estimation of Wright`s F-statistics demonstrated substantial genetic differentiation among populations. F-statistics and genetic distance data show that genetic variation is distributed into three population groups. The first group includes the genetically very similar populations from central Italy and the Pontine Archipelago, the second includes the populations from Campania (southern Italy), the third comprises the populations from the southernmost part of the Italian Peninsula (Calabria). Based on the results of the allozyme data, the systematic status of the subspecies of P. sicula occurring in the studied areas is discussed.
Capula, M. & Corti, M. (2010) -
Allozyme eledctrophoresis was used to study the distribution of genetic variation within and among mainland and insular populatrions of the lacertid lizard Podarcis muralis from western, southern and eastern Europe. Genetic variability in the species is low and genetic subdivision is high. The hihgest values of percent polymorphism and heterozygosity were found the the samples from two Tyrrhenian islands (Elba Island, La Scola Islet). The occurrence of higher levels of genetic variability in insular populations is probably because these populations inhabit marginal environments cheracterized by temporal-ecological instability. In these environments high heterozygosity levels can be preserved after colonization events, unless founder populations are so small that bottlenack effects occur. The genetic heterogeneity analysis demonstrates a certain amount of genetic differentiation among local populations of P. muralis, with a relatively high level of genetic subdivision. Allozyme data show that genetic variation in P.muralis is distributed into two major population groups: the first includes the closely related samples from Spain and SW France, the second the genetically recognizable samples from Germany, Italy, and Greece. The average genetic distance between the two groups is relatively high (Nei’s D = 0.059), with D ranging from 0.043 to 0.100.
Capula, M. & Lisio, L. de & Cianfrini, C. & Florio, M. di & Invasile, D. & Ramacciato, V. & Loy, A. (2008) -
Several investigations and an Atlas project (Progetto Atlante degli Anfibi e Rettili del Molise) were carried out from 2003 to 2007 to assess the occurrence and distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Molise region (Central Italy). Information on the distribution of the species in the study area, habitat types, seasonal activity and other aspects of the species biology were collected and recorded in a database. Data concerning the species occurrence were mapped on a 10x10 km square basis, according to a UTM grid system, such as those utilized in other Italian atlas projects devoted to the analysis of flora and fauna. The study area (Molise) was divided into 71 squared units. About 379 records (1 record = 1 species per 1 locality) were collected to define the present distribution of the 31 species which resulted to occur in the study area to date. All species are native to the area but one, i.e the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta), which was introduced in recent years and is native to North America. Amphibians were represented by 13 species: five salamanders (Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton italicus, L. vulgaris, Triturus carnifex) and eight anurans (Bombina pachypus, Bufo bufo, Pseudepidalea cfr. viridis, Hyla intermedia, Rana dalmatina, R. italica, Pelophylax bergeri, P. kl. bispanicus). Green frogs are represented by a synklepton, i.e. a pair of taxa formed by an hybridogenetic species (Pelophylax kl. bispanicus) and a parental one (P. bergeri). Reptiles consisted of 18 species: four turtles (Eurotestudo bermanni, Emys orbicularis, Trachemys scripta, Caretta caretta), seven lizards (Hemidactylus turcicus, Tarentola mauritanica, Anguis fragilis, Lacerta bilineata, Podarcis muralis, P. sicula, Chalcides chalcides) and seven snakes (Hierophis viridiflavus, Coronella austriaca, Zamenis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, Vipera aspis). Based both on literature and biogeographic data Coronella girondica, Zamenis lineatus, and Vipera ursinii also probably occur in Molise, but these species were not recorded to date and their occurrence should be confirmed by further investigation.
Capula, M. & Luiselli, L. & Rugiero, L. (1993) -
Capula, M. & Rugiero, L. & Luiselli, L. (2009) -
The ecological correlates of dorsal colour pattern polymorphism were studied along the transition zone between two supposed subspecies ( = colour pattern types in this article) of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, in a hilly area of Latium, Central Italy. In this area two supposed subspecies, i.e. P. m. brueggemanni and P. m. nigriventris, are known to occur. Lizards were studied along 500 m long transects within three different habitat types, i.e. wood, wall, and bushy pasture. A total of 279 adult lizards (154 males, 125 females) were examined. Three colour morphs were observed at each site, i.e. brueggemanni type (brown-green upper parts), nigriventris type (black-green upper parts), and a colour morph intermediate between the two. The distribution and abundance of brueggemanni and nigriventris colour morphs was clearly non-random across habitat types: brueggemanni was abundant in walls and bushy pastures, and nigriventris in wood. To explain the observed pattern we tested the hypothesis of a differential predation exposure by the various colour morphs in different habitats by analysing the differences between colour morph frequencies of lizards with intact tail and with broken/regenerated tail in the various habitats of the study area. Our analysis would not support the differential predation-risk hypothesis, because the frequency of individuals with broken tails was very similar in the three colour morphs among different habitats.
Caputo, V. (2012) -
Caputo, V. & Giovannotti, M. & Olmo, E. (2008) -
Carazo, P. & Font, E. (2006) -
Carbeiro, D. (2012) -
Ecological factors are known to limit species geographical distribution. Lacertids, being ectotherms, are likely to be most influenced by thermal conditions but factors such as environmental humidity or species interactions may also be preponderant. Podarcis liolepis and P. muralis are lacertid species overlapping at a small scale in north-eastern Iberian Peninsula (IP). While P. liolepis ranges from the north-east of IP to southern France, P. muralis has a wide range across Europe but in IP is restricted to the north. Knowing and understanding the factors most likely to shape this pattern is the aim of this study. This has been assessed through three methodological approaches. Ecophysiological experiments in the laboratory were conducted to assess the thermal and hydric requirements of P. liolepis and P. muralis (manuscript I). In a sympatry area, field records of body temperature were taken and the influence of environmental factors on body temperatures were assessed (manuscript II). Correlative predictive models were performed in order to assess the putative current and future geographic distribution of both species (manuscript III). The ecophysiological data previously obtained was integrated in the interpretation of the modelling data. The three approaches revealed that environmental humidity and not temperature is the main abiotic factor constraining these species. However, evidence of possible interaction between both species was detected in terms of thermal physiology since the preferred body temperature of P. liolepis shifted upwards in the presence of P. muralis. Combining this information with the prediction for future scenarios of climate changes, it is expected that P. liolepis may be the most affected if climate gets to hot and dry since it would shift northwards and would disappear from some areas due to aridification. On the other hand, P. muralis’ range is likely to decrease but little fragmentation would occur.
Carletti, S. & Spilinga, C. (2006) -
Carneiro, D. & Garcia-Munoz, E. & Kaliontzopoulou, A. & Llorente, G.A. & Carretero, M.A. (2011) -
Carneiro, D. & Garcia-Munoz, E. & Kaliontzopoulou, A. & Llorente, G.A. & Carretero, M.A. (2015) -
In ectotherms, environmental factors shape the distribution of species mediated by ecophysiological constraints such as thermal requirements and water stress. Species with different distributions along an environmental gradient are expected to show contrasting responses in thermal-gradient and water-stress lab experiments. We examined basic thermal and hydric physiological traits throughout the day in two related lizard species with different, but partially overlapping, distributions in the Iberian Peninsula: Podarcis liolepis (abundant but mostly restricted to northeastern Iberia) and P. muralis (restricted in Iberia but widespread across Europe). We expected P. liolepis to opt for higher preferred body temperatures and have lower water loss rates as compared to P. muralis. Surprisingly, results revealed no differences in preferred body temperatures between species or sexes. Conversely, interspecific differences in the temporal profiles of water loss were found. Results suggest that water availability rather than thermal environment shapes the biogeographical patters of both species.
Carretero, M.A. & Andrade, P. & Pinho, C. & Afonso, S. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Bellati, A. & Pellitteri.Rosa, D. & Bosakova, Z. & Brejcha, J. & Feiner, N. & Marsik, P. & Paupério, F. & Rubin, C.-J. & Sabatino, S. & Salvi, D. & Soler, L. & Walerman, O. & While, G.M. & Uller, T. & Font, E. & Andersson, L. & Carbeiro, M. (2018) -
Carretero, M.A. & Martínez-Solano, Í. & Ayllón, E. & Llorente, G. (2018) -
Carretero, M.A. & Sillero, N. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. (2012) -
Carretetro, M.A. & Gomes, V. & Sillero, N. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. (2018) -
Cassol, M. & Romanazzi, E. & Cerbo, A.R. di & Vettorazzo, E. (2016) -
Castanet, J. & Roche, E. (1981) -
Castilla, A.M. & Gosá, A. & Galán, P. & Pérez-Mellado, V. (1999) -
Juveniles of a variety of lizard species exhibit bright tail colors that contrast clearly to the cryptically colored body. The `predator escape` hypothesis suggests that bright tail colors deflect the attack of a predator towards the lizard`s tail, which can be autotomised, and hence increase the probability of surviving a predatory attack. Although this hypothesis is widely accepted, surprisingly few empirical data exist to support it. Here, we examined the relative frequencies of predatory attack on plasticine replicas of juvenile lizards in the genus Podarcis with either green or brown tails in nine areas of Spain. Replicas with bright green tail color experienced, over a one-week period, the same rates of attack by birds and other predators as replicas with cryptic brown tails. However, the proportion of replicas that showed bill markings on the tail only was highest for the green-tailed replicas. In contrast, the frequency of predatory attacks towards the head or body was similar in the two groups of replicas. Our experiment appears to support the classical prediction of the adaptive value of a green autotomic tail in lizards. However, lizard species with multiple tail colors may also represent alternative anti-predator strategies that may have arisen by different selective pressures between habitats. We also suggest that the evolution of bright tail coloration in juveniles of Podarcis as an antipredator mechanism may be favored by the correlated evolution of morphological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics
Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. & Bauwens, D. (1999) -
We discuss three aspects of the thermal biology of lacertid lizards. First, we provide an overview
of the available data on field body temperatures (Tb), the thermal sensitivity of various performance
functions and selected body temperatures in different species of lacertid lizards. We also
briefly summarise information on the mechanisms of thermoregulation. Second, we discuss recent
developments to estimate the »precision« of thermoregulation, and the contribution of distinct behavioural
mechanisms. Finally, we revise available evidence for the existence of evolutionary adjustments
of thermal characteristics in lacertid lizards. Existing studies have mainly dealt with
within- and among-species differences in thermoregulatory behaviour (selected temperatures) and
thermal physiology of adults (optimal temperatures, heating rates). Available data provide only
limited evidence for clear-cut evolutionary shifts in thermal physiology characteristics along climatic
Cattaneo, A. (2005) -
Between 1972 and 2002 the author visited regularly the Presidential Estate of Castelporziano, ascertaining the presence of 23 autochthonous (eight amphibians, two turtles, six lizards and seven snakes) and of one allochthonous (Testudo graeca) amphibian and reptile species. Their ecology and behaviour is the subject of the present contribution.
Feeding. Studies on feeding have shown the trophic roles played by the different snake species to be complementary. In Castelporziano several snake species often assemble in one same site suitable for laying eggs, shedding skin, hibernating and estivating; this facilitates the egg/young eating habits of Hierophis viridifl avus, mostly at the expenses of Elaphe quatuorlineata. With the exception of Zamenis longissimus all the main snake species of the estate have been found in these sites, included Vipera aspis. Current examples of these sites are Ponte delle Rogare on the Coastal Road and the Depuratore (water purifi cation plant). Reproduction. The presence of very young Hierophis viridifl avus, Coronella austriaca and Vipera aspis in July is reported, in the fi rst case owing to precocious ovulations induced by endocrine modifi cations, released, in their turn, by autumnal matings. One such mating has been observed by the author in the locality Riserva Chiesola. Elaphe quatuorlineata showed a monogamic tendency; it seems that particular hormone conditions induce the females of these species to keep in proximity of their eggs up to september-october when they shed their skin, wich is generally sinchronous with the hatchings. This would seem to guarantee a protection against oophagic predators. Predators. A severe selective pressure on turtle eggs (both aquatic and terrestrial) by a specifi c predator (probably Martes martes) is reported. A bird of prey (probably Buteo buteo) seems to be responsible of the serious damages noticed on the head of a number of Elaphe quatuorlineata specimens. Morphology. The presence of black or very dark specimens of Zamenis longissimus is reported; lack of the superfi cial yellow pigment allows the appearance of the underlying melanophores. Such phenotypes have been found mostly in the wet area south east of Torpaterno. Their offspring are chromatically similar to the parents. The longest snake found was an Elaphe quatuorlineata _ exceeding 206 cm. Population status. Since the middle of the 80’s various types of human induced habitat changes in the estate heavily reduced the amphibian and the reptile populations. Coronella girondica and Natrix tessellata are probably extinct, Testudo hermanni, Chalcides chalcides, Coronella austriaca and Zamenis longissimus show clear signs of decline.
Çevic, I.E. (1999) -
In this investigation, lizard species of Turkish Thrace are investigated indetail for the first time. Morphological
characretirstics, range, distribution and subspecific states of the species are given.
Furthermore, some observations concerning their biological and ecological characteristics are also given. In this study a total of 678
specimens and 10 species belonging to 3 families of Lacertilia have been investigated from Turkish Trace.
Çevik, I.E. (1999) -
Araştırmada Trakya Bölgesinin kertenkele türleri ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiştir. İlk önce adı geçen bölgede türlerin tespiti yapılmış ve bunların morfolojik karakterleri, dağılışları ve alttür durumları açıklanmıştır. Ayrıca Biyolojik ve ekolojik özelliklerden gözlenebilenler hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Bu çalışmada 3 familya’dan 10 tür ve toplam 678 örnek değerlendirilmiştir.
Chabanaud, P. (1930) -
Chabanaud, P.M. (1919) -
Chevalier, M. & Dufaure, J.-P. & Lecher, P. (1979) -
The karyotypes of 4 european species of Lacertidae were determined in hepatic tissue cultures. The chromosomal formula typical of the Lacertidae (2n = 36M + 2 m) was found in L. muralis, L. sicula campestris and L. viridis; no morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes were identified in these 3 species. A population of L. vivipara caught in the Massif Central (France) shows the following diploid number: 2 n ~ ? = 3 2 A + Z a Z~ W, 2 n d = 3 2 A + Z ~ Z~ Z2Z2. The existence of the submetacentric W in the female karyotype can be explained by centric fusion between two non homologous telocentric chromosomes. It is possible that only some populations show this rearrangement. The finding of two types of heterogamety, XY and ZW, in the same Order contributes to our knowledge of the evolution of sex chromosomes among Vertebrates.
Cheylan, M. (1972) -
Cheylan, M. (1975) -
Cheylan, M. (1983) -
Cheylan, M. (1988) -
The phenotypic variation of two live color patterns and eight scale characters was investigated in geographical samples of the Wali Lizard Podarcis muralis. Ten insular populations from the French Mediterranean region were compared with several mainland populations. Our data indicate a strong decrease of phenotypic variability in populations inhabiting the smaller islands (surface up to 3 hectares), but not in sampies from larger islands (the latter being as variable as mainland samples). This agrees weil with the results of electrophoretic surveys of other vertebrate taxa, and allows us to consider it as a general phenomenon. Our own findings and those of others are used to explain conflicting results which, in our opinion, were based upon a too small sample of insular cases . The underlying mechanisms which are supposed to account for the polymorphism of insular populations are briefly discussed
Chmela, C. (2003) -
Chmela, C. (2005) -
Chondropoulos, B.P. (1986) -
The Greek lizard fauna consists of 26 species from which 5 are monotypic and the other ones are represented by a total of 86 subspecies. Five species and 61 subspecies are endemic of Greece. A checklist including the geographical distribution of each taxon in the Greek region is presented.
Clark, R. (1989) -
Clark, R. (1991) -
A list of the herpetofauna of Samothraki is given in Table 2. In this list I have tried to include all amphibia and teptilia to which I can find certain references. Only two amphibians are known, R. ridibunda and B. viridis. I looked persistently for Brown Frogs but to no avail although conditions were suitable. The streams that run across to the north coast rise at fairly low altitude but the water is cool enough to support the life style of, say, R. graeca. Higher mountain streams might well contain Brown Frogs but these were not visited. The co-existence of two wall lizards that do not normally come together on islands is noteworthy: P. erhardii
and P. muralis. Both seem uncommon or even rare and probably represent populations in decline. The snake-eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans, is absent from Samothraki. This fact, and the occurrence of P. erhardii, demonstrates that this island did not receive faunal elements from Asia Minor. Regarding the snakes all species are what one might anticipate for this coastal island. An exception is E. longissima (Buttle 1989) which otherwise is not known from islands in the Aegean region. The presence of E. quatuorlineata sauromates (Wettstein 1953 p.800) is based on a sight identification but can be taken to be sufficient documentation to
allow its inclusion, as with Buttle`s siting of E. longissima. Viperine snakes have not been found.
Clark, R. (1992) -
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. (1973) -
Claussen, D.L. & Townsley, M.D. & Bausch, R.G. (1989) -
Claussen, D.L. & Townsley, M.D. & Bausch, R.G. (1990) -
Wall lizards were collected in the fall of 1988 from a population introduced in 1951 into Cincinnati, OH. They were acclimated to 5 °C for several weeks prior to testing at sub-zero temperatures. Eleven super-cooled lizards were removed from the cooling chamber prior to crystallization after between 15 min and 26 h at body temperatures ranging from -2.2 to -5.9 °C. With the exception of one individual supercooled to-5.0 °C, all lizards recovered fully. The crystallization temperatures of 15 lizards which froze ranged from -0.6 to -6.4 °C. Frozen lizards were stiff with a distinct blue color, which faded upon thawing at 3 °C. The ice contents of frozen lizards were determined calorimetrically and/or estimated from a theoretical model, the two methods being generally in close agreement. Remarkably, five individuals recovered fully from exposures as long as 2 h and with as much as 28% of their body water frozen. Although these animals are not as tolerant as certain other vertebrates they are clearly able to withstand freezing under some circumstances. Failure to survive freezing was attributed either to excessive ice accumulation during a prolonged freeze or to excessive supercooling prior to freezing, which induced a large initial surge of ice formation upon crystallization. Our results accord with those of Weigmann (1929). We accordingly recognize him as the first to demonstrate freeze-tolerance in vertebrates, and we further recognize P. muralis as the first vertebrate known to survive freezing.
Cleeves, V. (1995) -
Clusella-Trullas, S. & Terblanche, J.S. & Blackburn, T.M. & Chown, S.L. (2008) -
The thermal melanism hypothesis (TMH) predicts that dark (low skin reflectance) individuals
are at an advantage in cool climates as they heat faster and reach higher equilibrium temperatures
than lighter (higher reflectance) individuals. However, tests of the TMH have yielded mixed support,
especially in ectothermic vertebrates.
Most studies to date have been undertaken at small spatial scales or using a few, closely related
populations or species. Here, we therefore examine the TMH at large scales in heliothermic lizard
species, testing two of its major predictions and a corollary thereof, using standard and phylogenetically
First, we test the prediction that skin reflectance and climate variables such as mean annual
temperature (MAT) and global solar radiation are positively related across species. Second, we
determine whether a positive relationship exists between skin reflectance and body mass. Third,
since physiology, behaviour and morphology should be co-adapted, we test the prediction that skin
reflectance and traits of thermal biology are positively related.
We find strong support for a positive relationship between skin reflectance and mean annual
radiation even after adjusting for phylogeny. Moreover, radiation was a better predictor of skin
reflectance than MAT. We also find support for a positive relationship of skin reflectance with body
size, although this was non-significant after accounting for phylogeny.
Skin reflectance was not related to measures of thermal biology, although confounding effects
such as methodological differences could not be ruled out.
In summary, this study provides novel support for the TMH operating interspecifically at large
geographic scales, suggesting adaptive variation of skin reflectance among lizards.
Cogălniceanu, D. & Rozylowicz, L. & Székely, P. & Samoilă, C. & Stănescu, F. & Tudor, M. & Székely, D. & Iosif, R. (2013) -
e reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own eld surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scienti c literature. e occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geoda- tabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. e spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling e ort concentrated in various protected areas, and de cient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. e patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans.
Collin de Plancy, V. (1878) -
Cooper Jr., W.E. (1991) -
The ability to discriminate prey chemicals from control substances and the presence of a poststrike elevation in tongue-flicking (PETF) rate are experimentally demonstrated in the lacertid lizard,Podarcis muralis, The tongue-flick attack score, a composite index of response strength, was significantly higher in response to integumental chemicals from cricket than to cologne or distilled water. The cricket chemicals additionally elicited a significantly greater rate of tongue-flicking and higher proportion of attacks by the lizards than did control stimuli. PETF combined with apparent searching movements strongly suggest the presence of strike-induced chemosensory searching (SICS). Experimental evidence indicates that both PETF and SICS occur in insectivorous representatives of three families of actively foraging autarchoglossan lizards, suggesting their widespread occurrence in such lizards. The adaptive roles of chemosensory behavior in the foraging behavior of P.Muralis are discussed. It is proposed that these lizards may form chemical search images and that PETF and SICS may have been present in the lacertilian ancestors of snakes.
Cooper Jr., W.E. & Caldwell, J.P. & Vitt, L.J. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Baird, T.A. (2002) -
Lizards use chemical cues to locate and identify prey and plant food, assess the nutritional quality of food, and detect plant toxins. Among insectivorous lizards, all actively foraging species studied respond strongly to prey chemicals sampled lingually, but ambush foragers do not. Much recent research has been devoted to assessing differential responses to food and nonfood chemicals (i.e., food-chemical discrimination) by omnivorous and herbivorous species and determining whether correlated evolution has occurred between plant diet and plant-chemical discrimination. We conducted experimental studies of food-chemical discrimination by two species of teiid lizards, the omnivorous Cnemidophorus murinus and the actively foraging insectivorous Ameiva ameiva. The omnivore distinguished both prey and plant chemicals from control substances. The insectivore exhibited prey-chemical, but not plant-chemical, discrimination, as indicated by tongue-flicking and biting. A comparative analysis using concentrated-changes tests showed that correlated evolution has occurred between plant consumption and plant-chemical discrimination in a major lizard taxon, Lacertiformes. These results extend and strengthen previous findings of similar correlated evolution to a new group and add to a growing database indicating that omnivorous lizards use chemical cues to assess both prey and plant foods.
Cooper Jr., W.E. & Pyron, A. & Garland, T. jr. (2014) -
One of Darwin`s most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.
Cooper, J.S. (1958) -
Cooper, J.S. (1961) -
Cooper, W.E. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Sillero, N. (1991) -
Cordero, G.A. & Andersson, B.A. & Sopuchet, J. & Micheli, G. & Noble, D.W.A. & Gangloff, J. & Ulber, T. & Aubret, F. (2017) -
Coping with novel environments may be facilitated by plastic physiological responses that enable survival during environmentally sensitive life stages. We tested the capacity for embryos of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) from low altitude to cope with low-oxygen partial pressure (hypoxia) in an alpine environment. Developing embryos subjected to hypoxic atmospheric conditions (15–16% O2 sea-level equivalent) at 2,877 m above sea level exhibited responses common to vertebrates acclimatized to or evolutionarily adapted to high altitude: suppressed metabolism, cardiac hypertrophy, and hyperventilation. These responses might have contributed to the unaltered incubation duration and hatching success relative to the ancestral, low-altitude, condition. Even so, hypoxia constrained egg energy utilization such that larger eggs produced hatchlings with relatively low mass. These findings highlight the role of physiological plasticity in maintaining fitness-relevant phenotypes in high-altitude environments, providing impetus to further explore altitudinal limits to ecological diversification in ectothermic vertebrates.
Cornuaille, J.-F. (2012) -
Corti, C. (2006) -
Corti, C. & Gravelli, P. & Lanza, B. (1996) -
Corti, C. & Lo Cascio, P. (2002) -
Corti, C. & Lo Cascio, P. & Razzett,i E. (2006) -
Although it was obvious to us that it would be useful to include a list of the herpetofauna found on the Italian islands, it immediately became clear that this would be no easy task: the information in the literature is often incomplete, inaccurate and difficult to check, and precise data are available only for the circum-Sardinian islands (POGGESI et al., 1996), the circum-Sicilian islands (L ANZA, 1973; CORTI et al., 1998) and the Tuscan Archipelago (HOTZ, 1973; COR- TI et al., 1991; VANNI & NISTRI, 1999, 2000). In order to form as complete a picture as possible, we also consulted numerous works on single islands or groups of islands, e.g. the Handbuch der Rep- tilien und Amphibien Europas. Finally, we had access to a large vol- ume of as yet unpublished data from the Progetto Atlante, including reports for the Ligurian and Apulian islands, gathered by the region- al chapters of the Societas Herpetologica Italica.
For the sake of brevity, lacustrian and riverine populations and those of delta bars, beaches and island lakes have been omitted. Apart from the fact that few data are available, these populations are not actually separate from those of adjoining coasts. We do make an important exception to this rule in mentioning the taxon Lacerta muralis borromeica Mertens, 1932, described for the Isola Madre on Lago Maggiore and later declared invalid by the author.
The subspecies status of many island populations of lacertids of the Podarcis genus remains open to debate, and is discussed in more detail in the chapter “Checklist of the Italian herpetofauna with tax- onomic remarks”. These populations can present far greater variabil- ity in patterning than continental populations [e.g. Podarcis sicula caporiaccoi (Taddei, 1949) see HOTZ (1973)] or unusual colouring (e.g. melanotic) which, although they make island and archipelago populations easier to identify, are considered by modern taxono- mists to be of doubtful systematic validity.
It was decided to include the description of a species or sub- species for an island as a note, with the type locality in square brack- ets, and with the name supplied by the author without commenting on its validity.
Costantini, D. & Dell’Omo, G. (2010) -
Sex-biased predation is thought to have important implications for sexual selection, sex allocation, and population dynamics (Magnhagen, 1991; Le-Galliard et al., 2005 for an example in lizards). Most studies found that males are subjected to higher predation pressure than females during the reproductive season (Korpimäki, 1985; Lodé et al., 2004; Christe et al., 2006; Costantini et al., 2007). In that period, males are very mobile, emit acoustic signals and exhibit brilliant colourations, which are needed to attract females but may make them more visible to predators. With regard to lizards, a recent study provided the first evidence that males of a lizard species may be preyed on more than females (Costantini et al., 2007). In the present study, we investigated whether there is sex-biased predation on two small lacertid species, the common wall lizard Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) and the Italian wall lizard Podarcis sicula (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1810), by Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. We also examined whether (1) the rate of predation differed between species and (2) the rate of predation differed across years or among hunting habitats for each species.
Costantini, D. & Lapresa Alonso, M. & Moazen, M. & Bruner, E. (2010) -
n the last two decades, there has been a great deal of interest in the morphology and anatomy of the lizard skull in an ecological and evolutionary perspective. However, the relationship between variations in many key anatomical features remains largely unknown. Using microtomography and geometric morphometrics, we examined the relationship between bones and scales associated with the parietal foramen in the three lizards species most common in the Italian peninsula: Podarcis muralis, P. sicula, and Lacerta bilineata. The imprints of the scales are clearly recognizable on the outer bone surface, and this may suggest a structural interaction between these elements. The temporal osteoderms are visible in the larger males and in the larger females of L. bilineata, but they are absent in the smaller specimens of L. bilineata and in all Podarcis specimens. Two parallel rows of pterygoid teeth are present in all the specimens of L. bilineata and are absent in the smaller male of L. bilineata and in both Podarcis species. Cheek osteoderms occurred only in the largest specimens of our sample (i.e., large L. bilineata), being possibly related to hyperostotic processes and densitometric thresholds more than to phylogeny. Minor differences may be also associated with the form of the parietal foramen. In absolute terms the parietal foramen tends to be largest in L. bilineata but in relation to skull length the foramen tends to be larger in P. muralis. In this latter species the foramen is also more elongated. In all three species the fronto-parietal suture occupies a similar location relatively to the scale spatial organization. A shared allometric pattern shows that the main vault enlargement can be localised at the areas anterior to the fronto-parietal suture, providing further information on the possible morphogenetic dynamics associated with the interaction between scales and bones around this structure.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Bogdan, H.V. & Ferenti, S. (2006) -
Podarcis muralis is present on the railroad embankments and bridges from the train stations in some areas of western Romania. Sometimes these populations are in close vicinity to natural habitats, whilst at other times may be several km away. In the second case, they are probably brought accidentally, along with the rail stones. It is likely that the species, at the northern limit of its distribution, is advantaged in some way by the railroads, which offer numerous shelters and the possibility of much quicker thermal adjustment.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Cicort-Lucasiu, A.S. & Gaceu, O. & Sas, I. & Ferenti, S. & Bogdan, H. (2009) -
The south-western part of Mehedinţi County comprises many herpetofauna species,
compared to most regions in Romania. This is how we managed to encounter 14 amphibian
species (Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus dobrogicus,
Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea,
Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax lessonae, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria) plus Pelophylax kl.
esculentus and 15 reptile species (Emys orbicularis, Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta
agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis taurica, Darevskia praticola, Anguis fragilis,
Zamenis longissimus, Dolichophis caspius, Coronella austriaca, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata,
Vipera ammodytes). Salamandra salamandra, Bombina variegata and Rana temporaria were
identified at very low altitudes, lower than any other indication from Romania up to present.
This is explained by the fact that mountain valleys, bearing here a typical aspect, reach all the
way to the Danube, carrying with them the occurring species. In Blahnita Plain, Darevskia
praticola appears in cleared areas, being present in the vegetation girdles bordering the canals
found between agricultural fields.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Ghira, I. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.-St. & Sas, I. & Strugariu, A. & Bogdan H.V. (2006) -
In Dobrudja we encountered 10 species of amphibians (Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae), 16 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Testudo graeca, Ablepharus kitaibelli, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis muralis, Eremias arguta, Coronella austriaca, Zamensis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Dolichophis caspius, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Vipera ammodytes) and also Rana kl. esculenta populations. Some species of amphibians (Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus) that were only previously known inform the lower regions of the Danube’s meadow and in the vicinity of the Black Sea, were recorded in the high areas of northern Dobrudja. Also here, all three forms of the green frogs’ complex documented for Romania have been encountered, but Rana lessonae and Rana esculenta are very rare, being found only in the north. The central sectors of Dobrudja are severely impacted by human activities, almost completely cleared as a result of agriculture and showed very low number of herpetofauna species as being present. The most important areas for the herpetofauna are the northern and south-western regions.
Cremers, J. (1929) -
Creuwels, J. (2014) -
Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. (2018) -
Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Džukić, G. & Aleksic, I. & Vujicic, L. & Avramov, S. (1995) -
Region of Skadar Lake (Montenegro) presents part of the southern border of species range for two lacertid lizards: Podarcis muralis (Common Wall Lizard) and Lacerta oxycephala (Sharp-snouted Rock Lizard). Beside coastal area, they also inhabit 27 small islands which form south-western Skadar Lake archipelago. Insular populations seem to be allopatric on all islands except one. In the scope of complex investigations we have performed an strach-gel electrophoretic study on both species. A total of 24 gene loci was analyzed for 11 populations of P. muralis and for 8 populations of L. oxycephala. These data were used to estimate the genetic variability level within populations as well as degree of genetic differentiation among populations. The extent of population genetic structuring in both species is discussed, taking into consideration the possible influence of isolation effects.
Crnobrnja, J. & Aleksic, I. & Bejakovic, D. (2005) -
We examined degree of between-sides difference in number of femoral pores (fluctuating asymmetry, FA) in Podarcis muralis populations, distributed on islands and in coastal area of Lake Skadar (Southern Montenegro). The aim of this study was to test sensitivity of fluctuating asymmetry of chosen trait to isolation effect in the absence of anthropogenic impacts. The results indicate that FA in the number of femoral pores do not vary significantly between insular populations of P. muralis. Generally, there is negative but non-significant correlation between island size and FA level. Also, overdominance hypothesis of enhanced developmental homeostasis at higher levels of heterozygosity was not confirmed in this study. The results support earlier conclusions obtained from electrophoretic studies, that analyzed insular populations from Lake Skadar archipelago still do not suffer deleterious effects as a result of isolation.
Crnobrnja, J. & Bejakovic, D. & Džukić, G. & Kalezic, M.L. & Tucic, N. (1991) -
Crnobrnja, J. & Džukić, G. & Aleksic, I. & Vujicic, L. & Avramov, S. (1994) -
Cruce, M. (1970) -
Crucitti, P. & Amori, G. & Battisti, C. & Giardini, M. (2013) -
In this work, a check-list of the species of Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals observed in the district “mentanese-cornicolano archipelago” of the Roman Campagna, north-east from Rome city area (Latium, Central Italy), a relict of mesoxerophilous woods with cultivated land, urban and suburban areas penetrated by infrastructures, is presented. We obtained data for 158 species among which 10 Amphibians, 16 Reptiles, 99 Birds and 33 Mammals, a quite exhaustive check-list; however, potentially gaps -species living in the territory but yet unknown, e.g. bats among Mammals- are discussed too. A special emphasis has been given to the numerous species of relevant interest from the ecological and conservational viewpoints. In the bibliography 40 papers are quoted which represent a quite exhaustive list devoted to the terrestrial vertebrates of the area.
Csermely, D. & Bonati, B. & López, P. & Martín, J. (2011) -
The typical lateral eye position in ectotherms likely facilitated the spread of visual lateralisation*i.e., the different use of the eyes*in those species. The diffusion of this form of lateralisation seems due to the possibility of carrying out more than one task simultaneously, some controlled by one eye and the visual structures it feeds and some by the other. Similar to other species, exploratory and monitoring behaviours seem to be under left ‘‘eye system’’ control. Wild individuals of the Common wall lizard Podarcis muralis were tested individually in captivity to ascertain whether they showed lateralisation when exploring a new environment, using preferentially the left eye. In Experiment 1, the lizards explored a maze. A left-turning bias was found, both at individual and population level, indicating a possible right hemisphere visual control. In Experiment 2, lizards explored a T-maze, preferring to enter the left rather than the right arm though without any particular preference in the head turns. In Experiment 3, the lizards had to exit an opaque box within a terrarium. We found a left-eye preference again for head turn while leaving the box. Our findings support the hypothesis of right hemisphere mediation of exploratory and monitoring behaviours in Podarcis muralis. In addition to previous studies on the same species, our results support the hypothesis of a simultaneous control of anti-predatory and exploratory behaviours (left-eye mediated) and predatory behaviour (right-eye mediated).
Csermely, D. & Bonati, B. & Romani, R. (2010) -
Detour tests provide a reliable indicator of the presence of visual lateralisation. Previous studies on fishes and birds suggest that preferences in choosing to detour an obstacle to reach a goal are due to asymmetries of eye use. We studied detour behaviour to reach a prey in males of Podarcis muralis in order to ascertain visual laterality for a predatory task. Lizards were found to be lateralised at both individual and population levels, although only a few lizards were found to express lateralisation at the level of the individual. The preferential direction of detouring is the left route around a transparent barrier, indicating a right eye/left hemisphere use to observe the prey and confirming the results of recent work. The eye used to fixate the prey was maintained longer in the same direction the lizards subsequently chose to approach it, confirming that the preference was basically due to visual asymmetry, not to motor asymmetry. To our knowledge this is the first study of detouring conducted on sauria, demonstrating how these lizards are right eye/left hemisphere lateralised for predatory tasks at individual and population level.
Cyrén, O. (1924) -
Cyrén, O. (1933) -
Dalbeck, L. (2011) -
Dalbeck, L. & Hachtel, M. (2000) -
Dalbeck, L. & Haese, U. (2005) -
Dankler, M. (1900) -
Danon, G. & Andelkovic, M. & Urosevic, A. (2018) -
Dathe, H. (1990) -
Daudin, A.M. (1802) -
Daudin, F.M. (1802) -
Davies, R.S. (1984) -
Dawydow, K.N. (1898) -
Dehaut, E.-G. (1911) -
Dehaut, E.-G. & Landon, F.-J. (1950) -
Deichsel, G. (2008) -
Deichsel, G. (2014) -
Deichsel, G. (2016) -
Deichsel, G. (2019) -
In einer retrospektiven Durchsicht des Datenmaterials von 41 zeckenbefallenen Eidechsen zeigt sich in der Paarungszeit bei männlichen Tieren eine deutlich höhere Zeckenlast als bei weiblichen. Außerhalb der Paarungszeit ist die Zeckenlast bei beiden Geschlechtern annähernd gleich. Der Unterschied wird erklärt durch die höhere Bewegungsaktivität von Männchen in der Paarungszeit im Vergleich zu Weibchen. Dadurch sind Männchen einem höheren Risiko ausgesetzt, auf wirtsuchende Zecken zu treffen.
Zwei Bilder mit allochthonen jungen Mauereidechsen Podarcis muralis maculiventris der Südalpenlinie werden kommentiert. Schlüpflinge separieren sich von den Mauern, die von Adulttieren besetzt werden, in ein Wiesengelände. Sie nutzen die spärlichen Sonnenplätze dort gemeinsam, gelegentlich sogar mit Körperkontakt. Tiere aller Altersklassen teilen sich Hibernacula in Hohlräumen hinter Stützmauern. Diese Überwinterungsgemeinschaften bleiben nach der Winterruhe noch eine Zeitlang zusammen. Ein adultes Paar mit acht Jungtieren unterschiedlichen Alters vor einem Hibernaculum wird sentimental als “Familie” interpretiert.
Deichsel, G. & Ansermet, M. (2012) -
Deichsel, G. & Gist, D.H. (2001) -
Deichsel, G. & Gleed-Owen, C.P. & Mayer, W. (2007) -
Deichsel, G. & Kwet, A. & Consul, A. (2011) -
In Stuttgart there is a strikingly broad phenotypic heterogeneity of common wall lizards, giving rise to the suggestion that the various locations are occupied by alien common wall lizards of different origins. Hence we investigated important sites where such lizards occur in the period between 2007–2010. The purpose of our investigations was to gather data on the genetic origins of Stuttgart’s common wall lizards. We took tissue samples from twenty animals and determined their haplotypes by means of mtDNA analysis. We found that western city quarters are inhabited by P. m.
maculiventris (Western or synonymously Southern Alps lineage) and central city quarters by P. m. brongniardii/merremius (Eastern France lineage, normal type). In the Neckar valley there is a series of mixed populations of these haplotypes and in addition of P. m. brongniardii/merremius (Eastern France lineage, Languedoc type), P. m. maculiventris (Eastern or synonymously Venetian lineage) and of P. m. nigriventris
(Tuscany lineage). We present the history of introduction and the dynamics of secondary expansion based on the information available to us. Where respective data is missing we offer and discuss hypotheses on these issues.
Deichsel, G. & Laufer, H. & Schulte, U. (2011) -
Deichsel, G. & Laufer, H. & Schulte, U. (2012) -
Deichsel, G. & Schulte, U. (2011) -
Deichsel, G. & Schulte, U. (2015) -
Bis zum Redaktionsschluss waren uns 25 Vorkommen allochthoner Mauereidechsen in Baden-Württemberg bekannt, die alle im Bereich mit den Eckpunkten Mannheim – Stuttgart – Ulm – Insel Mainau im Bodensee –Lörrach – Freiburg – Mannheim liegen, wobei die Gebiete um Mannheim, Stuttgart, Lörrach und Freiburg Häufungspunkte verschiedener genetischer Linien darstellen. An zwei Fundstellen siedeln ausschließlich ausgesetzte Tiere der Ostfranzösischen-Linie (P. m. brongniardii), an weiteren sieben Lokalitäten nur Tiere der Südalpen-Linie (P. m. maculiventris-West), von denen drei nachgewiesenermaßen auf Aussetzungen zurückgehen und vier vermutlich auf unbeabsichtigte Verschleppungen. Die restlichen 16 Vorkommen umfassen mehrere genetische Linien mit unterschiedlichen Einwanderungswegen – außer den genannten die Unterlinie „Languedoc“ der Ostfranzösischen-Linie, die Westfranzösische- (jeweils P. m. bringniardi), die Venetien-Linie (P. m. maculiventris-Ost) sowie die Toskana- und Romagna-Linie (jeweils P. m. nigriventris). Insbesondere an Standorten entlang der Bahnlinie am Oberrheingraben kommt es zu Hybridisierungen allochthoner Linien untereinander, als auch zwischen allochthonen und der heimischen Ostfranzösischen-Linie (SCHULTE et al. 2012, SCHULTE et al. 2015a) und ein weiteres solches Hybridisierungsergebnis wird für einen anderen Standort vermutet. An sechs Standorten allochthoner Mauereidechsen wured Sympatrie bzw. Syntopie mit der Zauneidechse (Lacerta agilis) beobachtet. Unter Berücksichtigung von Beobachtungen zur Verdrängung autochthiner Lacertiden durvch allochthone Mauereidechsen außerhalb Baden-Württembergs diskutieren wir diesen potenziellen Gefährdungsfaktor an diesen Standorten.
Deichsel, G. & Schweiger, S. (2004) -
Deichsel, G. & U. Schulte & J. Beninde (2015) -
Mit dieser Bildserie wollen wir die Diversität von Hybriden der Mauereidechse veranschaulichen und deutlich machen, dass die Beurteilung der Hybridstatus von Mauereidechsen aufgrund phänotypischer Merkmale allein schwierig und oft nur spekulativ möglich ist.
With this series of images we want to demonstrate the diversity of hybrids of the Common Wall Lizard,
stressing that an assessment of the hybrid statuses of Wall Lizards based on phenotypic characteristics alone is difficult and often only possible in a speculative way.
Deichsel, G. & Walker, Z. (2010) -
Deichsel, G. & Werner, G. (2011) -
Dékány, B. & Kövér, S. & Babocsay, G. (2015) -
Loss of natural habitats renders conservation of species in urban environments important. For suc¬cessful conservation, however, we need to understand which factors influence the urban distribution of a particular species. The aim of our study was to reveal the most important factors that influence the distribution of Podarcis muralis in Budapest. Using maps on www.herpterkep.hu we designated 18 study sites that we assigned to five habitat categories. Our methodology followed the protocol of the National Biodiversity Monitoring System of Hungary. Observations were made at five occasions in the summer and autumn of 2013. We recorded sex, age (juvenile, subadult, adult) of the lizards, structural diversity of the habitats, number of hideouts, the extent of human disturbance and the presence of predators along transects. We observed altogether 539 lizards. Linear model was used to uncover the relationship between environmental factors and the observed number of lizards. The presence of predators had a negative while basaltic track bed and leaf litter had a positive effect on the population density of lizards. The structural diversity of the habitats correlated positively with the number of adults and females. We observed the largest density of lizards along railways. The ba¬saltic ballast shoulders of railroads serve as intricate networks of hideouts, while provide ideal plots for basking. They usually covered with leaf litter and a wide diversity of vegetation that provides superior sites for egg laying and hunting. Our results show that even Podarcis muralis that is prone to live in highly urban environments needs diverse, semi-natural elements in its habitat to maintain viable populations.
A természetes élőhelyek elvesztésével egyre nagyobb jelentősége van a biodiverzitás települési környezetben történő megőrzésének. Ehhez azonban ismernünk kell az egyes fajok városi elterjedését befolyásoló tényezőket. Vizsgálatunkban arra kerestük a választ, hogy melyek azok a környezeti tényezők, amelyek a fali gyík (Podarcis muralis) budapesti elterjedését befolyásolják. A www.herpterkep.mme.hu segítségével 18 mintavételi helyet jelöltünk ki. Az adatgyűjtés 2013- ban történt, mintavételi területenként 5 alkalommal. Az alábbiakat rögzítettük: ivar, kor (juvenilis, szubadult, adult), a búvóhelyek relatív sűrűsége, az emberi zavarás mértéke, környezeti szerkezeti diverzitás, ragadozók jelenléte. Összesen 539 egyedet észleltünk. Lineáris modellel vizsgáltuk az egy méterre eső észlelések és a környezeti változók kapcsolatát. A ragadozók jelenléte negatív, míg a búvóhelyeken belül a bazaltköves vasúti töltések és az avar jelenléte pozitív hatást gyakorolt az egyedsűrűségre. A környezeti szerkezeti diverzitás az adult egyedekre és a nőstények egyedszámá- ra hatott pozitívan. Az élőhelytípusok közül a vasútvonalak környezete bizonyult a legjobbnak. A bazaltköves vasúti töltések búvóhelyként szolgálnak a fali gyíkoknak, és helioterm életmódjukhoz is ideális környezetet nyújtanak. A töltések széle többnyire fás, bokros, lágyszárú- és avarborítás- sal, ideális táplálkozó és szaporodó helyek a fali gyíkok számára. Urbanizálódó hajlama ellenére azonban a fali gyík is igényli a változatos szerkezetű, természetes elemekkel jellemezhető városi élőhelyeket.
Delaugerre, M. & Cheylan, M. (2012) -
Delft, J. van & Spikmans, F. (2016) -
Dely, O.G. & Stohl, G. (1982) -
Comparative analyses were carried out about the variability of the pileal shields of different species belonging to the family Lacertidae. The results of the comparisons have been evaluated in respect to the phylogenetical relationships existing between the different genera and species of the family.
Denneman, A.K. & Denneman, W.D. (1978) -
in the very centre of Burgundy (France) was visited in the summer of 1975 and 1977 during 4 and 3 weeks. An area of 50 square kilometers was investigated mainly in respect to the reptiles and amphibians. They appeared to be well represented, the amphibians with 5 species: Rana temporaria, Bujo bujo, Bombina variegata, Trilllrus helveticus and Salamandra s. terrestris. We also met the following species of reptiles: Lacerta agilis, Lacerta vivipara, A nguis fragilis, Coronella austriaca, Natrix natrix and presumably Elaphe longissima.
The occurrence of Lacerta muralis and Lacerta viridis near Beaune is mentioned.
Dens, F. (2013) -
Depoli, G. (1898) -
Deschandol, F. (2011) -
Dessimoz, F. & Rathey, E. (2009) -
Devan, P. (1999) -
Dexel, R. (1984) -
Dexel, R. (1985) -
Dexel, R. (1986) -
In the northern parts of its range the wall lizard depends on habitats, which show - due to their location and structures - an exeptional warm microclimate. Open country with !arge stony and rocky areas is of great importance, because it is warmed up by solar ra- diation and then shows high temperatures expecially in the microhabitate of the lizards.
On the study area in the Siebengebirge near Bonn (F.R.G.) in 1982 and 1983 unusual long activity seasons from march to november were observed.
Remarkable characters were found like red bellies or throats, blue flanks and yellow throats - dependent on sex and character - in 40-90 % of the examined lizards. Similar characters were observed in populations of the Eifel, but not at Aachen.
From april 1982 until september 1983 164 specimens of the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis (LAURENTI, 1768) were registered on a 1.2 ha !arge study site in the Siebengebirge near Bonn (F.R.G.) by using capture-recapture methods. Partial multiple recatch succeeded in nearly 60 % of these lizards.
Frequency calculations showed an 100% increase of the population in 1982; this high reproduction rate is probably climatically caused. The 1983 population consisted of 280 lizards, of which more than 50 % were subadults (20 % in 1982).
In spring and summer of both years the weather conditions (air temperature and dura- tion of sunshine) have been favourable. The early hatching of the juveniles in July 1982 also indicates good weather conditions in this year. Accordingly the registered growth rates can be expected to be comparatively high.
The average growth curves of sexes, determined by regression analysis, show for males longer than 35-40 mm (snout to vent) a higher growth rate than for females.
The age structure of the population is illustrated by three diagrams. Additional remarks are made about sex rares, fertility, life expectancies, and ectoparasites.
DGHT (2010) -
Dhora, D. & Beqiraj, S. & Dhora, D. (2001) -
Dhouially, D. & Saxod, R. (1974) -
Dieckmann, M. (2004) -
Dieckmann, M. (2006) -
Während eines einwöchigen Urlaubs im Bleniotal (Tessin, Schweiz) konnten die beiden dort lebenden Lacertidenarten, Lacerta bilineata bilineata und Podarcis muralis, in ihren Biotopen beobachtet werden.
Dieckmann, M. (2011) -
Dieckmann, M. (2013) -
Dieckmann, M. (2018) -
Dieckmann, M. (2019) -
Dieckmann, M. & Ruhnke, F. (2010) -
Report on the finding of a melanistic specimen of Podarcis muralis at Ihringen at the Kaiserstuhl, Baden-Wuettemberg.
Dieckmann, M. & Ziesmann, S. (2009) -
Diego-Rasilla, F.J. (2003) -
Relationships between predator avoidance behaviour and predation pressure were investigated in the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis. The wariness of lizards belonging to high (1185 m) and low elevation (308 m) populations under two different predation pressure levels was compared. Wall lizards belonging to the lowland population experienced greater predation pressure than those belonging to the highland population. Lizards belonging to the population under higher predation pressure had higher frequency of refuge use, and had longer flight initiation distances (i.e. the distance lizards allowed the observer to approach before fleeing). In contrast, neither the distance fled (i.e. the total distance they fled in one continuous movement from the lizard’s initial position until hiding or stopping at a safe distance) nor the distance to the nearest refuge were significantly different between populations. Escape responses were independent of ambient temperature in the lowland population, but animals belonging to the highland population had longer flight initiation distances when the ambient temperatures were higher. These findings suggest that predator avoidance behaviour may vary with predation pressure.
To investigate whether lizards may learn by experience to recognize, judge the intentions of, and decide when to escape from a potential predator, the wariness of wall lizards, Podareis muralis, inhabiting a mountainous Spanish site frequented by tourists and another very close to it, scarcely accessible to people, was compared. Predation pressure on the area, estimated using soft plasticine replicas of lizards, seemed to be weak. Lizards at the tourist site were less wary, and had shorter approach distances (i.e., the distance lizards allowed the observer to approach before fleeing). Neither the total distance they fled in one continuous movement from their initial position until hiding or stopping at a safe distance (flight distance) nor the distance to the nearest refuge were significantly different between sites. Escape behaviour was not influenced by distance to cover at the tourist site, whereas, at the other, lizards were more wary, and fled from an approaching observer at greater distances when they were farther from a potential refuge.
Diego-Rasilla, F.J. (2009) -
Diego-Rasilla, F.J. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Pérez-Cembranos, A. (2017) -
Several species of vertebrates exhibit spontaneous longitudinal body axis alignment relative to the Earth’s magnetic field (i.e., magnetic alignment) while they are performing different behavioural tasks. Since magnetoreception is still not fully understood, studying magnetic alignment provides evidence for magnetoreception and broadens current knowledge of magnetic sense in animals. Furthermore, magnetic alignment widens the roles of magnetic sensitivity in animals and may contribute to shed new light on magnetoreception. In this context, spontaneous alignment in two species of lacertid lizards (Podarcis muralis and Podarcis lilfordi) during basking periods was monitored. Alignments in 255 P. muralis and 456 P. lilfordi were measured over a 5-year period. The possible influence of the sun’s position (i.e., altitude and azimuth) and geomagnetic field values corresponding to the moment in which a particular lizard was observed on lizards’ body axis orientation was evaluated. Both species exhibited a highly significant bimodal orientation along the north-northeast and south-southwest magnetic axis. The evidence from this study suggests that free-living lacertid lizards exhibit magnetic alignment behaviour, since their body alignments cannot be explained by an effect of the sun’s position. On the contrary, lizard orientations were significantly correlated with geomagnetic.
Dieme, O. (2011) -
Dieme, O. (2014) -
Diesener, G. & Reichholf, J. (1986) -
Dietermann, J. (2018) -
Dietrich, N. (1998) -
Dinca, P.C. & Strugariu, A. & Stoica, D.L. & Zamirescu, S.R. (2014) -
Amphibians and reptiles are declining worldwide and information on their detailed distribution is key to proper conservation initiatives. This paper presents the results of a rapid survey on the composition and distribution of herpetofauna from the Taia River Valley (Hunedoara County, Romania), one of the many unstudied areas of the Southern Carpathians. We recorded the presence of three species of amphibians (Ichtyosaura alpestris, Bombina variegata and Rana temporaria) and three reptile species (Podarcis muralis, Lacerta agilis and Zootoca vivipara). The internationally threatened Yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata) was the most common amphibian in the study area.
Dolce, S. (1981) -
Dolce, S. & Lapini, L. (1987) -
Domeneghetti, D. & Mondini, S. & Bruni, G. (2016) -
Donev, A.D. & Mollov, I.A. & Kechev, M.O. (2005) -
A study on the trophic spectrum of three species of lacertid lizards (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis and Podarcis taurica) was carried out, based on 32 specimens collected in the period 1959-1968 in various localities in South Bulgaria. The analyzed data showed that the insects (Insecta) are the most numerous and the most frequently met among the alimentary components of the total amount of food of the studied stomachs. The insects consisted 80,0% of the total amount of food of Lacerta agilis, 88,8% of Lacerta viridis and 72,6% of Podarcis taurica. The insects were mainly presented by Coleoptera (Lacerta agilis - 40,0%, Lacerta viridis – 66,6% and Podarcis taurica – 30,2%) followed by Diptera and larvae of Lepidoptera. The noninsect components consisted spiders (Lacerta viridis - 7,4%, Podarcis taurica - 16,6%), amphipods (Podarcis taurica - 3,1%) and gastropods (Lacerta agilis – 20,0%). In our opinion, the variety of the trophic spectrum of each species suggests that most likely there isn’t strong competition for food between these three species of lizards in their sympatric localities.
Douglass, G.N. (1891) -
Dowideit, D. (2005) -
Dowideit, D. (2006) -
Draud, M. & Ferner, J. (1994) -
Drescher, R. (1997) -
Drobny, M. (2002) -
Drobny, M. (2011) -
Drobny, M. (2015) -
Die Übersicht der bayerischen Vorkommen der Mauereidechse (Podarcis muralis) beschreibt das seit 1928 einzige bekannte autochthone Vorkommen in Oberaudorf im oberbayerischen Inntal. Es gehört der Subspezies „maculiventris“ an. Die Populationsgröße wird auf 400 bis 1000 Tiere geschätzt, die als relativ stabil angesehen wird. Naturschutzfachlich bedeutsam ist das Vorkommen, da es zentral an einem Primärhabitat (südexponierte Felswand) liegt. Das Habitat wird beschrieben. Untersuchungen fanden ein zweites bayerisches Vorkommen in etwa 4,4 Kilomater Entfernung. Dieses liegt in der Mitte zu dem Vorkommen in Kufstein und dem österreichischen Inntal.
Druelle, F. & Goyens, J. & Vasilopoulou-Kampitsi, M. & Aerts, P. (2019) -
While running, small animals frequently encounter large terrain variations relative to their body size, therefore, terrain variations impose important functional demands on small animals. Nonetheless, we have previously observed in lizards that running specialists can maintain a surprisingly good running performance on very uneven terrains. The relatively large terrain variations are offset by their capacity for leg adjustability that ensures a ‘smooth ride’ of the centre of mass (CoM). The question as to how the effect of an uneven terrain on running performance and locomotor costs differs between species exhibiting diverse body build and locomotor specializations remains. We hypothesise that specialized runners with long hind limbs can cross uneven terrain more efficiently than specialized climbers with a dorso-ventrally flattened body and equally short fore and hind limbs. This study reports 3D kinematics using high-speed videos (325 Hz) to investigate leg adjustability and CoM movements in two lacertid lizards (Acanthodactylus boskianus, running specialist; Podarcis muralis, climbing specialist). We investigated these parameters while the animals were running on a level surface and over a custom-made uneven terrain. We analysed the CoM dynamics, we evaluated the fluctuations of the positive and negative mechanical energy, and we estimated the overall cost of transport. Firstly, the results reveal that the climbers ran at lower speeds on flat level terrain but had the same cost of transport as the runners. Secondly, contrary to the running specialists, the speed was lower and the energy expenditure higher in the climbing specialists while running on uneven terrain. While leg movements adjust to the substrates’ variations and enhance the stability of the CoM in the running specialist, this is not the case in the climbing specialist. Although their legs are kept more extended, the amplitude of movement does not change, resulting in an increase of the movement of the CoM and a decrease in locomotor efficiency. These results are discussed in light of the respective (micro-)habitat of these species and suggest that energy economy can also be an important factor for small vertebrates.
Dudek, K. (2015) -
The common wall lizard is a new lacertid species in the Polish herpetofauna. However, the discovered populations seem to be introduced. In this article, I intend to describe a possible way of lizards dispersal through railways. I suppose that the common wall lizard may colonize new areas by freight trains as an incidental cargo from quarries they inhabit.
Duflos, S. (2000) -
Duguy, R. (1967) -
Dumbović, V. & Posavec Vukelić, V. & Duplić, A. & Katušić, L. & Jelić, D. & Boršić, I. & Partl A. (2009) -
Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, G. (1839) -
Dünzen, H. (1939) -
In der Milz der Eidechse (Abb. 4a) ist keine Sonderung in weiße und in rote Pulpa nachweisbar. Auch kommt eine Unterteilung der roten Pulpa in besondere Pulpastränge hier noch nicht vor. In dieser Hinsicht ist also die Pulpa der menschlichen Milz komplizierter gebaut (s. Abschnitt Schlußfolgerung beiBlechschmidt 1937).
In der Milzkapsel fehlen Muskeln.
Die Verteilung der Arterien und der arteriellen Kapillaren erfolgt gleichmäßig (Abb. 6).
Die größeren Arterien teilen sich vorwiegend dichotomisch (Abb. 6,P); die Aufteilung in die Kapillaren erfolgt pinselartig („Kapillarbüschel“ Abb. 6,KB).
In der Eidechsenmilz gibt es keine Kapillarhülsen.
Die arteriellen Kapillaren enden im Reticulum (Abb. 10).
Im Reticulum sind engere und weitere Maschen zu unterscheiden. Letztere ordnen sich zu röhrenförmigen Gebilden — denReticulumröhrchen (Abb. 10,R).
Die in der Eidechsenmilz vorhandenen venösen Sinus (Abb. 10,US) stehen nur selten untereinander in Verbindung. Ihr Anteil an der Masse des Reticulums ist gering. Ihre Wand entspricht der vonS. Mollier für andere niedere Wirbel angegebenen Bauweise.
Die Pulpavenen (Abb. 11,PV) besitzen keine Muskularis. Ihr Bindegewebe ist während ihres weiteren Verlaufes im Inneren der Milz auffallend schwach. Hier werden diese Venen nur durch die Arterien gestützt (Abb. 12, V). Eigentliche Trabekel gibt es nicht.
Durand, J. & Legrand, A. & Tort, M. & Thiney, A. & Michniewicz, R.J. & Coulon, A. & Aubret, F. (2012) -
Alteration in anti-predatory behaviour following geographic isolation has been observed in a number of taxa. Such alteration was attributed to the effect of relaxed selection in the novel environment, reinforced by the cost of anti-predatory behaviours. We studied aspects of anti-snake behaviour in 987 adult and juvenile wall lizards Podarcis muralis from two mainland areas (heavy snake predatory pressure) and two islands (low snake predatory pressure), isolated from the mainland 5000 and 7000 years ago. We conducted a scented retreat site choice experiment using the odours of five different snake species (saurophagous, piscivorous or generalist feeder). Mainland lizards avoided shelters scented by saurophagous snakes, but not those scented by non saurophagous snake species. Long isolated lizards (7000 years ago) showed no anti-predator response to any snake, suggesting a total loss of anti-predatory behaviour towards saurophagous snakes. More recently isolated lizards (5000 years ago) however showed anti-snake behaviour towards a former sympatric adder species, and a tendency to avoid the scent of a sympatric generalist feeder snake. There was no difference in the anti-snake responses between adult and juvenile wall lizards from all four sites, suggesting a limited role for experience (behavioural plasticity) in the expression of anti-snake behaviour in wall lizards.
Dürigen, B. (1891) -
Durmus, S.H. (1999) -
In this study, the samples of the populations from the Ankara and Bursa regions have been examined, for the first time, from the comparative taxonomic point of view. After comparison of the two separate populations, which are quite far away from each other, it has been seen that the above mentioned populations do not show important differences from each other at the species level. However, some nuance in body size have been noticed between these two populations. Hence, we may say that P. muralis populations in the Ankara and Bursa regions are not different from the nominate subspecies (P.m. muralis).
Dürst, T. (2019) -
Džukić, G. (1972) -
Džukić, G. (1977) -
Džukić, G. & Kalezić, M. (2004) -
Dzukic, G. & Kalezic, M.L. (2001) -
Eckstein, H.-P. (1995) -
Edgar, P. (2010) -
Edsman, L. (1986) -
For territoriality to occur it is generally agreed that the territory must contain some limited and defensible resource which gives the owner a benefit that exceeds the cost of defence. Examples of such resources are food, shelter, oviposition sites, sleeping places and burrows to hide in. In the family Lacertidae, territorial behaviour is com- paratively rare /Stamps, 1977/ but it has been reported for Podarcis muralis /Weber, 1957; Boag, 1973/. This study focuses on possible limiting resources within the terri- tory and on the effect of territoriality on male reproductive success in wall lizards.
Edsman, L. (1990) -
Edsman, L. (2001) -
Egerer, E. (2015) -
Die Mauereidechse besitzt innerhalb der Gattung Podarcis das größte und am weitesten nach Norden reichende Verbreitungsgebiet. Im Taygetos-Gebirge auf der Halbinsel Mani im Süden der Peloponnes (Griechenland) befindet sich das südlichste Vorkommen von Podarcis muralis überhaupt. Hier lebt sie vom Mittel- bis ins Hochgebirge in Höhen von mindestens 800-2.200 m ü. NN, bis weit über die Baumgrenze hinaus.
Egerer, E. & Schulte, U. (2011) -
Eggert, B. (1936) -
Ehrl, A. & Wolf, M. (1987) -
Eichwald, E. (1840) -
Eimer, T. (1881) -
Ellwanger, G. (2004) -
Engel, E. & Gassert, F. & Proess, R. (2007) -
The present distribution atlas summarizes the knowledge of the reptile fauna in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The actual (after 2000) and historical distribution of the 6 species are presented in distribution maps (using squares of 5 x 5 km) and are discussed. Each species is described and information about its ecological requirements and its biology are given. Additionally, we mention the main threats to the species, give recommendations regarding their conservation an present a new Red List of the Reptile Fauna of Luxembourg
Engelmann, K. (1960) -
Engelmann, W.-E. & Kabisch, K. (1973) -
Serum proteins of Lacerta v. viridis, L. v. meridionalis, L. trilineata, L. agilis, L. vivipara, L. taurica, L. muralis, Ophisaurus apodus, and Anguis fragilis were separated by polyacrylamidae disc electrophoresis. Among the lacertids, Lacerta viridis and Lacerta trilineata show greater similarities. Ophisaurus apodus and Anguis fragilis are characterized by praealbumins.
Engelstoft, C. & Robinson, J. & Fraser, D. & Hanke, G. (2020) -
The Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis) has existed in southwestern British Columbia since 1967, but expanded its range rapidly in the last decade. In 2006, P. muralis was thought restricted to 4 populations on southeastern Vancouver Island: 3 on the Saanich Peninsula and 1 in the Triangle Mountain area. However, increased reporting and exploration led to the recognition that these populations have merged. Further, P. muralis have also appeared along the eastern side of Vancouver Island north to Campbell River; and on Denman Island. In 2015, P. muralis was also reported from two BC mainland locations: Osoyoos in the southern Okanagan, and the city of Vancouver. Introduced lacertid populations are reported to spread from their points of origin at a relatively slow rate (∼1 km every 10 y), so given that P. muralis has been found at least 200 km north, 300 km west, and from Vancouver Island to Denman Island and the British Columbia mainland over the last 52 y, human-assisted dispersal likely contributed to its apparently rapid radial expansion in southwestern BC. As they expand into rural and protected areas on Vancouver Island, P. muralis may have increasing opportunities to interact with the native Northern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria coerulea). Where E. coerulea and P. muralis coexist on southern Vancouver Island, the latter seems more abundant, which raises concern and warrants study.
Erber, J. (1864) -
Eroğlu, A.I. & Bülbül, U. & Kurnaz, M. & Odabaş, Y. (2018) -
The present study was designed to compare the life history traits of two Podarcis muralis populations located at sites of different elevation. The age at maturity was similar in both populations, whereas longevity was found to be lower in the lowland one (Dereköy). The males and females of both populations had a similar snout-vent length (SVL) and mean age. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) was weak in the highland population, males being slightly larger than females, whereas a strong male-biased SSD was observed in the lowland one. The growth coefficient (k) and growth rates were similar in both populations. This study indicates that the age at maturation (2-3 years) and growth rates (2.37 mm/year) are similar in two populations of P. muralis exposed to different climatic and environmental conditions. Longevity was slightly higher in the highland population (16 years) compared to the lowland one (14 years).
Escala, M.C. & Perez Mendia, J.L. (1979) -
Escoriza, D. (2020) -
Background. The western Mediterranean archipelagos have a rich endemic fauna, which includes five species of reptiles. Most of these archipelagos were colonized since early historic times by anthropochoric fauna, such as ship rats (Rattus rattus). Here, I evaluated the influence of ship rats on the occurrence of island reptiles, including non-endemic species.
Methodology. I analysed a presence-absence database encompassing 159 islands (Balearic Islands, Provence Islands, Corso-Sardinian Islands, Tuscan Archipelago, and Galite) using Bayesian-regularized logistic regression.
Results. The analysis indicated that ship rats do not influence the occurrence of endemic island reptiles, even on small islands. Moreover, Rattus rattus co-occurred positively with two species of non-endemic reptiles, including a nocturnal gecko, a guild considered particularly vulnerable to predation by rats. Overall, the analyses showed a very different pattern than that documented in other regions of the globe, possibly attributable to a long history of coexistence.
Mediterranean islands have complex reptile assemblages, but little is known about the factors that determine their organization. In this study, the structure of as-semblages of Squamata was evaluated based on their species richness and two measures of phylogenetic diversity (variability and clustering). I evaluated the com-position of the assemblages comparing distinct biogeographic subregions within the Mediterranean: Adriatic, Aegean, Balearic, Corsica–Sardinia, Crete, Gulf of Gabés, Ionian Sea, Ligurian Sea, Malta, Sicily, and Tyrrhenian Sea. The effect of island en-vironments and geographical isolation on the diversity metrics was assessed using generalized linear models. The analyses indicated that species richness was mostly influenced by island area and geographical isolation. Assemblages on smaller islands were poorer in species and phylogenetically dispersed, possibly as an effect of inter-specific competition. The species composition of the assemblages was determined by similar environmental drivers within the biogeographic subregions, including is-land area, island elevation, geographical isolation, and aridity. In several subregions, significant patterns of phylogenetic attraction were found in species co-occurrences, caused by the limits imposed by the island size on large predatory species
Ewald, W.F. (1906) -
Fahl, A.-K. (2014) -
Die Mauereidechse (Podarcis muralis LAURENTI, 1768) gilt in Deutschland als stark gefährdet und ist europaweit streng geschützt. Ein Bestandsrückgang und eine Verinselung autochthoner Populationen aufgrund Lebensraumverlustes sind in Baden-Württemberg festzustellen. Daher wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit das Habitat einer autochthonen Population am Heidelberger Neckarufer zwischen der Theodor-Heuss-Brücke und der Alten Brücke auf Eignung und Qualität überprüft, bisherige Pflegemaßnahmen des Biotops evaluiert und der Zustand der Mauereidechsen beurteilt. Im Laufe einer dreimonatigen Untersuchungszeit wurden 118 Individuen der Mauereidechse gefangen, makroskopisch untersucht und vermessen. Die Erkennung von Wiederfängen erfolgte anhand Fotografien, Farbmarkierungen und individueller Merkmale. Derzeit leben die Mauereidechsen der untersuchten Population auf einer Mauerfläche von maximal 2264 m². Die für Mauereidechsen wichtigen Strukturen, wie ausreichend Sonnenplätze, spaltenreiches Mauerwerk und sandiges Substrat zur Eiablage, sind auf mindestens 31,4 % der besiedelten Fläche vollständig vorhanden. Die Populationsgröße beträgt ca. 193 Tiere und hat sich seit der letzten umfassenden Untersuchung im Jahre 1997 verdoppelt. Eine erfolgreiche Reproduktion konnte anhand zahlreicher Jungtiere und einem Anteil von 44,1 % subadulter Tiere bestätigt werden. Geschlechtsabhängige morphologische Merkmale der adulten Eidechsen in dieser Population sind ein statistisch sehr signifikanter Unterschied in der Kopf-Rumpf-Länge und hoch signifikante Unterschiede in Gewicht und Kopflänge zugunsten der männlichen Tiere. Eine kupferrote Unterseitenfärbung ist in dieser Population dominierend, nur eines der untersuchten Individuen wies eine rein gelbe Unterseitenfärbung auf. Mindestens zwei melanistische Jungtiere konnten beobachtet werden. 69,5 % aller Individuen wiesen eine Schwanzautotomie auf, zudem konnte eine Zehverlustrate von 45,8 % und in Einzelfällen weitere Verletzungen festgestellt werden. Ein Milbenbefall (Deutonymphen von Gamasiden) konnte bei 39,8 % der Mauereidechsen diagnostiziert werden. Hierbei besteht eine statistisch hoch signifikante Abhängigkeit vom Geschlecht mit mehr infizierten Männchen. Ein auf die Mauereidechsen negativer Einfluss durch Passanten wird aufgrund der Beobachtung von Fangversuchen vermutet. Eine weitgehende Isolierung der Population aufgrund natürlicher und anthropogener Barrieren ist sehr wahrscheinlich. Grundsätzlich ist der Zustand der Population als gut zu bewerten. Jedoch zeigt das Vorkommen von subadulten Individuen in ungeeigneten Habitaten und eine stellenweise sehr hohe Populationsdichte das Erreichen der Kapazitätsgrenze in diesem Gebiet an. Die bisher durchgeführten Pflegemaßnahmen sind positiv zu bewerten, eine Fortführung ist zur Aufrechterhaltung der jetzigen Populationsgröße notwendig. Künftige Maßnahmen sollten auf eine Ausweitung der Pflegemaßnahmen auf weitere Teilbereiche des Biotops und eine Arealerweiterung in Richtung Alte Brücke abzielen, um die für die Eidechsen verfügbare Fläche zu vergrößern. Auch sollten Passanten besser über den Schutzstatus der Mauereidechse informiert werden. Auf eine Komplettsanierung der Mauerflächen sollte künftig verzichtet werden. Langfristig sollte eine Verbindung der Mauereidechsenpopulation zum nächstgelegenen Vorkommen am Philosophenweg in etwa 500 m Entfernung angestrebt werden. Somit könnten potentiell negative Folgen einer verringerten genetischen Diversität aufgrund der Isolierung vermieden und die Populationen dauerhaft stabilisiert werden.
Fahl, A.-K. (2016) -
In the course of an ecological survey, high toe loss rates were detected in a population of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) in Heidelberg. In nearly 46 percent of the lizards captured (n = 118) a loss of at least one toe was observed, with females seeming to be more affected. Intraspecific conflicts due to high abundance of the species connected with expansion difficulties of the local population would be a possible explanation. Furthermore, a mite infestation with Ophionyssus saurarum, family Macronyssidae, affecting almost 40 percent of the lizards captured with males being statistically more affected was discovered in Baden-Württemberg for the first time. Despite these adverse influences, the population is stable and increased over the last years, due to professional maintenance of the habitat.
Farkas, B. & Buzás, B. (1997) -
Fasola, E. & Costa, S. & Santos, B. & Biaggini, M. & Deli, G. & Corti, C. & Ortiz-Santaliestra, M. & Lopes, I. (2016) -
Lizard species inhabiting agroecosystems may experience stress associated with agricultural management, like habitat destruction and pesticides, which may affect animals’ health. Blood cells variability can be interpreted as an early response to stress. Accordingly, this work intended to assess the influence of differently managed fields in the blood cell counts of two lizard species: Podarcis muralis and Podarcis siculus. For this, organisms were captured from three olive orchards with different intensification degrees (organic farming, lightly managed and intensively managed), and from a conventional vineyard, all located in the same agricultural area at Montepaldi, Florence, central Italy. Individuals’ blood, collected from the caudal vein, was used to prepare smears. White blood cells (WBC) were counted by determining the abundance of each class: agranulocytes (lymphocytes, monocytes) and granulocytes (heterophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils). A less- than-significant tendency in WBC reduction from reference (organic olive orchards) to intensively managed fields was observed, especially for lymphocytes. Sex-dependent differences were found; in both species, males showed larger heterophil values and neutrophil percentages than females. But, when comparing the two species, independently of the sampling site, they did not show significant differences, except for absolute basophil counts and basophil percentages, which resulted higher in P. siculus than in P. muralis. Haemo-parasitic load was higher in P. muralis than in P. siculus, and it also differed among sites, being highest in individuals from the organic farming site. Parasite load was related to the number of granulocytes, as expected, considering that these cells acts against that kind of infections. Despite this, major differences in WBC counts in individuals of the genus Podarcis, were driven by variation of agranulocytes rather than granulocyte cells. Further research is necessary to increase sample size in order to confirm the observed trend in total WBC reduction in individuals living in agriculture-managed fields.
Fasola, E. & Scali, S. & Ferraguti, M. (2016) -
Fattorini, S. (2010) -
The herpetofauna of the Tuscan Islands (Central Italy) is well known and represents an ideal subject to understand the role of current and historical factors responsible for biogeographical patterns in a complex archipelago. Multidimensional Scaling, cluster analyses, species-area relationships, Mantel tests and co-occurrence statistics were used to investigate the influence of current geography and Pleistocene connections with the mainland on the structure of insular communities. Although reptile colonization likely occurred via land bridges for islands that were connected to the mainland in the Pleistocene, a long time relaxation (species extinction by island habitat loss after disconnection and new colonization by over sea dispersal or human-assisted introductions) equilibrated the faunas according to island area. Biogeographical similarities among islands increased for islands located farther from Corsica and Tuscany, thus suggesting that, for remote islands, interisland faunal exchanges occurred more frequently than mainland-island colonization. Also, a possible influence of Pleistocene geography emerged more clearly when populations suspected to be introduced by man were removed. Co-occurrence analyses indicated a nonrandom distribution influenced by island area and distance, suggesting that the time elapsed since post-Pleistocene disconnection may have reshaped biogeographical similarities by an increase in competition resulting from reduction in island areas and introduction of certain species. From a conservation viewpoint, the land-bridge distribution of organisms with poor mobility should be carefully considered in conservation biogeography, because depletion of island populations cannot be balanced by new immigrations from the mainland, whereas introduction of nonnative species may have a negative impact on the original fauna.
Federschmidt, A. (1989) -
Fedier, M. (2015) -
Mit Hilfe von Feldaufnahmen wurde im Jahr 2011 die Verbreitung der Mauereidechse (Podarcis muralis) im oberen Urner Reusstal sowie im Maderanertal und im gebiet Arni dokumentiert um zu überprüfen, ob sich die Art in diesem gebiet in den letzten Jahren ausbreiten konnte. Zudem wurden die Habitatpräferenzen der Art untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Mauereidechse das Gebiet von Amsteg bis Wassen beinahe flächendeckend besiedelt. Weit verbreitet ist die Art darüber hinaus im Maderanertal. Dort befindet sich zwischen Golzern und Waldiberg der höchst gelegene Fundort auf ca. 1.500 m ü.M. Isolierte Vorkommen finden sich zudem auf Arne. Am häufigsten werden Trockenmauern and anthropogene Steinfluren als Lebensraum genutzt. Derzeit kann nicht entschieden werden, ob sich die Mauereidechse tatsächlich ausgebreitet hat. Für eine gesicherte Aussage sind zu wenig historische Date vorhanden. Einige Fundorte wurden dokumentiert, die in der Literatur bislang keine Erwähnung fanden.
Fedorov, A.N. & Fedorova, L.V. & Grechko, V.V. & Ryabinin, D.M. & Sheremet`eva, V.A. & Bannikova, A.A. & Lomov, A.A. & Ryskov, A.P. & Darevsky, I.S. (1999) -
A specially optimized restriction analysis of
highly repetitive DNA elements, called DNA taxonprint,
was applied for phylogenetic study of primates and lizards.
It was shown that electrophoretic bands of DNA
repeats revealed by the taxonprint technique have valuable
properties for molecular systematics. Approximately
half of taxonprint bands (TB) are invariable and
do not disappear from the genomes during evolution or
change spontaneously. Presumably these invariable
bands are restriction fragments of dispersed DNA repeats.
Another group represents variable taxonprint
bands that differ even between closely related species.
These variable bands are probably represented by tandem
DNA repeats and could be used as species-specific
markers. It was shown that taxonprint bands are independent
characters since the appearance of a new taxonprint
band does not change the previous band pattern.
Phylogenetic reconstruction carried out on taxonprint data
demonstrated that this approach could be of general utility
for molecular systematics and species identification.
Feiner, N. & Rago, A. & While, G.M. & Uller, O.T. (2002) -
Populations adapting independently to the same environment provide important insights into the repeatability of evolution at different levels of biological organization. In the 20th century, common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) from southern and western Europe were introduced to England, north of their native range. Non-native populations of both lineages have adapted to the shorter season and lower egg incubation temperature by increasing the absolute rate of embryonic development. Here we tested if this adaptation is accompanied by signatures of directional selection in the transcriptomes of early embryos and, if so, if non-native populations show adaptive convergence. Embryos from non-native populations exhibited gene expression profiles consistent with directional selection following introduction, but different genes were affected in the two lineages. Despite this, the functional enrichment of genes that changed their expression following introduction showed substantial similarity between lineages, and was consistent with mechanisms that should promote developmental rate. Moreover, the divergence between non-native and native populations was enriched for genes that were temperature-responsive in native populations. These results indicate that small populations are able to adapt to new climatic regimes, but the means by which they do so may largely be determined by founder effects and other sources of genetic drift.
Feiner, N. & Rago, A. & While, G.M. & Uller, O.T. (2017) -
Many features of the development of reptiles are affected by temperature, but very little is known about how incubation temperature affects gene expression. Here, we provide a detailed case study of gene expression profiles in common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) embryos developing at stressfully low (15°C) versus benign (24°C) temperature. For maximum comparability between the two temperature regimes, we selected a precise developmental stage early in embryogenesis defined by the number of somites. We used a split‐clutch design and lizards from four different populations to evaluate the robustness of temperature‐responsive gene expression profiles. Embryos incubated at stressfully low incubation temperature expressed on average 20% less total RNA than those incubated at benign temperatures, presumably reflecting lower rates of transcription at cool temperature. After normalizing for differences in total amounts of input RNA, we find that approximately 50% of all transcripts show significant expression differences between the two incubation temperatures. Transcripts with the most extreme changes in expression profiles are associated with transcriptional and translational regulation and chromatin remodeling, suggesting possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying acclimation of early embryos to cool temperature. We discuss our findings in light of current advances in the use of transcriptomic data to study how individuals acclimatize and populations adapt to thermal stress.
Feiner, N. & Uller, T. & Aubret, F. (2016) -
Feiner, N. & While, G. & Uller, T. (2016) -
Oviparous lizards that bury their eggs in the ground require a certain range of soil-temperature for successful hatching. Wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) from Italy and France have recently been introduced to the UK, where embryos have to cope with drastically colder soil temperatures compared to their native range. Incubation experiments have demonstrated that lizards introduced from France and Italy have evolved faster developmental rates at low temperatures compared to their native counterparts. To understand the mechanisms underlying this accelerated developmental rate, we set out to analyse gene expression in wall lizard embryos. We applied a split-clutch experiment with native and introduced lizards of both French and Italian origin, and incubated eggs at either cold or warm temperatures. Embryos were collected at a precisely defined developmental stage (limb-bud stage) and subjected to RNA sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and expression levels for 14,000 transcripts were assessed and compared among the 48 samples. Using this dataset, we addressed the following questions: (1) Is there convergence in gene expression between the independently introduced populations? (2) Do these genes show an ancestral temperature responsiveness in their expression? Our results show that introduced wall lizards from Italy and France have convergently evolved regulatory changes in response to cool incubation conditions. Transcripts that show ancestral plasticity in native populations are particularly likely to show evolutionary responses. Thus, our study indicates that adaptation to cold climate is likely to capitalize on environmentally responsive genes, but also that genes that ancestrally are constituently expressed quickly can become regulated by temperature.
Fejervary, G.J. v. (1909) -
Fejervary, G.J. von (1920) -
Felke, M. (2005) -
Fennell, S. & Ferner, J.W. (2009) -
Fenske, R. & Kretzmar, K. (1993) -
Fenske, R. & Kretzmar, K. (1994) -
Ferenc, B. & Balázs, V. (2012) -
Fernández-Guiberteau, D. & Carrero Casado, F. (2016) -
It is provided cases of death feigning (=thanatosis) in Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus occidentalis and Natrix maura.
Fernandez-Guiberteau, D. & Perez-Sorribes, L. & Garcia-Salmerón, A. & Loras, F. & Mompart, J.M. (2017) -
The present note announces a new location of the common wall lizard Podarcis muralis in the UTM 10x10 grid (DG61) in the Sant Celoni township (Vallés Oriental, Catalunya), which is located at a low altitude (77 msnm). The isolation and the spread of the known data (old data the majority) and the ex- tinction of other locations in the Tordera medium and low basin, was a little bit disappointing. But now we can demonstrate that the common wall lizard, is still surviving. The study, and management by the administration of this population, and its habitats would be necessary in order to conserve it. Moreover, the determination of the conservation state of other Podarcis muralis isolated populations in low alti-
tude locations would be interesting.
Fernández-Rodriguez, I. & Brana, F. (2020) -
Autotomy has evolved independently several times in different animal lineages. It frequently involves immediate functional costs, so regeneration evolved in many instances to restore the functionality of that body part. Caudal autotomy is a widespread antipredator strategy in lizards, although it may affect energy storage, locomotion dynamics, or survival in future encounters with predators. Here, we assessed the effect of tail loss on the locomotor performance of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis ), as well as the recovery of locomotor functionality of lizards with regenerated tails, and the movement dynamics of shed tails that were either intact or having regenerated portions. Tail loss had no effect on locomotion over unhindered spaces, possibly due to compensation between a negative effect on the stride of front limbs, and a positive effect of losing mass and friction force. We found a clear negative impact of tail loss on locomotion in spaces with interspersed obstacles, in which tailed lizards jumped larger distances when leaving the obstacles. Besides, lizards that used the tail to push off the ground were able to approach the obstacles from further, so that the tail seemed to be useful when used during jumping. Regeneration fully restores lizard`s locomotor capacities, but tail antipredator value, as indicated by the intensity of post‐autotomic movements, is only partially retrieved. From these results, we propose that, together with the recovery of post‐autotomy antipredator capacities, the restoration of the organismal locomotor performance may have been an important, yet frequently neglected factor in the evolution of lizard`s regeneration ability.
Ferner, J.W. (2004) -
Several populations of lacertid lizards were introduced to the United States during the last century. Of these, the European wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) in Cincinnati, Ohio, and northern Kentucky and the Italian wall lizard (Podarcis sicula) on Long Island, NewYork, and in Topeka, Kansas, have become well established. These urban populations are successful in that they have little competition from native species and are pre-adapted for the climate at these latitudes. Local scientists are taking advantage of the opportunity to study the natural history and population ecology of these populations.
Ferner, J.W. & Ferner, J.P. (2002) -
Ferri, V. & Battisti, C. & Fanelli, G. (2017) -
An analysis of a 30-year dataset (1985–2014) concerning a herpetofauna assemblage studied in a site of conservation concern (Northern Italy) is reported with the aim of evidencing a trend in species richness which may reveal the most sensitive ones (i.e., the first to go extinct locally). Our results point to a progressive loss of species (nested species relaxation) which were not replaced over the study period and consequently to a decline in species richness. Among the amphibians, two thresholds in mean species richness were evident in the mid and late 1990s, respectively, whereas reptiles showed a significant threshold only at the end of the 1990s. An inductive hypothesis to explain the abrupt relaxation in species richness in the mid and late 1990s may involve a combination of `pulse` or `press` perturbations at different scales. Moreover, although our long-term standardized study suffers from some limitations, our data clearly indicate a different species-specific sensitivity which could be useful to identify focal species of conservation concern. However, further comparisons with data set collected from long-term and wide-ranging studies are needed to confirm our temporal thresholds, in order to infer a more general model from this local pattern.
Fiacchini, D. (2006) -
Fiacchinio, D. & Foglia, G. (2006) -
Fitzinger, L.I. (1826) -
Fitzinger, L.J. (1824) -
Flottmann, H.-J. (2010) -
Flottmann, H.-J. (2011) -
Flottmann, H.-J. & Flottmann-Stoll, A. (2015) -
Neben Rheinland-Pfalz und Baden-Württemberg zählt das Saarland zum Hauptverbreitungsgebiet der Mauereidechse in Deutschland. Dabei zählen insbesondere die Vorkommen im Nordwesten des Saarlandes an der Saarschleife seither zu den natürlichen Standorten im Bundesland. Im Übrigen ist u.a. die Besiedlung der meisten Bahnanlagen, zahlreicher Brachen der Montanindustrie und Bergbaufolgelandschaften, ehemalige und rezente Steinbrüche sowie teilweise auch Sandgruben, Kloster- oder Burgruinen und Ausgrabungsstätten nachgewiesen. Insbesondere das Eisenbahnnetz hat hier offensichtlich eine hohe Bedeutung in Bezug auf das Vernetzungspotential der Mauereidechse. Die Art gilt derzeit saarlandweit als ungefährdet.
Foekema, G.M.M. (1973) -
Font, E. & Barbosa, D. & Sampedro, C. & Carazo, P. (2012) -
Lacertid lizards have been hailed as a model system for the study of reptilian chemical communication. However, results obtained with the genus Podarcis, a diverse group of wall lizards with complex systematics, challenge emerging paradigms and caution against hasty generalizations. Here we review the available evidence on the role of chemical stimuli in male–female and male–male interactions in Iberian Podarcis. Males of several species can discriminate between chemicals left on substrates by females of their own or a different species, suggesting that differences in female chemical cues may underlie species recognition in this group. Females, on the other hand, do not respond differentially to conspecific and congeneric male scent marks. Males of Podarcis liolepis use scent marks to recognize rivals individually, evaluate their competitive ability (i.e., body size), and assess the threat posed by each individual rival neighbor. In contrast, females do not exhibit a preference for territories scent marked by larger (i.e., more competitive) males, which suggests a limited role for male scent marks in pre-copulatory mate choice. This behavioral sex difference is consistent with detailed neuro-ethological evidence showing that chemosensory brain areas in P. liolepis are sexually dimorphic. The accessory olfactory bulbs are larger (both in absolute and relative terms) in males than in females, probably as a result of sex-specific rates of adult neurogenesis. In both sexes, cell proliferation undergoes seasonal cycles that may have evolved to satisfy increased chemosensory demands at particular times of the year. Overall, and against recent generalizations, these results suggest that male scent marks have been shaped mainly by strong intrasexual selection.
Font, E. & Carazo, P. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Kramer, M. (2012) -
Reports an error in `Predator-elicited foot shakes in wall lizards ( Podarcis muralis): Evidence for a pursuit-deterrent function` by Enrique Font, Pau Carazo, Guillem Pérez i de Lanuza and Matthew Kramer ( Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2012[Feb], Vol 126, 87-96). Figure 2 should have been represented in color. The online version has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-04021-001.) Under certain circumstances, prey may inform potential predators of their unprofitability by means of pursuit-deterrent signals. The evidence for pursuit-deterrent signaling in reptiles is scant and taxonomically biased. Wall lizards, Podarcis muralis (Squamata: Lacertidae) produce several distinct types of stereotyped foot shake displays, of which one, performed in antipredator contexts, is a likely candidate for a pursuit-deterrent function. We investigated this possibility by recording the responses of lizards in the field to a slowly approaching human acting as a surrogate predator. In addition to starting and flight initiation distances, we measured the presence of foot shakes, the leg that was shaken, and the distance from the observer at which the display was performed (display distance). Of a total of 484 approaches, 109 (22.5%) elicited foot shake displays. Roughly half the lizards displayed from the location where they were first sighted, while the other half moved a short distance, then displayed. There was no left-right preference in the leg used to display, but most lizards displayed with the leg closer to the approaching predator. Juveniles and subadults had smaller flight initiation distances than adult lizards. There were no sex-related differences in starting or flight initiation distances, but females, for a given distance, were more likely to display than males. Foot shake display frequency declined abruptly at 1 m. If lizards waited until the surrogate predator was this close, they mostly fled without displaying. Our results show that antipredator foot shaking in P. muralis is consistent with expectations from pursuit-deterrent theory.
Font, E. & Carazo, P. & Pérezu i de Lanuza, G. & Kramer, M. (2012) -
Report an error in «Predator-elicited foot shakes in wall lizards (Podarcis muralis): Evidence for a pursuit-deterrent function» by Enrique Font, Pau Carazo, Guillem Pérez i de Lanuza and Matthew Kramer ( Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2012[Feb], Vol 126, 87-96). Figure 2 should have been represented in color. The online version has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-04021-001.) Under certain circumstances, prey may inform potential predators of their unprofitability by means of pursuit-deterrent signals. The evidence for pursuit-deterrent signaling in reptiles is scant and taxonomically biased. Wall lizards, Podarcis muralis (Squamata: Lacertidae) produce several distinct types of stereotyped foot shake displays, of which one, performed in antipredator contexts, is a likely candidate for a pursuit-deterrent function. We investigated this possibility by recording the responses of lizards in the field to a slowly approaching human acting as a surrogate predator. In addition to starting and flight initiation distances, we measured the presence of foot shakes, the leg that was shaken, and the distance from the observer at which the display was performed (display distance). Of a total of 484 approaches, 109 (22.5%) elicited foot shake displays. Roughly half the lizards displayed from the location where they were first sighted, while the other half moved a short distance, then displayed. There was no left-right preference in the leg used to display, but most lizards displayed with the leg closer to the approaching predator. Juveniles and subadults had smaller flight initiation distances than adult lizards. There were no sex-related differences in starting or flight initiation distances, but females, for a given distance, were more likely to display than males. Foot shake display frequency declined abruptly at 1 m. If lizards waited until the surrogate predator was this close, they mostly fled without displaying. Our results show that antipredator foot shaking in P. muralis is consistent with expectations from pursuit-deterrent theory.
Fontanet, X. & Matallanas, J. (1985) -
Fonteyne, J.J. de la (1959) -
Forman, F. (1981) -
Foster, J. (2015) -
Francois, R. (1999) -
Frank, R. & Edelman, M. (2009) -
Frank, R. & Edelman, M. (2015) -
Franke, E. (1999) -
Franke,E. & Franke, T. (2004) -
Franzen, M. (1990) -
Franzen, M. (2016) -
In Bavaria, the common wall lizard is only known from two native populations, both located in the Inn valley close to the Austrian border. The area houses the northernmost and only German populations of the South Alpine wall lizard clade (Podarcis muralis maculiventris West). I conducted a survey in the town of Kiefersfelden, where the species was discovered as late as 2002. A total of 227 records spread over much of the town were obtained in 2014 and 2016. Most specimens were found in anthropogenic habitats (97% of all sightings) such as old stone walls along roads, in gardens and graveyards, a retaining wall, bridgeheads, piles of stones and wood, boulders along the embankments of the Inn river and the Kieferbach, and the gravel bed of a railway. By contrast, only 3% of all specimens were spotted at natural rocky slopes. All habitats are apparently well connected and the overall population appears to be viable. Most specimens observed were presumed to belong to the native South Alpine clade but some green-backed individuals of a presumably non-native lineage were also observed within a dense population of brown-backed individuals. This indicates that at least locally an introgression of a non-native lineage has already occurred. Due to the high conservation relevance of the local population a management plan is proposed. This should contain a comprehensive genetic mapping and monitoring of the wall lizards of the whole area, followed by a differentiated management of confirmed native and non-native sub-populations. Native sub-populations should be supported by conservation measures, whereas at sites of non-native lineages habitats should be degraded and even the removing of non-native individuals should be considered.
Franzen, M. & Schulte, U. (2019) -
Frazer, J.F.D. (1949) -
Fretey, J. (1986) -
Frissen-Moors, C.M.M. (2009) -
Frissen, D. & Moors, C. & Tilmans, R.A.M. (2009) -
Distribution: An indigenous population of the common
wall lizard is present only in the southern city of Maastricht,
where it reaches its northern distribution limit. The
common wall lizard is distributed along old city walls, railway
embankments, industrial areas and the banks of the
Status: The common wall lizard is listed on the Red List as
critically endangered. It is strictly protected under Dutch
legislation, the Bern Convention (Annex ii) and the Habitats
Directive (Annex iv). The common wall lizard is
present in less than 1% of the Dutch 5×5 km grid cells.
Within the city of Maastricht 77% of the known locations
have disappeared during the last century. The decrease is
caused by the demolition of most old city walls and fortifications,
a lack of management and large scale renovations
of the remaining walls. Around 1980 the total Netherlands
populations consisted of less than 100 animals. Around
1990 the indigenous population had grown to some 140
animals. In 2004 the population size was estimated to be
around 900 due to good habitat management, favourable
weather conditions and a higher research intensity. Numbers
have declined slightly since then, but new locations
have been colonised. The situation is much more favourable
than in the 1970s and 1980s. The species is helped by using
special techniques when restoring old walls and by a well
thought-out management of the vegetation by extensive
sheep grazing and mowing. The special way of consolidating
old walls together with the vegetation management
proved to be very successful.
Remarks: Common wall lizards in Maastricht differ from
those in nearby Belgian and German populations by their
belly colour. Practically all Maastricht males have red bellies.
During the long period that this population has been
studied, very few males with white or yellow bellies have
been found; colours that are common in neighbouring foreign
populations. This might be the consequence of long
term isolation. Maastricht animals are slightly smaller than
animals in neighbouring countries.
There are several introduced populations of common wall
lizards in the Netherlands. The introduced animals originate
from different central and southern European countries.
Even some 220 km north of Maastricht a large breeding
group of introduced animals is present.
Froer, E. (1980) -
Froesch-Franzon, P. (1982) -
Froesch-Franzon, P. (1983) -
Frommhold, E. (1960) -
Frommhold, E. (1962) -
Frömming, E. (1954) -
Frör, E. (1982) -
Fuhn, J.E. (1940) -
Fuhrmann, M. (2005) -
Fuhrmann, M.& Thiele, R. & Tauchert, J. (2007) -
Fumagalli, M. (1952) -
Funke, O. (1996) -
An unusual behavioural interaction between a female of Lacerta bilineata and a male of Podarcis muralis is described.
Funke, O. (2001) -
Furieri, P. (1964) -
Gachet, H. (1833) -
Gadeau de Kerville, H. (1894) -
Galan, P. (1983) -
Galán, P. (2005) -
Galan, P. (2005) -
The main threats to the amphibians and reptiles of Galicia (NW Spain) are studied in relation to the information obtained during the last 30 years (1975-2005). The most negative factors affecting amphibians and reptiles in this territory are the human alteration of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and the introduction of exotic species (mainly freshwater crustaceans and fishes). These menaces have led to the extinction of some Galician populations of amphibian and reptiles. Other factors, such as emergent diseases, can be very important, but they have not been studied yet. This last threat is one of the main causes for the global amphibian decline. The recent status of the Galician herpetofauna is also analysed. According to the main population declines and areal reduction observed, the most endangered amphibian species is Pelobates cultripes. Other amphibians, such as Chioglossa lusitanica, Rana iberica and Rana temporaria, are also importantly put at risk. The most endangered reptile species is Emys orbicularis. The restricted and limited Galician populations of Lacerta vivipara, Chalcides bedriagai and Vipera latasti are also threatened. The available information for other reptile species (Blanus cinereus, Psammodromus hispanicus, etc.), is still very scarce, but it is possible that their situation is also precarious. The particular status of the insular populations of amphibians and reptiles from the islands off the Galician coast is also analysed.
Galeotti, P. & Pellitteri-Rosa, D. & Sacchi, R. & Gentilli, A. & Pupin, J. & Rubolini, D. & Fasola, M. (2010) -
In polymorphic species of animals, colour morphs may show alternative physiological properties, and hence evolve or be maintained as an indirect response to selection exerted on these physiological attributes. In this study, we investigated if different colour morphs (white, red and yellow) of the polymorphic common wall lizard differed in their physiological responses to a long-term stress by determining variation between capture and release in leukocytes profiles, haemoparasite loads and body condition of male and females maintained in captivity throughout the breeding season. We found that most blood parameters of lizards varied significantly following captivity, and this variation was sex-, morph- and size-dependent. In particular, the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio (H:L), a sensitive measure of immunodepression and long-term stress, varied significantly among yellow females, larger individuals significantly increasing and smaller individuals decreasing their H:L ratio after captivity. This trend was reversed in red females, where smaller individuals presented raised H:L index at release. Our study indicated that response to long-term stressful conditions, such as those induced by captivity, differed among common wall lizard colour morphs, implying a sex-, size-(i.e. age) and morph-specific sensitivity to stress, and hence a different physiological profile of colour morphs, which may contribute to the maintenance of colour polymorphism in this species.
Galeotti, P. & Sacchi, R. & Pellitteri-Rosa, D. & Bellati, A. & Cocca, W. & Gentilli, A. & Scali, S. & Fasola, M. (2013) -
Colour polymorphism (CP) is widespread in
animals, but mechanisms underlying morph evolution and
maintenance are not completely resolved. In reptiles, CP is
often genetically based and associated with alternative
behavioural strategies, mainly in males for most cases.
However, female colour morphs also display alternative
reproductive strategies associated with behavioural and
physiological traits, which may contribute to maintain CP
in the population. Both sexes of the common wall lizard
(Podarcis muralis) show three pure colour morphs, white,
yellow and red. Here, we looked for the effects of male and
female colour morphs on fitness traits of captive-breeding
pairs. All yellow-throated females laid clutches of many
small eggs and produced many light offspring, behaving as
r-strategists, whereas white-throated females laid clutches
of few large eggs and produced few heavy offspring,
behaving as K-strategists. Red-throated females adopted a
conditional Kr-strategy depending on their size/age. These
basic female strategies were modulated in relation to mate
morph: white females had the best fitness gain in terms of
viable offspring when mated to red males; mating between
yellow morphs yielded a greater breeding success than all
other morph crosses, but also lighter offspring; finally, red
females produced heavy progeny when paired with red or
white males, and light offspring in pair with yellow males.
Gállego-Castejón, L. & López, S. (1983) -
Gangloff, E.J. & Sorlin, M. & Cordero, G.A. & Souchet, J. & Aubret, F. (2019) -
Warming climates are facilitating the range expansion of many taxa to habitats that were formerly thermally inhospitable, including to higher latitudes and elevations. The potential for such colonization, however, varies widely among taxa. Because environmental factors may interact to affect colonization potential, an understanding of underlying physiological and behavioral mechanisms is necessary to predict how species will respond to potentially suitable habitats. For example, temperature and oxygen availability will interact to shape physiological and performance traits. Our model species, the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, is a widely distributed ectotherm that continues to expand its range in Europe despite being limited by cold temperatures at high elevations and latitudes. To test the potential for organisms to expand to warming high-altitude environments, we conducted a transplant experiment to quantify the within-individual effects of high-altitude hypoxia on physiological and performance traits. Transplanted lizards maintained individual differences in physiological traits related to oxygen capacity and metabolism (hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and peak postexhaustion metabolic rate), as well as performance traits tied to fitness (sprint speed and running endurance). Although lizards altered blood biochemistry to increase oxygen-carrying capacity, their performance was reduced at high altitude. Furthermore, lizards at high altitude suffered a rapid loss of body condition over the 6-wk experiment, suggesting an energetic cost to hypoxia. Taken together, this demonstrates a limited potential for within-individual plasticity to facilitate colonization of novel high-altitude environments.
Garavelli, P. (1996) -
Garcia-Adell, G. & Roca, V. (1988) -
García-Cardenete, L. (2008) -
Garcia-Fernández, J. (1990) -
García-Muñoz, E. & Gomes, V. & Carretero, M.A. (2011) -
Garcia-Porta, J. & Irisarri, I. & Kirchner, M. & Rodríguez, A. & Kirchhof, S. & Brown, J.L. & MacLeod, A. & Turner, A.P. & Ahmadzadeh, F. & Albaladejo, G. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Riva, I. de la & Fawzi, A. & Galán, P. & Göçmen, B. & Harris, D.J. & Jiménez-Robles, O. & Joger, U. & Jovanović Glavaš, O. & Karış, M. & Koziel, G. & Künzel, S. & Lyra, M. & Miles, D. & Nogales, M. & Oğuz, M.A. & Paf (2019) -
Climatic conditions changing over time and space shape the evolution of organisms at multiple levels, including temperate lizards in the family Lacertidae. Here we reconstruct a dated phylogenetic tree of 262 lacertid species based on a supermatrix relying on novel phylogenomic datasets and fossil calibrations. Diversification of lacertids was accompanied by an increasing disparity among occupied bioclimatic niches, especially in the last 10 Ma, during a period of progressive global cooling. Temperate species also underwent a genome- wide slowdown in molecular substitution rates compared to tropical and desert-adapted lacertids. Evaporative water loss and preferred temperature are correlated with bioclimatic parameters, indicating physiological adaptations to climate. Tropical, but also some popu- lations of cool-adapted species experience maximum temperatures close to their preferred temperatures. We hypothesize these species-specific physiological preferences may con- stitute a handicap to prevail under rapid global warming, and contribute to explaining local lizard extinctions in cool and humid climates.
Garcia-Roa, R. & Carazo, P. (2017) -
Garcia-Roa, R. & Iglesias, M. & Gosa, A. & Cabido, C. (2015) -
Gardet, G. (1913) -
Gassert, F. (1999) -
Gassert, F. (2005) -
Gassert, F. & Hochkirch, A. (2011) -
Gassert, F. & Kautenburger, R. & Müller, P. (2002) -
Gassert, F. & Schulte, U. & Husemann, M. & Hochkirch, A. & Habel, J.C. (2015) -
Kaltphasen im Pleistozän überdauerten wärme-liebende Arten in südlichen Refugien und breiteten sich dann in Phasen der Erwärmung nach Norden aus. Dadurch kam es zur Differenzierung von genetischen Linien und zum Verlust von genetischer Diversität. Wir nutzten verschiedene genetische Marker, um die Auswirkungen der Arealdynamik bei der Mauereidechse, Podarcis muralis, von ihren südlichen Refugien bis zum nördlichen Arealrand zu untersuchen. Wir genotypisierten 282 Individuen ab zehn polymorphen Mirosatelliten und sequenzierten das mitochondriale Gen Cytechrom b (Cyt b), um die genetische Struktur, Divergenz-Zeiten und die frühere Verbreitung der Art zu untersuchen.Wir entdeckten zwei genetische Linien: Eine West-Französische Linie (Western France Clade) von den Pyrenäen bis zur Bretagne und eine Ost-Französische Linie (Eastern France Clade) vom südlichen Frankreich bis nach Deutschland, Belgien und Luxemburg. Der Differenzierungszeitpunkt wurde mit 1.23 Millionen Jahre vor heute ermittelt. Die Ost-Französische Linie ist in zwei Sub-Linien differenziert, welche vor ca. 380.000 Jahren vor heute differenzierten. Mittels Mikrosatelliten-Analyse wurde eine signifikante Abnahme genetischer Diversität von Süd nach Nord sowie deutliches „Allel-Surfing“ über fast alle Loci und eine Erhöhung der genetischen Differenzierung Richtung nördlicher Arealgrenzen nachgewiesen. Die deutliche genetische Differenzierung zeigt Effekte von langzeitiger Isolation in mehreren Refugien. Die postglaziale Ausbreitung nach Norden erfolgte von zwei verschiedenen Refugien aus, sehr wahrscheinlich entlang der großen Flusssystema (Rhône, Rhein und Mosel) sowie entlang der Atlantikküste, einhergehend mit der Reduzierung genetischer Diversität und der Erhöhung genetischer Differenzierung an ihrem nördlichen Arealrand.
Gassert, F. & Schulte, U. & Husemann, M. & Ulrich, W. & Rödder, D. & Hochkirch, A. & Engel, E. & Meyer, J. & Habel, J.C. (2013) -
Aim Thermophilic species persisted in southern refugia during the cold phases of the Pleistocene, and expanded northwards during warming. These processes caused genetic imprints, such as a differentiation of genetic lineages and a loss of genetic diversity in the wake of (re)colonization. We used molecular markers and species distribution models (SDMs) to study the impact of range dynamics on the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, from southern refugia to the northern range margin. Location Parts of the Western Palaearctic. Methods We genotyped 10 polymorphic microsatellites in 282 individuals of P. muralis and sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene to study the genetic structure, divergence times and ancestral distributions. Furthermore, we generated SDMs for climate scenarios for 6 and 21 ka derived from two different global circulation models. Results We detected two major mtDNA lineages – a western France clade (Pyrenees to Brittany), and an eastern France clade (southern France to Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg). This split was dated to c. 1.23Ma. The latter clade was divided into two subclades, which diverged c. 0.38 Ma. Genetic diversity of microsatellites within each clade was nested and showed a significant loss of genetic diversity from south to north, a strong pattern of allele surfing across nearly all loci, and an increase in genetic differentiation towards the northern range margin. Results from SDMs suggest that southward range retraction during the late glacial period split the distribution into geographically distinct refugia. Main conclusions The strong genetic differentiation mirrors the effects of long-term isolation of P. muralis in multiple refugia. Post-glacial recolonization of Northern Europe has taken place from two distinct refugia, most probably along river systems (Rhône, Rhine, Moselle) and along the Atlantic coastline, with subsequent nested elimination of genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation at the northern range margin.
Gebhart, J. (2007) -
Gebhart, J. (2008) -
Gebhart, J. (2009) -
Gebhart, J. (2010) -
Gebhart, J. (2011) -
Gebhart, J. (2015) -
Gebhart, J. (2020) -
Geisenheyner, L. (1888) -
Geißler, L. & Brühl, A. (1980) -
Gend, J. van (1965) -
Gené, J. (1839) -
Generani, M. & Canini, G. (1996) -
Since 1993 the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali of Induno Olona coordinates the Amphibians and Reptiles` census in the Province of Varese, to improve the knowledge of its herpetofauna, the distribution of the various species, as well as the number of their populations. At present three species of Urodela, seven of Anura, one of Testudines, five of Sauria and five of Serpentes have been catalogued, Podarcis sicula and Zootoca vivipara are new to Varese Province.
Geniez, P. & Cluchier, A. & Sá-Sousa, P. & Guillaume, C.P. & Crochet, P.-A. (2007) -
Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato
may in fact be a species complex, yet many of its taxa have not been formally described. We redefine the nominotypical
Podarcis [hispanicus] hispanicus sensu stricto using univariate and multivariate morphological analyses and pinpoint
its geographical distribution. Podarcis [hispanicus] hispanicus is a small wall lizard characterized by a flattened head
and body, the general lack of a masseteric shield, a striped dorsal pattern, the frequent bifurcation of the anterior part
of the vertebral strip, the belly almost always white and the tail intense blue in young specimens. Its distribution is
restricted to the Spanish Levant (provinces of Alicante, Murcia and Almeria).
Gentil, A. (1883) -
Geyer, Wilh. (1895) -
Gherghel, I. & Stugariu, A. & Sahlean, T.C. & Zamfirescu, O. (2009) -
During 2005-2008, field observations were made on the distribution and habitat occupation by Podarcis muralis in the middle Bistrita river basin. Prior to our study, this lizard was known from only 5 localities in Romanian Moldavia (Bicaz, Cheile Bicazului, Lacu Rosu, Gherman and Dodeni). Through the present paper the authors acknowledge the existence of 28 sites populated by P. muralis in Moldavia and propose a new model for the range expansion of the species in the area using manmade structures such as road and railway fences and road beds, benefiting from the mild climate provided by the Izvorul Muntelui barrier lake and forming insular populations to further colonize suitable habitats.
Gherghel, I. & Tredow, R. (2019) -
Anthropogenic activity often results in habitat fragmentation that can negatively impact biodiversity by destroying viable habitat and reducing the connectivity of the landscape. Anthropogenic features (such as rail ways) can also have the opposite effect, facilitating the expansion of certain species. Here we demonstrate such a case, wherein anthropogenic activity and structures facilitate the dispersal of a species whose capacity for territorial expansion is limited in the natural environment. Using habitat suitability and connectivity models, we show that the Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis) most likely prefers railways as a means to disperse into new habitats and/or maintain population connectivity across a fragmented habitat (i.e. from their southern populations, moving north along rail way tracks to colonize new suitable habitats). Furthermore, we predict the route and location of future colonization events based on availability of viable habitats and corridors to them. The potential impact of this invasion is estimated to be relatively low.
Gilpin, H.G.B. (1968) -
Giner, G. & Gómez, D. (2016) -
Gini, A. (2017) -
The presence of the lizards Podarcis muralis and P. siculus is often known but reported in an almost exclusively descriptive way, a note in the margins of their ecology and of their natural history.
The researches that investigated the interaction between these two species are very few, three are the most relevant (Maura et al 2011, Capula et al 1993, Avery 1978), but they are either very dated or referred to individual populations within the centers urban.
This thesis therefore wants to fill a gap, shed light on possible competitive interactions and study what relationship exists, if any, between P. muralis and P. siculus when they share the same microhabitat.
The type of research, given the total lack of comparative data, is purely basic. We have collected as much data (abiotic and biotic) as possible for both species, weighing the sampling effort towards the information considered most sensitive and crucial. In detail, the populations in Calci (PI) were sampled ex-novo from 04/2016 to 09/2017, at the Museo di Storia di Naturale in Pisa, where both species are present; the population of P. muralis of Giardino Scotto (PI); the population of P. siculus in the green area between Via Cisanello and Via Italo Bargagna (PI). Other comparison populations will be detected by previous measurement campaigns.
The populations were sampled by capture (noosing) of the individual individuals spotted along the transects and released at the exact point of capture after analysis.
Data on habitat and animal description will provide information on the possible differential status of these two species when present individually, or both, in a microhabitat. In particular, with regard to a possible interaction, differences in the diet have been sought through stool sampling, differences that will also affect the size of the animal. Other data are aimed at describing the different (or equal) preference for vegetative life in a specific microhabitat that have species in relation to the area in which they live.
Since this is a basic research that does not rely on past works, any emerging results will still be an important contribution in the study, at any level, of P. muralis and P. siculus, as it will contribute to provide comparative data for the first time. different populations both in allopatry and in sympathy.
Giovannotti, M. & Nisi-Cerioni, P. & Caputo, V. (2010) -
The genetic variability of the wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, was analysed in that part of its range regarded as its area of origin and also its expansion centre. The analysis was performed on partial cytochrome b sequences (405 bp) of 117 specimens representing 31 sampling locations from southern, central and northern Italy. The results of this study revealed 30 haplo- types in the Italian sample belonging to three main genetic lineages. The genetic divergence among haplotypes ranged from 0.2 to 6.6%, whereas the estimation of divergence times among mtDNA lineages highlighted a complex pattern of genetic differentiation with both Pleistocene and Pliocene divergences (3.2–0.7 Ma). These results put in evidence the role played by the pre-Pleistocene and Pleistocene palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic events in shaping the genetic diversity of the wall lizard in Italy and confirm the role of this peninsula as glacial refuge. In addition, AMOVA analysis revealed the pres- ence of geographically structured clades indicating the occurrence of multiple glacial refugia in Italy, thus supporting a refugia-within-refugia scenario for the wall lizard in Italy. Finally, the results of this study seem to indicate a lack of congru- ence between the four morphological subspecies currently recognised in the Italian Peninsula and the main genetic lineages detected.
Giovine, G. (1993) -
Amphibians and reptiles of the Parco Regionale dei Colli di Bergamo. -- This article considers the herpetofauna of the Parco Regionale dei Colli di Bergamo that is composed of ten species of Amphibians and nine of Reptiles. The species are those one would expect to find in a similar landscape. Among these is relevant to mention Bombina variegata, now rare in Lombardy, and Rana latastei. The Author analyzes the corological categories noting a certain predominance of the European species (68%) on the Eurocentroasiatic (22%) and the Italic (10%) ones. The study of the microcommunitiesm has evidenced three fundamental models: the m. of the submediterranean wood (with prevalence of Reptiles), the m. of the umid environments (with prevalence of Amphibians) and the m. of the damp woods (with the typical species Salamandra salamandra).
Glandt, D. (2010) -
Gleed-Owen, C.P. (2004) -
Godin, J. (2002) -
Rarity degree, evolution of distribution and particularities of herpetofauna from Region Nord .– Pas-de-Calais. After giving a review of species (natives, introduced or probably introduced and mentioned by mistake) from Region Nord .– Pas-de-Calais, cartography of observations has been carried out. It permit to allocate a regional rarity rating to each species according to the surface area occupied and to reckon the evolution of distribution by the comparison of actual distribution area (surface occupied between 1995 to 2000) to the potential area. The comparison of species frequencies between coalfield and the rest of the region conduces to bring to the fore the importance of secondaries habitats being the result of mine development on distribution and preservation of some species.
Godin, J. & Godin, F. (2010) -
A la date du 01 septembre 2010, et pour la période 1995-2008, 450 observateurs ont communiqué 5423 fiches d’inventaire à la centrale herpétologique régionale, récapitulant 12449 observations . L’herpétofaune régionale autochtone et/ou introduite compte actuellement 18 espèces d’Amphibiens et 9 espèces de Reptiles. Leur distribution géographique est présentée dans la maille 10x10 km basée sur le carroyage Lambert Zone 1.
Göhler, V. (1982) -
Gómez Garcia, D. (2016) -
We describe the finding of a melanic common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) whithin the boundaries of Fogars de Montclús, Vallès Oriental, (Catalonia)
Gorman, G.C. (1969) -
Karyotype data are presented for 12 species of lacertid lizards. Of these, 4 Acanthodactylus, 2 Eremias, 1 Ophisops, and 4 Lacerta have n = 19, with all chromosomes acrocentric. This is the typical lacertid karyotype, as reported in previous literature. One species, Lacerta parva, is quite different from all the others. The haploid number is 12, consisting of 7 pairs of metacentric macrochromosomes and 5 pairs of microchromosomes. The fundamental number (number of arms in the karyotype) is the same in L. parva as in all the other species studied. The possibility of female sex chromosomal heteromorphism is raised, but data are not sufficient to confirm this.
Gory,G. (1995) -
Gosá, A. (1985) -
Gosa, A. (1987) -
Gosá, A. (1987) -
La observación de ejemplares de P. muralis y P. hispanica en la línea de costa que contacta con el mar, ha permitido obtener información más amplia sobre su distribución en el área septentrional más extrema, así como del di- ferente uso que hacen del nicho espacial. Ambas se revelan, una vez más, como especies antropófilas, apareciendo preferentemente P. muralis sobre acantilados de sustrato calizo y suelo cubierto de vegetación, frente a P. his- panica, que prefiere el sustrato areniscoso y suelos más despejados.
Los datos conocidos sobre su distribución, junto con los aquí aportados, permiten esbozar un esquema biogeográfico, en el que lo más destacable se- ría la penetración que, a través de ciertos valles térmicos interiores, ha se- guido P. hispanica -junto con otras formas termófilas de la herpetofauna- , para colonizar el área costera, donde la suavidad de las condiciones climáti- cas ha facilitado su asentamiento.
Gosá, A. (2009) -
Gosa, A. & Jover, L.I. & Bea, A. (1986) -
Contribution to the taxonomy of Podarcis muralis (Laurenti) and Podarcis hispanica Steindachner in the Iberian Peninsula (Basque Land and Central Mountain Chain).
This study is based in the analysis of 23 biometric and pholidosis parameters of two species of Podarcis: P. muralis and P. hispanica. The total number of individuals are 635 coming from the Basque Land and the Central Mountain Chain at the Iberian Peninsula.
A descriptive statistics including the mean on total samples and the means belonging to all areas in which we have divided the territory (Central Mountain Chain and the Atlantic and Mediterranean Basque Land regions) contributes to species characterization. We complete their differentiation and separation by means of the Discriminant Analysis method, in two different ways:
I.- A specifical discriminant function, without sex distinction. It selects the following variables in order of importance: HC/LP. SC, GU and (V x 100)ILCC. The Podarcis muralis function is: -349.0405+ (770.8815 x HC/LP) + (12.23027 x SC) + (6.050357 X GU)
+ (1.419067 x (V x 100)/LCC), and the Podarcis hispanica function is: - 343.9303+ (726.6817 x HC/LP) + (11.07793 x SC) + (6.708487 x GU) + (1.645612 x (V x 100)/LCC). The percentage of correctly classificated cases is of 87.13 %.
II.- Some specific discriminant functions, separatly by sexes. The analysis selects the following same variables for both sexes: HC, V and PA for females, and V, HC and PA for males. Respectively, the classification percentages are of 98.61% and 94.38%.
Gracceva, G. & Bombi, P. & Luiselli, I. & Bologna, M.A. (2008) -
Demographic and morphological aspects of two nearby subpopulations of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) were studied, by a capture-mark-recapture procedure, at an archaeological site in the surroundings of Rome, central Italy. In both sites, the births peak was observed in September. Adult sex-ratio was skewed towards males in one subpopulation, but was close to equality in the other. Morphological characteristics were consistent in the two sites, with males always exhibiting larger snout-vent-length and head size. Population size and density, computed by a Jolly-Seber index applied by using POPAN model revealed differences between subpopulations, with lizard density being much higher in the site with higher habitat heterogeneity and shelter availability. Tail condition was similar between sites. The general implications of these data are discussed.
Graitson, E. (2000) -
Graitson, E. (2001) -
Graitson, E. (2002) -
Graitson, E. (2005) -
Graitson, E. (2006) -
Graitson, E. (2007) -
Graitson, E. (2008) -
The reptile fauna of the siliceous rock habitats of the central-eastern Ardenne was studied between 2000 and 2007. The investigations were carried out at 26 sites distributed in all the hydrographic watersheds draining the area, except one (the Our watershed): Eastern and Western Ourthes, Amblève and Sure. All the significant rocky habitats of the area were studied: rocks and landslides, abandoned quarries and exploitation dumps, rail and road embankments. Five species were recorded: Anguis fragilis, Podarcis muralis, Zootoca vivipara, Coronella austriaca and Natrix natrix, of which Anguis fragilis and Zootoca vivipara were the most widespread. Podarcis muralis was only found in the Ourthe basin. The population of the latter species at Hérou constitutes a remarkable isolate while the population along the Stoumont-Coo railway is one of the largest in numbers in the Benelux countries. Coronella austriaca is reported for the second time in the Western Ourthe valley. This snake is only present in the most thermophilous habitats, where the majority of the populations seemed extremely isolated. Natrix natrix was rather widespread but never abundant.
Graitson, E. (2009) -
Graitson, E. (2011) -
Graitson, E. (2013) -
Graitson, E. & Hussin, J. & Vacher, J.-P. (2012) -
The results of a 24 year survey of a community of reptiles typical of northern Europe along a 19 km long railway track in the South of Belgium suggests that: i) four among the six species (Anguis fragilis, Podarcis muralis, Zootoca vivipara, and Natrix natrix helvetica) exhibited stable abundance levels and distribution patterns; ii) Vipera berus strongly decreased and is now nearly extinct; iii) Coronella austriaca appeared in the course of the survey and its populations sharply increased. The decrease of Vipera berus can be explained by the degradation of some of its habitats. The causes of the increase of Coronella austriaca are unknown but might be linked to climate change.
Graitson, E. & Jacob, J.-P. (2001) -
Graitson, E. & Jacob, J.-P. (2007) -
Graitson, E. & Naulleau, G. (2005) -
Artificial shelters: a technique for completing species check-lists and for monitoring reptile populations.
We present a bibliographic review on the use of artificial shelters to obtain herpetological species check-lists inWestern Europe. The methodologies in the different studies are compared. Three different kinds of listing are distinguished: qualitative, semi-qualitative, and quantitative.Comparisons across studies show that the use of shelter-plates highly favours the detection of at least five species (Anguis fragilis, Coluber viridiflavus, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe longissima, and Natrix natrix). Plates also allow the detection of juvenile individuals more reliably than the visual searching method. Shelter use increases with time. More variation was found in the detection of Viperids, Lacertids and some amphibians. For these species, artificial shelter use is useful for qualitative listings but the procedure should be improved for quantitative listings.
Graitson, E. & Paquay, M. (2007) -
Gramentz, D. (2014) -
Grangé, P. (1995) -
Granger, A. (1894) -
Gray, J.E. (1831) -
Gray, J.E. (1838) -