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of the real lizards, family Lacertidae
Abel, E. (1951) -
1. Das Geruchsvermögen ist bei den Eidechsen (L. viridis, L. agilis, L. muralis) gut ausgebildet. Sämtliche Beute wird gerochen
2. Die Nase spielt eine bei weitem größere Rolle als das Jabobsonsche Organ. Dieses tritt, übereinstimmend mit den Befunden Kahmanns, nur akzessorisch in Funktion zum unmittelbaren Prüfen vor oder in dem Munde.
3. Der Beutegruch wird durch die Nase aus ca. 8 bis 10 cm Entfernung sichtbar wahrgenommen (durch die gesteigerte Brustatmung, die als „Pumpen“ bezeichnet wurde, erkenntlich) und löst Suchbewegungen aus.
4. Dieser allein ist bei Ausfall des optischen Sinnes befähigt, Zubeißen und Freßakt, selbst bei ungeeigneten Objekten, auszulösen. Es ist höchstwahrscheinlich, daß ein Geruchsscheme den Tieren angeboren ist.
5. Eidechsen lassen sich entgegen diesem angeborenen Geruchsscheme auf fremden Geruch positiv dressieren, wie Versuche mit stark süßlich duftenden Öl aufzeigten. Es gelang, andressierte Eidechsen nach Steinen usw., die mit Dressurduft markiert waren, beißen zu lassen, selbst als die Tiere im Besitz ihres optischen Sinnes waren.
6. Es hat den Anschein, als würden die Lacerten zirka eine Woche zur Bildung neuer Assoziationen benötigen, sobald sie täglich andressiert werden. Diese Zeitspanne wurde ungefähr bei den von mir durchgeführten Geruchs- und Geschmacksdressuren, sowie auch bei den Gehördresuren von Berger (1924) als Lernzeit benötigt.
7. Die Eidechsen konnten durch Vergällung einer bestimmten Beute mit Kochsalz dazu gebracht werden, bei gleichzeitiger Ausschaltung des optischen Sinnes diese Beute zu meiden, nahmen jedoch andere Nahrungsobjekte an. Durch Engerstellung der Verschiedenheit der Beutetiere konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Echsen in der Lage sind, selbst feinste Qualitätsunterschiede des Geruches zu registrieren. Sie vermochten Grillen von Locustiden, und weiters Locustiden untereinander geruchlich zu unterscheiden, auch wenn diese lebend und unvergällt angeboten wurden.
8. Auf dieses Vermögen dürfte die Bildung eines erworbenen Nahrungskreises zurückzuführen sein. Für sein Bestehen spricht die Bevorzugung von Lieblingsfutter, sowie die Ablehnung gewisser Beutetiere schon aus relativ großer Entfernung.
9. Freilandbeobachtungen zeigen, daß der Geruch bei Nahrungssuche, in unübersichtlichem Gelände von großer Bedeutung sein dürfte, analog zu den Feststellungen im Laborversuch.
10. Der arteigene Geruch ist bei Lacerta viridis wesentlich am endgültigen Festlegen im Verhalten gegenüber dem Artgenossen als Gegner oder Geschlechtspartner beteiligt. Ein Männchen dieser Art kämpft nicht gegen ein anderes, sobald dieser Reiz in der Reizsumme fehlt. Umgekehrt wird bei Anwesenheit des typischen Geruches gekämpft, auch wenn die optischen Merkzeichen stark verändert erscheinen; daraus wird die Bedeutung dieses Faktors im Reizsummenphänomen beim Paarungsverhalten ersichtlich. Der geschlechts-charakteristische Geruch stammt nicht aus den Schenkelporen, da eine operative Entfernung derselben keinerlei Änderung des Verhaltens bewirkte.
11. Die Nasenhöhle registriert Luftfeuchtigkeit und ermöglicht den Eidechsen das Wasser gerichtet aufzufinden. Die Nase darf daher als Alarm- und Leitsinnesorgan bezeichnet werden. Bei der Auffindung von Wasser kann der optische Sinn zusätzlich in Aktion treten, wobvei auf stark lichtbrechende Stellen angesprochen wird.
12. Bei Ausschaltung des Olfactorius sind die Tiere nicht imstande, Wasser zu finden, außer in optisch günstigen Fällen.
13. Freilandbeobachtungen zeigen, daß die Eidechsen durch Tau und Regenfall ihr Wasserbedürfnis gedeckt finden. Bei großer Trockenheit ziehen sich die Tiere zu einem Trockenschlaf zurück, den sie unterbrechen, sobald genügend Feuchtigkeit vorhanden ist. Die Luftfeuchtigkeit wird von den versteckt liegenden Tieren durch die Nase perzipiert und veranlaßt das Aufsuchen der Feuchtigkeitsquelle. Diese Annahme machen Freilandbeobachtungen auch in der natürlichen Umwelt höchst wahrscheinlich.
Abrahám, A. (1973) -
The differentiation of the thyroid primordium of lacertilian species is poorly understood. The present study reports on the ultrastructural analysis of the developing thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) during the early stages of differentiation. The early thyroid primordium of sand lizard embryos was composed of cellular cords that contained single cells with a giant lipid droplet, which were eliminated by specific autophagy (lipophagy). The follicular lumens at the periphery of the primordium differentiated even before the division of the cellular cords. When the single cells within the cords started to die through paraptosis, the adjacent cells started to polarise and junctional complexes began to form around them. After polarisation and clearing up after the formation of the lumens, the cellular cords divided into definitive follicles. The cellular cords in the central part of the primordium started to differentiate later than those at the periphery. The cellular cords divided into presumptive follicles first and only later differentiated into definitive follicles. During this process, a population of centrally located cells was removed through apoptosis to form the lumen. Although the follicular lumen in sand lizard embryos is differentiated by cavitation similar to that in the grass snake, there were very important differences during the early stages of the differentiation of the cellular cords and the formation of the thyroid follicles.
Abrahmsen, B. (1988) -
Adema, J.P.H.M. & Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1980) -
Algyroides moreoticus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis melisellensis fiumana, Podarcis muralis albanica, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula campestris, Podarcis taurica ionica, Podarcis taurica taurica.
Adolph, R. (1922) -
Aellen, V. & Perret, J.L. (1953) -
Afrasiab, S.R. & Mohamad, S.I. & Hossain, R.H. (2013) -
The present study is a review of the 1976 publication by professor A.D. NIAZI, director of the Natural History Museum of Bagdad, on the Lacertini of Iraq, including additional materials from Irqi collections.
Twenty-two individuals of five taxa of this group originating from the territory under study were indentified in Iraqi collections: Lacerta cf. strigata EICHWALD, 1831 which had been removed from the list of Iraqi lacertids by many authors, L. media media LANTZ & CYRÉN, 1920, Timon kurdistanicus (SUCHOW, 1936) and two subspecies of Apathya cappadocica (WERNER, 1902). A key for identification and a map of the records are also presented.
Afsar, M. & Tok, C.V. (2011) -
In this study, 29 reptile and amphibian species were recorded in 25 diff erent localities in the Sultan Mountains.
Of these, 5 were anurans, 1 was a tortoise, 1 was a turtle, 11 were lizards, and 11 were snakes. A chorotype classifi cation
of the species recorded in the Sultan Mountains is also given.
AG Feldherpetologie und Artenschutz (2013) -
Agasyan, A. & Avci, A. & Tuniyev, B. & Lymberakis, P. & Andren, C. & Cogalniceanu, D. & Wilkinson, J. & Ananjeva, N. & Uzum, N. & Orlov, N. & Podloucky, R. & Tuniyev, S. & Kaya, U. & Crnobrnja-Isailov (2010) -
Agasyan, A. & Tuniyev, B. & Cogalniceanu, D. & Wilkinson, J. & Ananjeva, N. & Orlov, N. & Lymberakis, P. & Crochet, P.A. & Disi, A.M.M. & Hraoui-Bloquet, S. & Sadek, R. & Werner, Y. & Tok, V. & Ugurtas, I. & Sevinc, M. (2009) -
Ahl, E. (1927) -
Ahmadzadeh, F. (2008) -
Two species of Lacerta genus are found in Northwest of Iran:
Lacerta media and Lacerta strigata. Lacerta media has wide
distribution range and is an important lizard fauna element in agro-
ecosystems and river closed humid areas. The aim of this study was
to provide reasons for high population size of this species in agro
ecosystems. So, this study was performed in the farming areas in
Meshkinshar, Ardabil province of Iran from 2003 to 2006. Based
on extensive field research, it has been mainly found that Lacerta
media is the most abundant reptile species in mentioned habitats
and it just inhabits areas that are much closed to water. Our results
also showed, animal is hidden by dense grass vegetation cover
especially male that has green color. They use old hallows of mice
and other small vertebrates for hiding and egg lying. In spring they
are seen on cultivated filed boundaries on stones on sunny days. As
specific result, they are found in apple orchards more abundant than
other cultivated fields. It seems that permanent food accessibility
(insects) and fewer predators are most reasons. Finally, Lacerta
media is interesting species to study from a conservational point of
view because of its unusual frequency of occurrence as parallel with
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Flecks, M. & Carretero, M.A. & Böhme, EW. & Ilgaz, C. & Engler, J.O. & Harris, D.J. & Üzüm, N. & Rödder, D. (2013) -
Diversification and rapid radiation are well documented in lacertid lizards. Niche conservation is frequently observed among related taxa, whereby niches will not change much during speciation events. Here, we investigate the relationship between environmental niche divergence and phylogenetic relatedness in a widespread group of green lizards, the Lacerta trilineata group.
Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia and adjacent regions.
A dated phylogeny based on three mitochondrial genes was contextualized using species distribution models of all genetically identified lineages in the Lacerta trilineata group. Based on this analysis, ancestral climatic niche occupancy was reconstructed using niche occupancy profiles. Niche divergence among lineages was quantified by computing multivariate niche overlaps.
All taxa are associated with humid areas, but there is extensive variation in their climatic niche breadths and positions, which accord with the main phylogenetic split in the group. Our results suggest divergent niche evolution within subclades and convergent evolution among clades, which implies only a limited degree of niche conservatism regarding annual variations in temperature and precipitation. In contrast, niche axes – mainly reflecting precipitation patterns of the coldest quarter – show a greater difference among clades than within clades, and therefore a higher degree of niche conservatism.
Based on estimated divergence times between taxa and geological events in Anatolia, our results can be explained by fragmentation of the range of a hypothetical ancestral species, resulting in different adaptations of subclades either to humid continental climates or to more Mediterranean climates. Our study highlights deviations from classical niche conservatism theory due to significant niche shifts among sister taxa.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Flecks, M. & Carretero, M.A. & Böhme, W. & Ilgar, C. & Engler, J.O. & Harris, D.J. & Üzüm, N. & Rödder, D. (2013) -
Diversification and rapid radiation are well documented in lacertid lizards. Niche conservatism is frequently observed among related taxa, whereby ecological niches remain mostly stable during speciation events. Here, we investigate the relationship between environmental niche divergence and phylogenetic relatedness in a widespread group of green lizards, the Lacerta trilineata group. A dated phylogeny based on three mitochondrial genes was contextualized using species distribution models of all genetically identified lineages in the Lacerta trilineata group. Based on this analysis, ancestral climatic niche occupancy was reconstructed using niche occupancy profiles. Niche divergence among lineages was quantified by computing multivariate niche overlaps. All taxa are associated with humid areas, but there is extensive variation in their climatic niche breadths and positions, which accord with the main phylogenetic split in the group. Our results suggest divergent niche evolution within subclades and convergent evolution among clades, which implies only a limited degree of niche conservatism regarding annual variations in temperature and precipitation. In contrast, niche axes – mainly reflecting precipitation patterns of the coldest quarter – show a greater difference among clades than within clades, and therefore a higher degree of niche conservatism. Based on estimated divergence times between taxa and geological events in Anatolia, our results can be explained by fragmentation of the range of a hypothetical ancestral species, resulting in different adaptations of subclades either to humid continental climates or to more Mediterranean climates. Our study highlights deviations from classical niche conservatism theory due to significant niche shifts among sister taxa.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Flecks, M. & Rödder, D. & Böhme, W. & Ilgaz, C. & Harris, D.J. & Engler, J.O. & Üzüm, N. & Carretero, M.A. (2013) -
The oriental green lizards of the Lacerta trilineata group are widely distributed in Greece, Anatolia, the eastern Mediterranean, the southern Caucasus, and the Zagros mountains in Iran. We studied their phylogeography using three mitochondrial markers with comprehensive sampling from most representatives of the group. Their phylogeny and divergence times (implementing fossil-based molecular clock calibrations) were inferred using Bayesian methods, and haplotype networks were reconstructed to assess how genetic diversity and current distributional patterns were shaped. According to our phylogenetic analyses, the group constitutes a well-supported monophylum containing several distinct evolutionary lineages with high haplotype diversity. Vicariance might explain the divergences within most lineages that have accumulated by range restriction and expansion of populations as a result of Quaternary climate oscillations and glacial refugia. However, niche divergence appears to be a major force promoting speciation, and large scale distributional patterns between lineages were shaped earlier by multiple, independent dispersals out of Anatolia during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. The results of the present study also suggest that the group is in need of a taxonomical revision because the identified lineages and genetic diversity are not congruent with the currently recognized subspecies.
The oriental green lizards of the Lacerta trilineata group are widely distributed in Greece, Anatolia, the eastern Mediterranean, the southern Caucasus andthe Zagros mountains in Iran. We studied their phylogeography using three mitochondrial markers with comprehensive sampling from most representatives of the group. Their phylogeny and divergence times (implementing fossilbased molecular clock calibrations) were inferred using Bayesian methods, and haplotype networks were reconstructed to assess how genetic might explain the divergences within most lineages that have accumulated by range restriction and expansion of populations due to Quarternary climate oscillations and glacial refugia. However, niche divergence seems to be a major force promoting speciation and large scale distributional patterns between lineages were shaped earlier by multiple, independent dispersals out of Anatolia during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Our results also suggest that the group is in need of a taxonomical revision, as identified lineages and genetic diversity are not congruent with the currently recognised subspecies.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kheyrandish, A. (2006) -
The Northwest of Iran, covering the three provinces of Ardabil, East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, is a special area that, due to its particular geographical and climatic conditions has a rich biodiversity. The present study was conducted with the aim of studying the habitat, substrate type, feeding, conservation and distribution of lizards in this area from 2003 to now. Our results have revealed that there are 20 lizard species belonging to 13 genera and 5 families in this area. Lacertid lizards have the highest species diversity with 12 species. We also found that high ranges of habitats with a different substrate types are inhabited by lizard species. The number of species in pine regions compared with other types of area is considerably greater. The conservation status of lizards is unknown and requires further study.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kiabi, B.H. & Kami, H.G. & Hojjati, V. (2008) -
Northwestern Iran has unique geographical and climatic conditions that support a rich flora and fauna. In
view of the lack of in-depth studies on the lizards of the region, an investigation was started in the northern part of
Ardabil Province for an inventory of this component of the fauna and their habitats. Collections were made from
October 2003 to June 2005 and 165 specimens were collected and identified. Five families, 12 genera and 15 species
are represented, including Agamidae: Laudakia caucasia, Phrynocephalus persicus, Trapelus ruderatus; Lacertidae:
Lacerta media media, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta brandtii, Darevskia raddei raddei, Eremias strauchi strauchi,
Eremias arguta, Ophisops elegans; Scincidae: Mabuya aurata transcaucasica, Eumeces schneiderii princeps,
Abelepharus bivittatus; Anguidae: Pseudopus apodus and Gekkonidae: Cyrtopodion caspium caspium. Comparing
this list to the data provided by Anderson (1999), it seems that most of the lizards are being reported for the Province
for the first time. The families Gekkonidae and Anguidae are newly recorded, and the gecko Cyrtopodion caspium is
first recorded from the west and northwest of Iran. With seven species represented in the area, lacertids have the highest
species diversity among the lizard families and need further study. Habitat features also have been given for all
Ahrens, J. (2014) -
Ahrens, J. (2020) -
Akeret, B. (2007) -
Akman, B. & Yildizt, M.Z. & Özcan, A.F. & Bozkurt, M.A. & Igci, N. & Göcmen, B. (2018) -
Anhand ihrer Feld- und Literaturstudien identifizierten die Autoren 36 Amphibien- und Reptilienarten, die nachweislich in der turkischen Provinz Bitlis vorkommen, wobei die Fundorte und die an ihnen angetroffenen Habitattypen angegeben werden. die durch Beobachtung festgestellten Hauptgefahrdungsursachen werden benannt. insgesamt kennt man aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Vorkommen von vier Froschlurch-, zwei Schwanzlurch- und Schildkrötenarten sowie 15 Echsen- und 13 Schlangenarten. Hyla savignyi Audouin, 1827, Heremites vittatus (Olivier, 1804), Timon kurdistanicus (Suchow, 1936) and Eirenis thospitis Schmidtler & Lanza, 1990, stellen Erstnachweise fur die Provinz Bitlis dar.
Al-Barazengy, A.N. & Salman, A.O. & Abdul Hameed, F.T. (2015) -
The present work provides a list of all amphibians and reptiles recorded from Iraq up to
2014. It includes 115 species (105 species of reptiles and 10 species of amphibians) dating back to 25 families (20 families of reptiles and 5 families of amphibians). Conservation status of each species was mentioned.
Al-Quran, S. (2009) -
A total number of 70 herpetofaunistic species organised in 3 orders and 18 families were surveyed
during a period of two years (2005– 2007) in southern Jordan. The orders are (1) Ophidia has 7 families:
Leptotyphlopidae (1 species), Typhlopidae (2 species), Boidae (1 species), Colubdridae (17 species),
Atractaspididae (1 species), Elapidae (1 species) and Viperidae (5 species). (2) Sauria has 7 families: Gekkonidae
(12 species), Chamaeleonidae (1 species), Agamidae (8 species), Lacertidae (3 species), Sincidae (8 species),
Anguidae (1 species), Varanidae (1 species). (3) Testudines has 4 families: Cheloniidae (2 species),
Dermochetylidae (1 species), Emydidae (1 species) and Testudinidae (1 species). The species listed were all
resident and were mostly found throughout the year. The diversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the
study area encouraged the occurrence of the species. The results reinforce the necessity of longterm inventory
plannings in order to understand the ecology and the dynamics of herpetofaunistic and other wildlife
communities in the study area. The over-increasing of human impact on the existing natural resources in the
southern Jordan has threatened the ecology diversity of wildlife species, where the populations of some
herpetofaunaistic species (especially frog species) and many reptilian species are declining in diversity status
and abundance. The author recommend at the end the improving cooperation of different parties to enhance
the public awareness and to implement environmental laws and legislation to conserve the sensitive and rare
species of herpetofauna components.
Al-Quran, S. (2010) -
A total of 70 herpetofauna species from 3 Orders and 18 Families were surveyed during a period of two years (2005-2007) in Southern Jordan. The Ophidia included Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubdridae, Atractaspididae, Elapidae and Viperidae. The Sauria included Gekkonidae, Chamaeleonidae, Agamidae, Lacertidae, Sincidae, Anguidae and Varanidae. Testudines included Cheloniidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae and Testudinidae. The species listed were all resident and mostly found throughout the year. The diversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the study area likely encouraged species presence. The results reinforce the necessity for long-term inventory planning in order to understand the ecology and the dynamics of herpetofauna and other wildlife communities in the study area. The increasing human impact on the existing natural resources in Southern Jordan has threatened the ecology and diversity of wildlife species to such a degree that populations of anurans and many reptiles are declining in diversity, status and abundance. The author recommends improving cooperation of different parties to enhance public awareness and to implement environmental laws and legislation to conserve sensitive and rare species of herpetofauna.
Al-Sadoon, M.K. & Spellerberg, I.F. (1985) -
Oxygen consumption levels and metabolic rate temperature curves of various lizard species from three different climatic regions were examined in relation to ambient temperature. The species used in this research were as follows: Anguis fragilis, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta agilis (cool temperate species); Blanus cinereus, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi brauni, Podarcis lilfordi lilfordi, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus, Tarentola mauritanica (warm temperate species); Chalcides ocellatus, Acanthodactylus opheodurus, Acanthodactylus schmidti (desert species). A double chamber volumetric closed system was used to measure the resting oxygen consumption of the lizards. Acute oxygen consumption determinations were made, that is the lizards were not allowed to acclimate to the test temperatures. Interspecific differences in levels of resting oxygen consumption and in the characteristics of the metabolic rate temperature curves were examined in relation to methods of thermoregulation and in relation to the ecology of the respective species. Evidence for `temperature dependent shifts` and `low thermal dependence` was found in the metabolic rate temperature curves of some species. A diminishing Q10 at or below the voluntary body temperatures suggests some degree of metabolic homeostatsis and energy conservation.
Al-Sheikhly, O.F. (2001) -
An extensive review on the taxonomic status, occurrence, geographical distribution, and the IUCN conservation status of 122 species/taxa (10 amphibians and 112 reptiles) belonging to 71 genera (8 genera of amphibians and 63 of reptiles) and to 25 families (5 families of amphibians and 20 families of reptiles) was made. As a part of Iraq’s unique biota, the knowledge of the herpetofauna of Iraq is poorly discovered and requires extensive field surveys, further research, and explorations in order to create full frame knowledge of its status and conservation.
Alarcos, G. & Madrigal, J. & Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.E. & Fernández-Benéitez, M.J. & Lizana, M. & Garcia, P. (2009) -
Albers, H. (1974) -
Albert Koechlin Stiftung (2018) -
Albert Koechlin Stiftung (2019) -
Albert Koechlin Stiftung (2020) -
Albinet, S. (2009) -
Au 1er décembre 2009, la base de données herpétologiques de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de Tarn-et-Garonne comptait 2506 données géoréférencées. A partir de ces données, le présent article fait état de la répartition des Reptiles et Amphibiens dans le département de Tarn-et-Garonne et sur le secteur de la Forêt de Grésigne.
Albinet, S. & Muratet, J. & Vacher, J.-P. (2013) -
The city of Toulouse is engaged in a policy of census, conservation and development of urban biodiversity. In this context, a survey of the fauna and flora has been ordered to the consulting firm Biotope. Nineteen sites, chosen by the City of Toulouse for their potential interest, have been surveyed in 2009. A supplementary site was surveyed in 2011. Also, data was gathered from other organisms involved in biodiversity monitoring. This article presents the results of the data collected in the course of this study, with addition of supplementary data from the authors. This study enabled to enhance the current knowledge on the herpetofauna of the county of Toulouse, with more than 600 field data collected, and the discovery of three new taxa. The number of amphibian and reptile species of Toulouse is respectively twelve and ten.
Alekperov A.M. (1978) -
Алекперов, А.M. (1978) -
Alekperov, A.M. (1971) -
Aleksandric, D. (2022) -
This bachelor thesis deals with testing the buccal swab method as a non-invasive toxicological method. Environmental pollution due to anthropogenic influence is increasing, therefore more attention is focused on researching the impact of pollution on organisms and the environment. Recent researches try to encroach on nature as little as possible and degrade it in any way, which gives importance to such methods. They are increasingly used in higher groups of vertebrates (mammals), but at the level of herpetofauna it has not yet been investigated. During the research, 16 lizards (five Lacerta agilis and 11 Podarcis muralis) were caught and their swabs were taken. The samples were processed and the amount of protein was determined. Due to the very low values of the protein concentration, the enzyme activity was not determined. The method proved to be unreliable because small fluctuations in the amount of sample significantly affect the result. In addition, high-quality swabbing of lizards is difficult due to the impossibility of turning the stick in order to take the required amount of sample.
Alfermann, D. (2004) -
Alfermann, D. (2008) -
Alfermann, D. (2009) -
Alfermann, D. (2010) -
Alfermann, D. (2011) -
Alfermann, D. & Nicolai, H. (2003) -
Im Auftrag des Hessische Dienstleistungszentrums für Landwirtschaft, Gartenbau und Naturschutz (HDLGN) führte die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Amphibien- und Reptilienschutz in Hessen e.V. (AGAR) 2003 eine Erfassung der Zauneidechse (Lacerta agilis) in Hessen durch. Durch Auswertung vorhandener Dokumente und durch eine landesweite Kartierung konnten insgesamt 470 Datensätze zu Zauneidechsensichtungen für den Zeitraum 1998- 2003 erfasst werden. Die Zauneidechse läßt sich im Vergleich zu anderen Reptilienarten verhältnismäßig leicht kartieren. Nicht desto trotz beruhen einige Hinweise auf Zufallsbeobachtungen. Die Auswertung der rezenten Verbreitungsdaten zeigt, dass die Art über fast ganz Hessen verbreitet ist und örtlich sogar relativ häufig angetroffen werden kann. Scheinbare Verbreitungslücken in ansonsten offensichtlich geeigneten Gebieten lassen sich vermutlich durch gezielte Regionalkartierungen schließen. Die Zauneidechse fehlt in Hessen vermutlich lediglich in den bewaldeten Hochlagen von Kellerwald, Rhön, Vogelsberg und Taunus. Die Zauneidechse kann zu den häufigsten Reptilienarten in Hessen gezählt werden. Die Bestandsentwicklung ist aber vermutlich rückläufig, wie dies z. B. auch für Rheinland-Pfalz vermutet wird (HAHN-SIRY 1996). Es wird angeregt, in Hessen zunächst auf der Basis regelmäßiger Präsenz-Absenz-Untersuchungen ein stichprobenartiges Monitoring an ausgewählten Zauneidechsen-Standorten einzuführen. Die Abschätzung von Abnahmetrends müsste über den Verlust gesamter Populationen erfolgen. Jegliche Monitoring-Ansätze sollten eine Komponente zur Bewertung der Habitatentwicklung beinhalten. Methoden und Bewertungsrahmen können provisorisch definiert werden, sollten aber in ihrer endgültigen Form gemeinsam mit anderen Bundesländern erarbeitet werden. Das vorliegende Gutachten enthält einen Steckbrief der Zauneidechse sowie den Entwurf eines Bewertungsrahmens.
Alfermann, D. & Nicolai, H. (2004) -
Alge, R. (1999) -
Alkan, B. (1963) -
Vorarbeiten über Schädlingsfauna der Kriehtieren (Reptilien) in der Türkei -- Die Kriehtiere leben meistens auf dem Lande. Viele sind Insektenfresser. Zahlreiche Arten nehmen tierische und pflanzliche, oder ausschliesslich pflanzliche Nahrung zu sich. Ihre wirtschaftliche Schäden an Kulturpflanzen sind gelegentlich. Die besonderen Arten von Pflanzenschädlingen, die in der Türkei leben, sind noch nicht genugend untersucht. Darüber findet man heute sehr wenige und nur zerstreute Veröffentlichungen und Beobachtungen in der Hand. In dieser Vorarbeit sind die bisheute bekannten pflanzenschädliche Arten von Kriehtieren bzw. Eidechsen und Schildkröten, in ihren Verbreitungsgebieten und ihre Nährpflanzen zum erstenmale zusammengestellt. Selbstverstândlioh sind darüber weitere und vertiefte Beobachtungen erforderlich. -- Die Arten der Eidechsen: Agama stellio L. (Schleuderschwanz). Verbreitung: Anatolien, Ankara (Ebner 1919, Kerville 1939). Nährpflanzen: Die süssen Früchten wie Feigen, Pfirsiche, Zuckermelonen, und andere Früohte, Salate, Lattichsalate.,- Agama stellio stellio L. Verbreitung: Süd - und west Türkei, Amasya, Nigde, Diyarbakir, Kayseri, Çanakkale (Bodenheimer 1946 und andere). Nährpflanzen: Wie bei Agama stellio L. -- Agama ruderata Oliv. (Ankara, Kerville 1939), Agama ruderata ruderata Oliv. Ankara, Eregli (Konya), Mardin, Nusaybin, Gaziantep und Malatya (Bodenheimer 1946), Eine Probe in Eregli (Konya) wurde vom Verfasser gefunden. Nährpflanzen: Noch nicht festgestellt, vielleicht wie bei Agama stellio L. -- Lacerta viridis Laur. var. major D. und B. (Srnaragdeidechse). Verbreitung: Westanatolien, andere Fundorte sind nicht bekannt. Nährpflanzen: Weintrauben, Feigen, Kirchen und andere süsse Früchten. Note: Noch mehrere Lacerta Arten wurden in der Türkei gefunden, ob sie pflanzliche Nahrung zu sich nehmen oder nicht, ist unklar. -- Die Arten der Schildkröten. Testudo graeca L. (Grichische Schildkröte). Verbreitung: Fast in allen Geblieten der Türkei. Nährpflanzen: Steppenpflanzen, junges Getreide - Baumwolle -Luzerne - Pflanzen, Gemüsen, Weintrauben, Blätter und Juruge Triebe von vielen jungen Pflanzen. -- Emys orbicularis L. (Surnpf-oder Europäische Schildkröte). Verbreuitung: Ankara (Kerville 1939), Manisa, Bursa, Kayseri, Eski¬sehir, Adapazari, Turhal (Bodenheimer 1946 und andere). Nährpflanzen: Wedntrauben, Zucker-und Wassermelonen. - Note: Noch andere Arten der Schâldknöten leben auch in der Türkei, aber ihre Nahrung ist nicht bekannt.
Allen, A. (1971) -
Allen, A. (1973) -
Almaca, C. (1971) -
Die landgebundenen Wirbeltiere des festländischen Iberiens (Süßwasserfische, Amphibien, Reptilien mit Ausnahme der Meeresschildkröten, Säugetiere mit Ausnahme der Chiroptera, Pinnipedia und Cetacea) bilden, wie im einzelnen gezeigt wird, in ihrer Gesamtheit eine besondere faunistische Einheit: ungefähr die Hälfte der Formen (Spezies oder Subspezies) ist endemisch; das gilt für 73 % der echten Süßwasserfische, 47 % der Amphibien, 36 % der Reptilien und 53 % der Säugetiere. Die geographische Isolierung durch die Pyrenäen und das Mittelmeer ist gewiß die Hauptursache für die Entwicklung einer so eigenartigen Fauna, aber auch andere Faktoren (die sehr verschiedenen Klimate und Biotope innerhalb Iberiens, der im Vergleich mit anderen Gebieten Europas geringere Einfluß der Vereisungen usw. haben sicher ebenfalls eine sehr wichtige Rolle gespielt.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus erythrurus, Algyroides hidalgoi, Algyroides marchi marchi, Algyroides marchi niethammeri, Lacerta agilis agilis, Lacerta hispanica hispanica, Lacerta hispanica bocagei, Lacerta hispanica vaucheri, Lacerta lepida lepida, Lacerta lepida nevadensis, Lacerta monticola monticola, Lacerta monticola cantabrica, Lacerta monticola cyreni, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta viridis viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Psammodromus algirus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus hispanicus, Psammodromus hispanicus edwardsianus.
Alves de Matos, A.P. & Crespo, E.G. & Paperna, I. (1998) -
Amann, T. (1995) -
Es wurden zwei elektrophoretische Methoden zur genetischen Untersuchung der Smaragdeidechse Lacerta viridis durchgeführt.
I. Die Polyacrylamid-Gel Elektrophorese erzielte folgende Ergebnisse.
1. Es trat eine bei allen Individuen homogene Albuminbande mit leichten, nicht spezifizierbaren Schwankungen auf.
2. Vier verschiedene Globulin-Loci ohne Variationen hinsichtlich des Geschlechts oder physiologischer Parameter konnten unterschieden werden.
3. Die Globuline traten in zwei typischen Formationen auf. Diese waren jeweils diagnostisch für Tiere aus Frankreich und Rheinoland-Pfalz, sowie für Tiere aus Brandenburg, Österreich, Ungarn und Euböa. Es konnte ein Ost- und ein Westtypus unterschieden werden.
4. Weder Transferrine noch Postalbumine ließen sich deutlich anfärben oder auswerten.
II. Die Celluloseacetat-Gel Elektrophorese der Allozyme der zellulären Blutbedstandteile.
1. Von 37 Enzymen konnten 14 mit insgesamt 17 Loci untersucht werden.
2. Sechs der 17 Loci waren polymorph (35 %(. Diese waren: Acontinase, Peptidase-A, -B1, -B2, -D, 6-Phosphogluconat-Dehydrogenase.
3. Die beiden Allele der Aconitase waren diagnostisch für den West- und den Osttypus.
4, Bei den anderen polymorphen Peptidasen konnten typische Ost-West-Variationen erkannt werden.
III. Es wurde eine nummerische Auswertung mit Hilfe von Computerprogrammen durchgeführt.
1. Die ermittelte Heterozygotie lag bei Werten zwischen 0.02 und 0.05. Die Heterozygotie-Werte der untersuchten Populationen mit weniger als 4 Individuen erschienen nicht representativ.
2. Die Heterozygotie der Populationen von Rhein und Brandenburg erreichte nur die Hälfte derjenigen aus Österreich. Dies wurde mit einer genetischen Verarmung durch Isolation und Inzucht gedeutet.
3. Die Berechnung der genetischen Distanzen erfolgte nach NEI (1970).
4. Innerhalb der Osttiere und Westtiere lagen die genetischen Distanzen mit Werten von 0.0 bis 0.04 sehr niedrig. Man kann daraus eine sehr langsame Mutationsgeschwindigkeit ableiten.
5. Bei den genetischen Distanzen ergaben sich zwischen den Populationen des Ost- und des Westtypus der Smaragdeidechsen Werte zwischen 0.354 und 0.38. Diese liegen etwa auf dem Niveau von Distanzen zwischen anderen Lacertiden-Arten.
IV. Interpretation der Daten
Die Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchung wurden zusammen mit Daten weiterer Arbeiten dahingehend gedeutet, daß es sich bei den Tieren aus dem westlichen Teil des Verbreitungsgebietes und denen aus dem östlichen Areal um zwei Arten handelt. Sie wurden als Lacerta bilineata (DAUDIN 1802) für den Westteil und Lacerta viridis (Laurenti 1768) für den Ostteil bezeichnet.
Die vorliegenden Ergebnisse unterstützten die These, daß die Smaragdeidechse postglazial aus zwei verschiedenen Regugialräumen östlich und westlich der Alpen nach Norden vorgedrungen ist. Aufgrund der deutlichen Unterschiede zwischen den beiden deutschen Vorkommen kann anagenommen werden, daß sich die beiden Arten nördlich der Alpen postglazial nicht überschnitten haben.
Über kleinräumige Wanderbewegungen kann mit den vorliegenden Daten keine Aussage gemacht werden.
Eine Mischzone der Arten südlich der Alpen wird in Kroatien und Slowenien erwartet.
Amann, T. & Joger, U. (1995) -
Amann, T. & Joger, U. & Veith, M. (1997) -
Amann, T. & Razzetti, E. & Joger, U. (2001) -
Amann, T. & Rykena, S. & Joger, U. & Nettmann, H.-K. & Veith, M. (1997) -
Electrophoretic investigations of six populations of green lizards from Western, Central, and Southeastern Europe are consistent with results from hybridization experiments and confirm species status for the western green lizard, Lacerta bilineata. NE! distances of 0.16- 0.19 found between L. viridis and L. bilineata are within the range found for other sister species of lacertids. Lizards from the Greek island of Euboea differ slightly from typical viridis morphologically and electrophoretically, which is again consistent with hybridization results. The proven practicability of experimental hybridization provides support for the biological species concept.
Amaral, J.P.S. do (2006) -
Amat Orriols, F. (2003) -
Geographical variation in scalation traits of the Iberian green lizard Lacerta schreiberi was studied measuring 27 morphometric and pholidotic traits in 533 lizards from 12 populations. The results show a little morphological differentiation between the populations of the mountains of Central System and the Atlantic side of the Iberian peninsula. The reduced width of the occipital plate of Central System lizards appears as the most remarkable difference between this population and the other populations analysed. This differentiation is consistent with the presence of two groups of mitochondria DNA haplotypes in each of these geographic areas. Nevertheless, the differences detected were too insufficient to consider a modification of the taxonomic status of Lacerta schreiberi.
Amat Orriols, F. (2011) -
Morphologic diversity was studied in 129 species of lacertid lizards and their relationship with ecology by means of comparative analysis on seven linear morphometric measurements. Body size is the most important variable determining, a continuum among small bodied species and larger ones independently evolved through the lacertid phylogeny. This variable is strongly and positively correlated with the others masking the patterns of morphologic diversity. Multivariate analysis on size-adjusted variables show a negative covariation among relative tail and limb length. Remarkably, arboreal and semiarboreal species (Takydromus and the Equatorial African clade) appeared two times independently during the evolution of lacertids and are characterized by extremely long tails, and relatively long forelimbs in comparison with hindlimb length. The arboreal and glider lizard Holaspis with their short tail constitute the only exception. Another case of convergence is found by some species dwelling into dense vegetation or grass (Tropidosaura, Lacerta agilis, Takydromus amurensis or Zootoca) which have long tails and short limbs. On the opposite, species living in deserts, steppes or scrublands with scarce vegetation isolated into extended open areas have developed long hindlimbs and short forelimbs to achieve higher speed and maneuverability This is especially the case of Acanthodactylus and Eremias.
Amat Orriols, F. & Escoriza, D. (2023) -
Pleistocene climate oscillations had a dramatic impact on the distribution of temperate ectothermic organisms. These range fluctuations plausibly have left a footprint on the species’ genetic structure which is linked with modelled paleoclimatic conditions, allowing us to infer which environmental factors shaped the evolutionary history of Sand lizards. In this study, we evaluated the patterns of niche diversification of Lacerta agilis in Eurasia, based on mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche models. The lineage of Sand lizards evolved 3.8–1.8 Mya, being the most basal in the east-Caucasian subclade, with eight mitochondrial subclades separated into two groups. These groups represent two independent waves of expansion from the ancestral region constituted by the Caucasus and the adjacent northern plains to the Paleartic. Paleoclimatic models suggested a high instability of the range of this lineage in the last 3 Mya, with niche contractions during the colder glacial periods and expansions following the glacier retreat. This suggested an allopatric diversification process, with subspecies boundaries upon secondary contact maintained by competitive interactions, at least between closely related pairs. The great mountain systems of the Mediterranean Peninsulas constituted stable refugia during the Pliocene–Pleistocene cycles, favouring the evolution of endemic subclades. These montane subclades have higher mitochondrial diversity than those that occur in the plains. However, the Pyrenean endemic L. agilis garzoni is exception possibly due to the occupation of a very small refugium during the recent glacial phases.
Amat, F. (1997) -
Amat, F. (2008) -
The persistence of populations is based on the optimization of reproductive processes as a means of compensating for the loss of individuals through mortality. One way of reaching this equilibrium is the coadaptation of reproductive traits defining different strategies. I explored these tactics in lacertid lizards by analysing the covariation between, on the one hand, clutch size and frequency, and on the other, egg mass, using independent contrast data from 42 species. In addition, I examined the influence of female and newborn size on these variables. All the traits investigated, with the exception of clutch frequency, are influenced by female body size, reflecting physical constraints on reproductive output. The negative trade-off between clutch size and newborn size on one hand and egg mass on the other is congruent with the partitioning of energetic resources to produce a few large or numerous small descendents. Clutch frequency is unrelated to the other female reproductive traits.
Amat, F. & Llorente, G.A. & Carretero, M.A. (1998) -
Amat, F. & Llorente, G.A. & Carretero, M.A. (2000) -
The reproductive cycle of Lacerta agilis was studied in the Pyrenees at the southwestern boundary of the species range. The activity period is short (about 4.5 months). Males attain sexual maturity at smaller sizes than females and show mixed type spermatogenesis and spring spermiogenesis. Vitellogenesis in females is rapid (45 days for the whole population) with a long period of oviductal retention. Clutches are laid at the beginning of summer. During the reproductive period males mobilise reserves during the mating activities. Females deplete more fat reserves but later in the season than males and they are at their lowest after egg production. In both sexes, energy resources are mobilised from the fat bodies and also from the liver and the proximal part of the tail. Clutch size increases with female size but also depends on other factors. The short activity period does not appear to affect the reproductive cycle of this species. The gonad cycles and clutch traits do not show substantial differences from other European populations, perhaps with the exception of slight variation in the timing of reproductive events and, to a lesser extent, clutch frequency. This evidence strongly suggests that the limited southwestern range of Lacerta agilis is not due to environmental constraints but to very recent colonization.
Amat, F. & Llorente, G.A. & Carretero, M.A. (2003) -
Abstract. The thermal relations, diel, and annual activity and microhabitat use of Lacerta
agiliswere studied in the Pyrenean isolated range of this species. Although, this heliothermic
lizard demonstrated thermoregulatory capability, thermal constraints attributable to the mountain
climate were observed. The activity pattern was that typical of cold temperate lizards but the
beginning of activity was delayed in comparison with lowland populations. The reproductive
cycle determined different activity patterns for males and females. The ontogenetic and seasonal
changes in microhabitat use detected suggest influence of body size, reproductive condition in
adults, and interference with other individuals in juveniles.
Ambrogio, A. & Mezzadri, S. (2003) -
Ambrogio, AS. & Mezzadri, S. (2003) -
Amphibien/Reptilien-Biotop-Schutz Baden-Württemberg e.V. (2020) -
Ananjeva, N. & Borkin, L. & Darevsky, I. & Orlov, N. (1988) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Borkin, L.Y. & Darevsky, I.S. & Orlov, N.L. (1998) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Darevsky, I.S. (2004) -
Ананьева Н.Б. & Даревский И.С. (2004) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Orlov, N.L. & Khalikov, R.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ryabov, S.A. & Barabanov, A.V. (2006) -
TERRA TYPICA. South Sweden.
DISTRIBUTION. Sand lizard is one of the most widely distributed
Eurasian species; its distribution range covers the most part of
Europe from western France and north of the Balkan Peninsula to
Eastern Siberia, north-western Mongolia and western China in the
east (Chinese part of the Mongolian Altai). On the territory of North
Eurasia the species occurs from western borders of Moldova, the
Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States and Russia in the west to the
northern area adjacent to Lake Baikal and southern Trans-Baikal area
in the east, more or less in parallel with the north border of taiga. It
inhabits the Caucasus and Kazakhstan in the south. It is known from
Mongolia (Kobdo aimak). In the south-east distribution range covers
the eastern Semirechye, north-western Mongolia (Kobdosky
aimak) and the western part of Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous
Region in China. From there it penetrates into Issyk-Kul depression
in Kyrgyzstan. Data on the records in piedmonds of Turkestan and
Seravshan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan are erroneous
Ten subspecific forms are distinguished, the following seven
occur in the former Soviet Union. L. a. chersonensis Andrzejowsky,
1832 – Moldova, the right-bank Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States,
Leningrad region and south of the neighbouring Karelia. In the
east, approximately from the left-bank valley of the river Dnieper
a narrow area of intergradation with the neighbouring eastern
subspecies is noted. L. a. exigua Eichwald, 1831 occupies the
whole eastern part of the distribution range up to the Crimean
Peninsula and Ciscaucasia in the south. L. a. grusinica Peters, 1960
inhabits the coast of the Black Sea and submontane regions of the
Caucasus in the south-west of the Krasnodar Territory, Abkhazia,
in the Colchis lowland and Ajaria. L. a. brevicaudata Peters, 1958
occurs in northern and western Armenia, southern Georgia and
on the southern slopes of the Great Caucasus range within the
North Ossetia. L. a. ioriensis Peters et Muskhelischwili, 1968 occurs
on the southern slopes of the Caucasian range: in the valley and
ravine of the upper current of the river Iori in Georgia. L. a. boemica
Suchow, 1929 inhabits submontane regions of North Ossetia,
Ingooshetia, Chechnya and Dagestan. L. a. tauridica Suchow, 1926
inhabits the southern montane Crimea.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red
Data Book of Latvia (2003) and Estonia (1998). Its conservation
status (category 2) corresponds to the same status of the Bern
TERRA TYPICA. Tiflis city (=Tbilisi), Georgia.
DISTRIBUTION. The most part of the distribution range in
North Eurasia is situated in the Caucasus. There it is noted in the
Transcaucasia, in eastern and northern Georgia, submontane and
montane regions of Azerbaijan and Armenia, as well as in river
valleys in interior Dagestan. Besides, it occurs on the coast of the
Black Sea of the Krasnodar Territory, Abkhazia and Ajaria. Outside
of the Caucasus it is encountered in the eastern Turkey and northwestern
Iran. One of the three subspecies, L. m. media Lantz et
Cyren, 1920, occurs in the Caucasus.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red Data
Book of the Russian Federation (2001): category 3 – a rare species
within the limits of Russia with distribution on the extreme northern
border of its range.
Female (left) and male (right) of Medium Lizard
TERRA TYPICA. Krasnovodsk, southern Turkmenistan.
DISTRIBUTION. L. strigata is widely distributed in North Eurasia. It
lives predominantly in the eastern half of the Caucasus, at least up
to the latitude of the towns Armavir and Stavropol in the Stavropol
Territory in the north-west and the valley of the river Terek and
lower reaches of the river Kuma in Dagestan in the north-east. In
the eastern Transcaucasia it mainly occurs in the lowland regions
of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia, where it is not known to the
west of the Suramsky range. Until recently an isolated population
existed in the area of the cape Pizunda in Abkhazia. It also occurs
in the south-west of Turkmenistan. Outside of the Caucasus it is
known from eastern Turkey and northern Iran.
CONSERVATION STATUS. On the most part of the distribution range
the number of the species is stable.
TERRA TYPICA. Vienna, Austria.
DISTRIBUTION. It is distributed in middle and southern Europe, in
the north-western part of Asia Minor, on the most part of Moldova
and south-west of the right-bank Ukraine. On the valley of the river
Dnieper it nearly reaches Kiev. In its middle current it appears in
the left-bank area, where on the valley of the river Vorskla reaches
the Poltava city in the region with the same name. Of five described
subspecies L. v. viridis Laurenti, 1768 occurs in the Ukraine
and in Moldova.
CONSERVATION STATUS. On the most part of the distribution range
the number of the species is stable.
Andelkovic, M. & Urosevic, A. & Golubovic, A. & Nikolic, S. & Tomovic, L. (2016) -
We tested intra-population morphological variability and the ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in a sample of 78 individuals of Lacerta agilis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Bistra Mountain in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The effect of predation was also assessed by examining the animals’ tails. In 43.8% of individuals of all age classes tails were missing or regenerated, which means that lizards are subjected to high predation at this locality. After measuring, marking and photographing, all animals were released into their natural habitat. The set of 17 linear measurements and body mass were taken for each individual, and snout-vent length was taken as a standard descriptor of body size. Among adults, significant sexual dimorphism was recorded in body size, head dimensions and distance between front and hind limbs, while sexual dimorphism was not observed in juveniles. Females had greater body size and distance between front and hind limbs, while males had proportionately larger heads. Static allometric trajectories of adult females and males were assessed, and they diverged only for head and mouth width. Divergence of ontogenetic allometric trajectories was significant for all measurements except the dimensions of the fourth toe on the front and hind limbs. Sexual dimorphism pattern in sand lizards from Bistra Mountain was in concordance with previous studies. Larger adult female body size could be interpreted as a result of sexual selection for fecundity, while larger male heads could result from selection for greater bite force in two ways: intra-sexual selection (between males) in relation to territory defense, and inter- sexual in relation to copulatory bites. Sexual dimorphism was not significant among juveniles: adults apparently attain a different morphology through diverging allometric trajectories during growth. Further studies should include populations of sand lizards from different habitat types to further assess patterns of intra-specific morphological variability.
Andelkovic, M.Z. & Lakusic, M.D. & Bjedlica, V.G. & Mauricic, M.S. & Danon, G.G. & Urosevic, A.M. & Tomovic, L.M. (2022) -
Anderholm,S. & Olsson, M. & Wapstra, E. & Ryberg, K. (2004) -
To investigate the impact of nuptial coloration (the
badge) on male fitness in the Swedish sand lizard
(Lacerta agilis), we conducted a manipulation
experiment in a natural population. Males in one
group had their badges enlarged by being painted as
cheaters and were compared to a control group with
respect to mate acquisition, body condition and survival.
Badge enlargement did not affect survival, but
elevated mate acquisition by almost 400%, and body
condition in small males. This increase in condition
is likely to stem from greater access to female-associated
sites with high food availability.
Andersen, K.T. (1930) -
Anderson, J. (1872) -
Anderson, S.C. (1968) -
Anderson, S.C. (1974) -
Acanthodactylus cantoris blanfordi, Acanthodactylus cantoris schmidti, Acanthodactylus fraseri, Acanthodactylus micropholis, Apathya cappadocica urmiana, Eremias arguta, Eremias brevirostris, Eremias fasciata, Eremias grammica, Eremias guttulata, Eremias intermedia, Eremias lineolata, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias persica, Eremias pleskei, Eremias scripta, Eremias strauchi, Eremias velox velox, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta princeps princeps, Lacerta princeps kurdistanica, Lacerta saxicola defilippii. Lacerta saxicola raddei, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata media, Ophisops elegans.
Anderson, S.C. (1999) -
Acanthodactylus blanfordi, Acanthodactylus boskianus, Acanthodactylus grandis, Acanthodactylus micropholis, Acanthodactylus nilsoni, Acanthodactylus opheodurus, Acanthodactylus schmidti, Eremias acutirostris, Eremias andersoni, Eremias arguta, Eremias fasciata, Eremias grammica, Eremias intermedia, Eremias lalezharica, Eremias lineolata, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias nigrolateralis, Eremias persica, Eremias pleskei, Eremias scripta, Eremias strauchi strauchi, Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica, Eremias velox velox, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica urmiana, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta defilippii, Lacerta media media, Lacerta mostoufi, Lacerta praticola praticola, Lacerta princeps princeps, Lacerta princeps kurdistanica. Lacerta raddei raddei, Lacerta raddei vanensis, Lacerta steineri, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta valentini valentini, Lacerta zagrosica, Mesalina brevirostris brevirostris, Mesalina brevirostris fieldi, Mesalina watsonana, Ophisops elegans.
Anderson, S.C. (2000) -
Relatively little is known about the ecology of lizards in Iran. This paper serves as a brief introduction to five representative biotopes and their associated lizard species living syntopically, based largely on my own observations. The selected localities are found in 1) Masjed Soleyman, foothills of the Zagros Mountains, Khuzestan; 2) Kupal dunes, on the Mesopotamian Plain, Khuzestan; 3) Shah ‘Abbas Caravanserai, Dasht-e Kavir, on the Central Plateau; 4) an abandoned village in Sistan, ruined buildings and loose loess substrate; 5) Hyrcanian Forest, northern slopes of lower Alborz Mountains and the Gorgan region. The biotopes are characterized briefly and the concept of syntopy is discussed.
Andersson, K. & Bergling, S.-A. (2003) -
Andrä, E. (2014) -
Andrada, J. (1980) -
Andrei, M.-D. (2002) -
The author updates the knowledge on the herpetofauna of southern Dobruja according to his
own studies within the area, during 1993-1998, when he identified 18 taxa. They represent 37.5% of
the total amphibian and reptile species from Romania. Also the author makes some remarks on
respective ecosystems and on the urgent protection need of some species.
Andrén, C. (2004) -
Amphibian and reptile species likely to occur in the Simpevarp SKB special
area of investigation are listed with comments on their distribution, status, biology
and environmental demands. The species are Triturus vulgaris (Smooth newt),
T cristatus (Great crested newt), Bufo bufo (Common toad), Rana arvalis (Moor frog),
R temporaria (Common frog), Lacerta agilis (Sand lizard), L vivipara (Common
lizard), Anguis fragilis (Slow-worm), Coronella austriaca (Smooth snake), Natrix
natrix (Grass snake) and Vipera berus (Adder). A short field study was performed
mainly to verify the presence of suitable habitats for the species listed. Findings of
amphibians and reptiles as well as their potential habitats are noted by geographical
codes and additional remarks are given to interesting findings. Altogether 38 findings
of five different species of amphibians and reptiles were done in 18 localities. Of special
interest is the record of sand lizard, which probably indicate a colony in the vicinity
even though this could not be confirmed.
Andrén, C. & Berglind, S.-A. & Nilson, G. (1988) -
Andren, C. & Nilson, G. (1976) -
Andren, C. & Nilson, G. (1979) -
Andreone, F. (2003) -
Andreone, F. & Sindaco, R. (1989) -
Andres, C. & Franke, F. & Bleidorn, C. & Bernhard, D. & Schlegel, M. (2014) -
The Sand lizard Lacerta agilis inhabits a huge area across Eurasia with several subspecies. Nine subspecies are generally approved, L. a. agilis, L. a. argus, L. a. bosnica; L. a. chersonensis, L. a. exigua, L. a. grusinica, L. a. iorinensis, L. a. brevicaudata and L. a. boemica, but several more have been described. The emergence of this large number of subspecies is connected with the phylogeographic history of this species, defined by geographic and climatic processes. A study revealing phylogenetic relationships of this species was already conducted with a broad taxon sampling and coverage. However, the latter study was based solely on the cytochrome b gene and, furthermore, the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the subspecies L. a. bosnica was underrepresented. This peninsula is a centre of European herpetofaunal endemism with high levels of phenotypic and genotypic variation. Therefore, the inclusion of the subspecies L. a. bosnica is important to clarify the overall view of the phylogenetic relations within the Lacerta agilis subspecies complex and to investigate the level of population differentiation within this highly diverse area. Thus, the aim of the present study was a more thorough analysis of the Balkan Peninsula with a broader taxon sampling. Furthermore, we extended the available datasets by adding the mitochondrial d-loop region and by further samples of different areas of the distribution range apart from the Balkan Peninsula. Our study reveals that the Balkan Peninsula is apparently inhabited by several differentiated lineages, whereby the Central Greek lineage might deserve subspecies status. Furthermore, the distribution area of the two subspecies L. a. agilis and L. a. argus should be revised, as the results of our study raise doubt about the commonly assumed distribution of both subspecies. As the most important outcome our results support that L. a. boemica deserves species status.
Andres, C. & Franke, F. & Bleidorn, C. & Bernhard, D. & Schlegel, M. (2015) -
The sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) inhabits a huge area across Eurasia with several subspecies. Nine subspecies are generally approved, L. a. agilis, L. a. argus, L. a. bosnica; L. a. chersonensis, L. a. exigua, L. a. grusinica, L. a. iorinensis, L. a. brevicaudata and L. a. boemica, but several more have been described. The emergence of this large number of subspecies is connected with the phylogeographic history of this species, defined by geographic and climatic processes. Within Germany two subspecies exist according to Bischoff (1988), L. a. argus und L. a. agilis, which are separated based on morphological features. However, the existence of these two subspecies was questioned by Rahmel (1988) and by Elbing et al. (1996). We conducted phylogenetic analyses based on the cytochrome b gene sequences from specimen of L. a. agilis and L. a. argus with samples covering their whole distribution range. These sequences already have been published before by Andres et al. (2014) and Kalyabina-Hauf & Ananjeva (2004). Our study challenges the commonly assumed distribution of L. a. agilis und L. a. argusand their status as distinct subspecies. Therefore their genetic status and distribution range should be thoroughly analysed and revised in future studies.
Andreyushkova, D.A. & Lisachov, A.P. & Romanenko, S.A. & Giovannotti, M. & Pereira, J.C. & Ferguson-Smith, M.A. & Borodin, P.M. & Trifonov, V.A. (2019) -
Andrijczuk, C. (2009) -
Am 07.08.2006 wurden zwei juvenile Lacerta agilis in einer Falkenzuchtvoliere in einem Falkenzuchtbetrieb in Helvesiek, Niedersachsen (TK 25: 2723.3.11; 53° 13’N, 9° 29’O) unter einer reflektierenden Badebrente aus V²A-Stahl gefunden. Unter der Badebrente herrschte eine Temperatur von 23,4°C über dem Boden herrschten 27,35°C und 2 m über dem Boden 26°C. Somit befanden sich die Eidechsen an dem scheinbar kühlsten Punkt der Voliere, was ein Zeichen von höherer Affinität zu niedrigeren Temperaturen von juvenilen Lacerta agilis ist. Die Voliere wird in ihrem Aufbau beschrieben mit ihren Strukturelementen (niedrige Vegetation, Kiesbahn entlang den geschlossenen Wänden aus Buchen- und Koniferenholz. Ebenfalls sind Schattenplätze vorhanden, jedoch herrscht eine hohe Temperatur in Bodengrundnähe aufgrund der Grundvegetation und der umseitig geschlossenen Wände.
Das ist der erste Nachweis von Eidechsen in einer Voliere auf dem Betriebsgelände, außerhalb der Volieren gibt es jedoch mehrere (auch adulte) Zauneidechsen. Die beschriebene Voliere könnte ein potentielles Eidechsenhabitat repräsentieren, in Kombination mit einem hohen Insektenaufkommen aufgrund von Futterresten (Fleisch und andere Gewebe) die in der Falkenzucht unvermeidbar sind. Es ist denkbar, dass mehr Eidechsenvorkommen in ähnlichen Tierhaltungseinrichtungen möglich sind, jedoch ist dafür eine Kontaktaufnahme mit den Betreibern unerlässlich, da die Anlagen in der Regel nicht öffentlich sind. Dies könnte helfen, neue oder bisher unbekannte Populationen und Vorkommen von Zauneidechsen oder anderen Reptilienspezies festzustellen.
Andriopoulos, P. & Pafilis, P. (2019) -
Andrzejowski, A. (1832) -
Angel, F. (1946) -
Angelici, F.M. & Luiselli, L. & Rugiero, L. (1997) -
Food habits of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) were studied in some Mediterranean sites of the vicinities of Rome (Latium, central Italy), by means both of stomach dissection of individuals found already dead in the field and faeces analysis of living individuals. The taxonomic diet composition of the lizards was accurately described by both methods, thus demonstrating the reliability of faecal pellet analysis as an non-cruel method to study lizard diets. However, by using the faeces analysis technique, it is difficult to measure the exact food intake rate (items / unit of time) as well as the size distribution of prey ingested by lizards. There was a remarkable ontogenetic change in the taxonomic diet composition of green lizards: adults essentially consumed beetles and isopods, whereas juveniles fed mainly upon orthopterans, spiders, and Rhynchota. Cannibalism and predation upon small vertebrates (lizards) were very rare events. It is suggested that (i) age-related differences in microhabitat frequented could explain the dietary differences between young and adult lizards due to different availability of the various prey categories in the various microhabitats, and that (ii) adults and juveniles partition their habitats to reduce intraspecific interference competition.
Angelov, P. & Gruev, B. & Tomov, V. (1972) -
Angot, D. (2015) -
Anh, J.N.H. (1968) -
Annousis, I. & Kapsalas, G. & Pafilis, P. (2021) -
Although the insular distribution of the rich herpetofauna of Greece has been studied more extensively, the mainland one is still underexplored. The region of Attica in central Greece represents one of these “black spots” in the mainland. Thus, in 2019 we surveyed for the first time the herpetofauna of Attica in a systematic way. We collected 794 field records of 31 species (4 amphibians, 27 reptiles); Testudo graeca and Trachemys elegans were documented for the first time for Attica.
Anonymous (1897) -
Anonymous (1904) -
Anonymous (1923) -
Anonymous (1995) -
Anonymous (2003) -
Anonymous (2007) -
Anonymous (2008) -
Anonymous (2014) -
Antal, Z. (2006) -
Three different lizard species can be found at the great pasture of Hajúbagos. These are the balkan or crimean wall lizard (Podarcis taurica), the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) and the green lizard (Lacerta viridis). All of them are protected by law in Hungary but while sand lizard and green lizard is common all over the country, the amount of the balkan wall lizard is decreasing. The main cause of this regrettable possession is the habitat degradation and thus habitat loss. Namely balkan wall lizard not only prefers but suffers open sand grasslands and these kinds of habitats are disappearing in Hungary. Due to the fact that the extensive animal grazing lost its importance, open sand pastures started to change, succession can be realized. Thus grass closing constantly what is favourable for sand lizard and green lizard. Furthermore sand lizard and balkan wall lizard share roughly the same foodsource and moreover green lizard could possibly pass into a predator of balkan wall lizard juveniles also. Therefore sand lizard and green lizard became competitors (or predators) of balkan wall lizard and the proportion of the three species compared to each other is changing. My aim is to examine the vegetation change and simultaneously monitor the amount of the mentioned three lizard species. After all I would like to make a well established proposal on the management of protected grasslands.
Antipov, S.A. & Doronin I.V. (2018) -
Антипов С.А. & Доронин И.В. (2018) -
Antipov, S.A. & Doronin, I.V. & Milto, K.D. & Sergeev M.A. (2018) -
New data on the distribution of 10 amphibian and 6 reptile species in the Vladimir Region is given. The list of species contains 198 new records including such rare species as Bombina bombina and Coronella austriaca.
Антипов С.А. & Доронин И.В. & Мильто К.Д. & Сергеев М. А. (2018) -
Приводятся новые данные по распространению 10 видов земноводных и 6 видов пресмыкающихся во Владимирской области. Список содержит 198 новых находок, включая такие редкие виды, как Bombina bombina и Coronella austriaca.
Antunes, P. & Vicente, L. (2001) -
Antunes, P. & Vicente, L. (2004) -
The last catalogue of the Reptile collection of the Museu Bocage dates back to 1972. The collections were lost in a fire 25 years ago, so it was necessary to analyse the effort of various donors, who offered the Museum a new collection. The evaluation of the sampling effort is important to gather information (on quantity and origin) and the various samples of the species of lacertid lizards present in the Museum and enables an operational and practical visual imaged of that information. The obtained results prove that the study of the sampling effort using ordinary kriging method is robust and accurate on identifying gaps (under or no sampled areas) and a helpful tool to fulfil them. Although beginning to the representative of the Portuguese fauna, the lacertid collection of the Museu Bocage needs major improvements given that it still does not illustrate the actual distribution of lacertid lizards in Portugal. In order to stand for modern standards, when complementing the existing collection we must take into account not only the information provided by the analysis but also conservationist concerns (not killing animals) and the establishment of co-partnerships with congener institutions as well. Nowadays Museums have the duty, more than ever, to keep their collections well housed, cared for and accessible to the scientific community.
Antunes, P. & Vicente, L. & Crespo, E.G. (2003) -
Apashkin, P. & Blokhin, I. & Glazko, V. & Glazko, T. (2022) -
Arakelyan, M. & Danielyan, F. & Corti, C. & Sindaco, R. & Leviton, A. (2011) -
Arakelyan, M. & Jenderedjan, A. (2003) -
ARC (2009) -
ARC (2016) -
Arets, M. (2012) -
Arets, M.H.M. (2000) -
I visited southern France to search for Timon lepidus for the third time in 1998. Sites visited included (among others) Maussane, Lac du Salagou and the surroundings of this lake, St. Rémy-de-Provence, the surrounding hills of Le petit Crau and Avignon. I did not find Timon lepidus this time, but did see Natrix maura, Malpolon monspessulanus, Lacerta bilineata, Podarcis muralis and many Psammodromus hispanicus. There were not very many amphibians visible because of the hot weather.
The author describes a herpetological vacation in southern France. Reptiles and amphibians were abundant in this region. Areas of interest were: La Petite Crau, La Plaine de Ia Crau, Les Alpilles, Les Rochers de Ia Pene and Le Barrage de Sr. Remy. The author was especially interested in spotting Ocellared Lizards (Timon lepida) bur didn` r succeed in finding them. Nevertheless a lot of other animals were seen, as is shown in the table. Nor mentioned in the table are several Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), that were seen at Le Barrage de St. Remy. In addition the author visited Le Village de Torrue at Gonfaron (breeding-center for Testudo hermanni and Testudo graeca) and several other pla- ces in the Sr. Remy region.
Arets, M.H.M. (2021) -
Ariëns Kappers, J. (1967) -
The sensory innervation of the pineal organ of adult Lacerta viridis has been investigated. Some specimens of Lacerta muralis lillfordi were also used. In the pineal epithelium, a small number of nerve cell pericarya of a sensory type are present. They lie either solitary or in small clusters close to the basement membrane. The axons originating from the nerve cell bodies, i. e. the pineal sensory nerve fibers, first course in the intraepithelial nerve fiber layer which is only locally present and contains a restricted number of unmyelinated fibers. In Lacerta viridis, the pineal fibers generally leave the epithelium at the proximal part of the organ proper. They then form small bundles which run along the outer surface of the basement membrane in the leptomeningeal connective tissue covering. At the proximal end of the pineal stalk the single bundles assemble constituting the pineal nerve. In Lacerta muralis the fibers leave the pineal epithelium at the proximal end of the stalk running farther down within the epithelium. Many fibers become myelinated after leaving the pineal epithelium. The pineal nerve runs ventralward in the midplane just caudal to the habenular commissure to which no fibers are given off. Continuing their ventralward course between the habenular commissure and the rostral end of the posterior commissure which is traversed by some of them, the pineal fibers reach the dorsal border of the subcommissural organ. Small separate aberrant pineal bundles traverse the posterior commissure at various more caudal levels. Having reached the dorsal border of the subcommissural organ, part of the pineal fibers continue their ventralward course directly running along the lateral sides of this organ to reach the periventricular nerve fiber layer lateral and ventral to it. A restricted number of fibers first turns in a caudal direction running between the base of the posterior commissure and the base of the subcommissural organ before turning ventralward to reach the periventricular layer. Most probably, pineal fibers do neither join the posterior commissural system nor innervate the subcommissural organ. Once having reached the periventricular layer, some pineal fibers curve in a rostral direction while others, before doing so, send a collateral in a caudal direction. Both, the main fibers and the collaterals, contribute to the formation of the periventricular layer. The sites of termination of the pineal fibers could not be ascertained.
From the presence of intraepithelial sensory nerve cell bodies and from literature data on the ultrastructure of pineal neurosensory cells it is concluded that the adult pineal organ of Lacerta has a, although rudimentary, (photo)sensory function. The demonstration by our guest-worker Dr. W. B. Quay, of the intraepithelial presence of a tryptamine compound, probably serotonin, points, moreover, to a secretory function of this organ.
In adult Lacerta a well-developed parietal nerve connects the parietal eye with the left lateral habenular nucleus. It traverses the habenular commissure.
Arikan, H. & Atatür, M. & Çevic, I.E. & Kumlutaş, Y. (1999) -
A total of 58 (24 MM , 34 VV ) Lacerta viridis specimens, which were collected from Turkish Thrace and the Black Sea region of Anatolia, were evaluated serologically. The analyses support the view that a single race of L. viridis (L. v. meridionalis) inhabits Turkey.
Arndt, S. (1993) -
Arnold, A. (2014) -
Im Nordwesten von Leipzig wurden von 2006 bis August 2013 insgesamt 116 Beobachtungsdaten der vier hier gegenwärtig bodenständigen und einer allochthonen Reptilienarten gesammelt und ausgewertet. Dominierende Art ist mit 58 Nachweisen die Zauneidechse, gefolgt von Ringelnatter (40), Waldeidechse (9), Blindschleiche (8) und der eingeschleppten Mauereidechse mit nur einem Nachweis. Einen relativ hohen Anteil an den Nachweisen haben Totfunde, wovon ganz besonders die Ringelnatter betroffen ist, bei der über 50 % der Nachweise Totfunde sind.
Arnold, E.N. (1970) -
Arnold, E.N. (1973) -
Algyroides fitzingeri, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta princeps, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta andreanszkyi, Lacerta armeniaca, Lacerta bedriagae, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta cyanura, Lacerta danfordi, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta dugesii, Lacerta fraasii, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta jayakari, Lacerta laevis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta parva, Lacerta perspicillata, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta rudis, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta vivipara, Gallotia atlantica, Gallotia galloti, Gallotia simonyi, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis filfolensis, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis pityusensis, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis tiliguerta, Podarcis wagleriana, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus blanci, Psammodromus hispanicus, Psammodromus microdactylus.
Arnold, E.N. (1984) -
The ability to shed (autotomize) all or part of the tail, usually in response to predator attack, and often to subsequently regenerate it is widespread in lizards and amphisbaenians and also occurs in a few snakes and in the tuatara. Most species possess a sophisticated intravertebral autotomy mechanism which seems to be primitive in the Squamata. This appears to have been independently lost in members of many groups, but some agamids and snakes have regained the ability to shed their tails by a simpler intervertebral means and a -number of agamids have also redeveloped tail regeneration as well. Breakable tails are used to evade capture in two main ways: by enabling reptiles to break away from predators that have grasped them by the tail and by providing a distraction which deflects the attention of the attacker away from the vulnerable head and body. It is argued that loss of caudal autotomy has occurred when the costs of tail shedding outweigh its benefits. Likely costs include the expense of regrowing the tail and the loss of a variety of possible tail functions that may cause partial incapacitation, at least until the tail regenerates. Benefits of autotomy are liable to be low if predation is rare, if the animal is able to protect itself effectively in other ways, if it is too slow to evade further pursuit after the tail is shed, or if the tail is small or unpalatable and consequently not likely to distract a predator. Benefit variation may well be greater than cost variation and therefore more important in initiating the loss of autotomy mechanisms. Many taxa that do not shed the tail appear to conform to the above interpretation, but in some cases, such as the Platynota, Agamidae and Chamaeleonidae, lack of intravertebral autotomy may reflect the history of these groups rather than being a direct result of present ecological pressures. The distribution of intervertebral autotomy in the Agamidae suggests that it may have evolved only in rather special circumstances where tail fragility is advantageous even in the absence of the ability to regenerate. Restriction ot autotomy planes to the tail-base, so that the whole organ is lost, a condition found in a number of relatively slow-moving geckoes, is interpreted as a means of ensuring that enough of the tail is shed to distract a predator from further pursuit. The stimulus necessary to induce autotomy can vary rapidly in individual lizards and at least some of these changes probably maximize the effectiveness of the tail-shedding mechanism. Differences in the readiness with which all or part of the tail is shed exist between species and are likely to reflect the balance of costs and benefits in particular cases. Variations in incidence of broken tails between species and populations may be due to such differences in fragility but many other factors may play a part, including the age structure of samples, incidence of unsuccessful attacks by predators and ability to evade predators after autotomy. There is a clear tendency for climbing lizards, especially those living on rock surfaces, to have higher incidences of broken tails than ground-dwelling species, perhaps because the tail is usually less important in locomotion in the first group. Many lizards possess conspicuously coloured tails and tail movements that seem likely to help distract attention from the head and body. Conspicuous tail colouring is more frequent and often better developed in young animals, which tend to be more vulnerable than adults, and in active species from open habitats where crypsis may not always be very effective. Conspicuous tails usually have contrasting light and dark areas in nocturnal forms but are often a single bright colour in diurnal ones, probably reflecting the visual capacities of their respective predators. The predominance of blue tails in day-active species may be because this colour is striking close to but not very arresting at a distance, so it may not attract predators from far away while still drawing their attention at close quarters.
Arnold, E.N. (1986) -
The structure of copulatory organs is used very widely in systematics, both for differentiating species and for working out relationships. Differences between taxa may arise from a variety of sources, including non-homology, differences in other parts of the animal, direct selection on copulatory organs, development of physical isolating mechanisms and pleiotropic events. Physical isolating mechanisms seem likely to account for the abrupt differences, involving size, asymmetry and simplifications, that are useful in distinguishing very similar lacertid species. Although these differences usually seem to arise at the end of a speciation event they can simultaneously be the initiating mechanism in a second one. Copulatory organs appear to have high inherent stability, probably resulting from frequent location in strongly homoeostatic environments, single function, insensitivity to niche shift and inertia due to the need to conform to the genitalia of the opposite sex. This stability may be overridden at times by direct selection on the organs themselves or pleiotropic events. Such changes tend to be retained because efficiency in copulation depends not on any absolute genital architecture but on close conformity of the organs. It is the combination of relative stability and tangible input of varied change, which tends to be retained, that so often makes these structures good indicators of relationship.
Arnold, E.N. (1987) -
Twenty-four species of lacertid lizards were examined at 31 sites in western Yogoslavia, Greece and Iberia. Comparative observations were made on over 4500 individual lizards, noting such features as times of activitiy, hunting methods, diet, micro- and macrohabitat, refuges used and body temperature. These data are used as a basis for assessing resource partition in related sympatric species, for find out whether different systematic groups have characteristic types of niche, and for comparing cumminity structures in the peninsulas of southern Europa.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Arnold, E.N. (1989) -
Relationships of lacertid lizards were assessed on the basis of 84 primary and 112 binary characters drawn mainly from morphology, including features of the skeleton, external anatomy, various internal soft part systems and two aspects of behaviour. Among features not previously used, or not fully investigated before, are structure of the septomaxilla and nasal passages, arranged of the xiphisternal cartilages, mite pockets, kidney position, ulnar nerve arragement, thoracic fascia, aspects of the hemipenis and its associated muscles, female genitalia and jaw muscles. On the basis of parsimony analysis and compatibilty treatment of this character set, the Lacertidae fall into two main portions: A paraphyletic Palaearctic and Oriental group of primitive forms, from which is derived a holophyletic assemblage of Ethiopian and advanced Saharan and Eurasian taxa.
The former group ist not fully resolvable, but Psammodromus and Gallotia appear to be sister groups and are probably related to Lacerta parva and L. fraasi and then L. brandtii, Podarcis appears to be related successively to L. andreanszkyi, the sister species L. dugesii and L. perspicillata, and perhaps L. danfordi and L. laevis. This assemblage may be related to archaeolacertas and Algyroides. The separation of Lacerta lepida, L. pater and L. princeps from the agilis group, based on chemical evidence, is weakly contradicted by morphology. Takydromus may be most closely related to L. vivipara, and L. jayakari and L. cyanura constitute the most likely sister group of the Ethiopian and advanced Saharo-Eurasian assemblage.
Taxe in the Ethiopian and advanced SaharoEuroasian assemblage form a long essentially pectinate tree with relatively change between the side branches, except for a strong disjunction separating the more primitive from the more advanced taxa. Most of the former fall on two main branches, with ´Lacerta` australis and ´L.` rupicola possibly basal to them. 1. the Equatorial forest group containing Gastropholis, Bedriagaia, ´Lacerta` echinata, Adolfus, ´Lacerta` jacksoni and Holaspis. The first three of these constitute a holophyletic group and the same is probably true of the remainder. 2. Tropidosaura, Poromera and Nucras, the latter being the sister group of the more advanced forms. These include successively the Ethiopian Philochortus, Latastia, Ichnotropis and Heliobolus, Pseuderemias, Meroles and Aporosaura, and Pedioplanis, and then the Saharo-Eurasian Eremias, Acanthodactylus, Mesalina and Ophisops-Cabrita.
It seems probable that the ancestors of modern Lacertidae arose in western Eurasia, where the family is known since the Palaeocene and is still represented there largely by quite primitive forms (89 species and seven nominal genera). The family later invaded Africa, perhaps first in the early or middle Miocene. Relatively primitive lacertids spread widely in largely mesic situations in the Ethiopian region, radiating to some extent (six present genera and 16 species) and producing Nucras and the related series of advaned groups (eight genera and 54 species) whoich show increasing adaptation to xeric environments. These genera tend to have heir most primitive species in the northeast and north of the Ethiopian region. The most advaned gave rise to the Saharo-Eurasian clade, now made up to Eremias, Acanthodactylus, Mesalina and Ophisops-Cabrita. This invaded the arid areas of North Africa and Eurasia, where it is presently represented by 70 species. Many morphological changes in increasingly advanced lacertids may be functionally related to the problems of survival in arid, hot, open environments. Considerable ecological parallelism exists in lacertids, with members of separate stocks occupying similar niches in different geographical areas. Morphological adaptations associated with these niches contribute significantly to the high levels of character homoplasy found in the family. There is also some correlation between the degree of niche differentiation in various groups and the quality of the phylogenies that can be produced from their physical characters. A number of morphological parallels exist between advaned lacertids and New World macroteiids. In the skull at least, advaned lacertids show a complex mixture of paedomorphosis and acceleration.
Nomenclatorial changes are as follows: Cabrita is synonymised with Ophisops, necessitating a new name, Ophisops nictans, for Cabrita jerdonii. Aporosaura is synonymised with Meroles, Platyplacopus with Takydromus, and Bedriagaia with Gastropholis. ´Lacerta` (or Centromastyx) echinata is also transferred to the latter genus and Lacerta jacksoni to Adolfus. ´Lacerta` australis and ´L.` rupicola are put in a new genus, Australolacerta. It is recommended that Lacerta dugesii and L. perspicillata should not be placed in the otherwise very uniform genus Podarcis. Although clearly paraphyletic, Lacerta s. lat. Should be retained at least for the present and, if necessary putative relationships within it indicated by informal groups or subgenera.
The Equatorial African group of lacertids comprises nine species which share a number of derived features and appear to constitute a holophyletic assemblage. Revision of the group using morphological characters analyzed by parsimony and compatibility methods results in the following taxonomic changes: Lacerta jacksoni = Adolfus jacksoni, Lacerta echinata = Gastropholis echinata, Bedriagaia tropidopholis = Gastropholis tropidopholis, Bedriagaia moreavi = Gastropholis prasina, the latter species being validated and removed from the synonymy of Gastropholis vittata. Adolfus jacksoni has most features in common with the hypothetical ancestor of the group, while Holaspis guentheri and the species of Gastropholis are the most derived forms. Geographical variation in Adolfus alleni is described and what is known of the ecology of the Equatorial group summarized. Most are forest dwellers with the majority of the more primitive forms living on tree boles and among litter and timber on the forest floor (Adolfus jacksoni, A. africanus, A. vauereselli). Another, Holaspis guentheri, is confined to tree boles but glides between them, while the species of Gastropholis appear to be climbers in flimsy vegetation and Adolfus alleni is ground-dwelling above the tree line. Many of the morphological features characterizing these lizards appear to be functionally related to their particular habitats.
Arnold, E.N. (1993) -
Estimates of phylogeny may allow historical events to be reconstructed even without a fossil record. The reliability of such interpretations depends not only on the robustness of the phylogeny but also on its topology. Changes in individual features can be traced and general histories of groups developed and compared with each other. Results are ofter surprising, for Instance the sophisticated tail shedding mechanism of lizards turns out to be a primitive feature that has been lost many times. Similarly, ecological analogues may have developed their common characaters in quite different orders. Phylogenies also provide a way of recognizing constraints and the effects of history on present ecological and behavioural patterns.
When using anatomical characters the quality of the apparent phylogenies produced may be related to ecological history: expansion of a group along an ecological continuum into increasingly demanding niches ina small geographical area tends to produce a robust phylogeny (for instance in Meroles), while this is often not so for widely distributed groups that occupy a more modest range of niches (such as Pedioplanis and Podarcis). Non-morphological data may not show this tendency, but can have their own problems.
Lacertids can be referred to clade with many successive branches in Africa and the Saharo-Eurasian arid zones and a less resolved probably paraphyletic complex of more primitive forms in the Mediterranean and wider Palaearctic areas. The African-Eurasian clade shows a general trend towards ground-dwelling and increasingly arid habitats but is ecologically variied. These animals are important to the study of Mediterranean forms because they provide eco-morphological parallels to them (for instance to Algyroides, Psammodromus and the archaeolacertas) and help form a basis for testing hypotheses about function.
Although it is possible to recognise a number of distinct clades among the Mediterranean and Eurasian forms, relationships within and between these are often much less well substantiated. If results are available in time, current work on mitochondrial DNA sequencing will be discussed.
Arnold, E.N. (1996) -
Arnold, E.N. (1998) -
Arnold, E.N. (2001) -
Arnold, E.N. (2002) -
Differences in surface structure (ober- hautchen) of body scales of lacertid lizards involve cell size, shape and surface profile, presence or absence of fine pitting, form of cell margins, and the occurrence of longitudinal ridges and pustular projections. Phylogenetic information indicates that the primitive pattern involved narrow strap-shaped cells, with low posteriorly overlapping edges and relatively smooth surfaces. Deviations from this condition produce a more sculptured surface and have developed many times, although subsequent overt reversals are uncommon. Like variations in scale shape, different patterns of dorsal body microornamentation appear to confer different and conflicting performance advantages. The primitive pattern may reduce friction during locomotion and also enhances dirt shedding, especially in ground-dwelling forms from moist habitats. However, this smooth microornamentation generates shine that may compromise cryptic coloration, especially when scales are large. Many derived features show correlation with such large scales and appear to suppress shine. They occur most frequently in forms from dry habitats or forms that climb in vegetation away from the ground, situations where dirt adhesion is less of a problem. Microornamentation differences involving other parts of the body and other squamate groups tend to corroborate this functional interpretation. Microornamentation features can develop on lineages in different orders and appear to act additively in reducing shine. In some cases different combinations may be optimal solutions in particular environments, but lineage effects, such as limited reversibility and different developmental proclivities, may also be important in their genesis. The fine pits often found on cell surfaces are unconnected with shine reduction, as they are smaller than the wavelengths of most visible light.
Arnold, E.N. & Arribas, O. & Carranza, S. (2007) -
DNA sequence indicates the Lacertidae contain two subfamilies, Gallotiinae and Lacertinae, the latter comprising two
monophyletic tribes, the Eremiadini of Africa and arid southwest and central Asia, and the Lacertini of Europe, northwest
Africa and southwest and east Asia. Relationships within the 108 species of Lacertini are explored using mtDNA
(291 bp cytochrome b; 329 bp 12S rRNA for 59 nominal species, and reanalysis of the data of Harris et al. 1998, and Fu
2000). The morphology of the tribe is reviewed and 64 of its characters (equivalent to 83 binary ones) also used to assess
relationships. The Lacertini are assigned to 19 monophyletic units of 1 to 27 species, recognised here as the following
genera (contents are indicated in brackets): Algyroides, Anatololacerta gen. nov. (L. danfordi group), Apathya (L. cappadocica
group), Archaeolacerta (L. bedriagae), Dalmatolacerta gen. nov. (L. oxycephala), Darevskia (L. saxicola group),
Dinarolacerta gen. nov. (L. mosorensis), Hellenolacerta gen. nov. (L. graeca), Iberolacerta (L. monticola group), Iranolacerta
gen. nov. (L. brandtii and L. zagrosica), Lacerta s. str. (sand and green lizards, L. agilis group), Parvilacerta gen.
nov. (L. parva and L. fraasii), Phoenicolacerta gen. nov. (L. laevis group), Podarcis (wall lizards), Scelarcis (L. perspicillata),
Takydromus (Asian grass lizards), Teira (L. dugesii), Timon (ocellated lizards, L. lepida group) and Zootoca (L.
vivipara). Both mtDNA and morphology indicate that Lacerta and Timon are sister taxa, and DNA suggests further possible
relationships among genera (Fig. 1, p. 6). Neither DNA nor morphology indicates that the archaeolacertas (sometimes
formalised as Archaeolacerta sens. lat.) form a clade. Instead, they are representatives of an ecomorph associated
with living on rock exposures and using the narrow crevices that these contain.
The Lacertidae probably arose in the European area, with the Gallotiinae later reaching Northwest Africa and the
Canary Islands, and the ancestor of the Eremiadini invading Africa in the mid-Miocene. The Lacertini spread through
much of their present European range and diversified, perhaps largely by repeated vicariance, around 12–16 My ago,
producing the ancestors of the present mainly small-bodied genera, which then underwent often modest speciation. Three
units spread more widely: the Lacerta-Timon clade of large-bodied lizards probably dispersed earliest, followed by Algyroides
and then Podarcis. Overall, European Lacertidae show a pattern of repeated spread, often accompanied by restriction
of previous groups. Expansion of Lacertini may have displaced earlier lacertid lineages from all or much of Europe;
while spread of Podarcis may have restricted many other genera of Lacertini. The earlier expansion of the Lacerta-Timon
clade probably did not have this effect, as difference in adult body size restricted competitive interaction with other
forms. Several invasions of more distant areas also occurred: of East Asia by Takydromus over 10 My ago, and more
recently of northwest Africa by Podarcis, Scelarcis and Timon, and Madeira by Teira.
Relationships within the Eremiadini estimated from both mtDNA, and nDNA differ considerably from those based
on morphology. They indicate relatively mesic forms may have diversified widely across Africa and given rise to at least
three independent invasions of arid habitats. MtDNA also indicates that Lacerta andreanskyi belongs in the Eremiadini
and may occupy a basal position there. It is assigned to a further new genus, Atlantolacerta gen. nov.
Arnold, N. (2004) -
Arntzen, J.W. (2006) -
Background: Aim of the study was to identify the conditions under which spatial-environmental
models can be used for the improved understanding of species distributions, under the explicit
criterion of model predictive performance. I constructed distribution models for 17 amphibian and
21 reptile species in Portugal from atlas data and 13 selected ecological variables with stepwise
logistic regression and a geographic information system. Models constructed for Portugal were
extrapolated over Spain and tested against range maps and atlas data.
Results: Descriptive model precision ranged from `fair` to `very good` for 12 species showing a
range border inside Portugal (`edge species`, kappa (k) 0.35–0.89, average 0.57) and was at best
`moderate` for 26 species with a countrywide Portuguese distribution (`non-edge species`, k = 0.03–
0.54, average 0.29). The accuracy of the prediction for Spain was significantly related to the
precision of the descriptive model for the group of edge species and not for the countrywide
species. In the latter group data were consistently better captured with the single variable searcheffort
than by the panel of environmental data.
Conclusion: Atlas data in presence-absence format are often inadequate to model the distribution
of species if the considered area does not include part of the range border. Conversely, distribution
models for edge-species, especially those displaying high precision, may help in the correct
identification of parameters underlying the species range and assist with the informed choice of
Arrayago, M. & Bea, A. (1997) -
Arribas, O.J. (1995) -
Arribas, O.J. (1999) -
Archaeolacerta s. l., in the currently utilized sense results to be a polyphyletic taxon, composed of three monophyletic and phylogenetically well differentiated taxa: a)-Archaeolacerta (s. str.) Mertens, 1921, which includes three species: A. bedriagae, A. oxycephala, and A. mosorensis, distributed by the northern part of the Central Mediterranean (Corsica, Sardinia, and west Balcanic Peninsula). His most related genera seem to be Teira (his adelphotaxon in our study), Apathya, and Omanosaura. b)-Iberolacerta gen. nov., with two subgenera: Iberolacerta s. str. and Pyrenesaura subgen. nov. includes six species: I. monticola, I. cyreni, I. bonnali, I. aranica, I. aurelioi, and I. horvathi. They are distributed by the mountains of Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula, Pyrenees, Central and Eastern Alps and the north of the Dinaric Chains). His adelphotaxon are the Caucasian and Near East species of Darevskia gen. nov. c)-The third taxa is Darevskia gen. nov., which includes the species of the `L.` saxicola complex besides `L.` derjugini, `L.` praticola, and `L.` chlorogaster. They are distributed by Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Near East. Other clear relationships among some taxa of the Eurasian Radiation [= `Eurasische linie` from (Mayer and Benyr, 1994)] have been found: Algyroides seems to be the sister group of the species considered of uncertain phylogenetic relationships belonging to the `L.` danfordi-laevis group and of Podarcis. `L.` brandtii seems to be a very primitive species within the Eurasian Radiation. Omanosaura and Apathya appear as sister taxa. `L.` graeca occupies a very basal position in the sister group of Podarcis and relatives (see above). `L.` andreanskyi is the sister species of the Darevskia nov. and Iberolacerta nov. clade. The assimilation of `L.` andreanskyi to Teira is very problematic. Also the `L.` parva group seems to be related to Timon. Some groups of species like `L.` brandtii, `L.` parva-fraasii and `L.` danfordi-laevis probably merit generic rank, but it is necessary a more deep study before to take a decision.
Arribas, O.J. (2001) -
A survey on the geogtraphical variation of scalation in the Sand lizard was done by means of both univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (Canonical discriminant Analysis and cluster of the Mahalanobis distances among centroids). Our results show the existence of two clearly separated groups, in concordance with previous authors. Lacerta agilis garzoni is enough differentiated to by considered a valid subspecies. Lacerta agilis argus is a mere synonym of Lacerta agilis agilis. Lacerta agilis chersonensis despite their overall similarity in pattern and coloration to the so-called Balcanic group belongs to the Caucasic one. Data on the currently known habitat and chorology of Lacerta agilis garzoni are given.
Arribas, O.J. (2012) -
The most ancient report of Lacerta agilis in Pyrenees is given. The reference to its presence in Montlouis corresponds to the book about the nature of the Pyrenees written by Eugen Trutat in 1894, twenty two years before Boulenger (1916) publication, considered to be the oldest (both slope from Ariege and la Cerdanya: data from Ax-les-Thermes and Porté).
In this paper we deal on the ultraviolet color (invisible to us): where we can find it, the capability of animals to see it and the advantages that this color perception offers to them. As the simplest way to detect it is the photography, we describe and review how to photograph the UV, as a result of 15 years of amateur experience, searching
and testing nearly in complete blindness due to the lack of practical information about “how to do it”. We describe the different kinds of photography (chemical and digital); the cameras and objectives suitable (both astronomically expensive ones and cheap options); what are the best characteristics that the objectives should have for this purpose; the films suitable for their use in chemical photography; the different filters (current or discontinued) manufactured along the years; and the subtle combinations among the different materials to obtain pure UV photographs. This
kind of scientific photography is mainly used in forensics, forgery detection, art dermatology and less in Natural History, despite the fact that a great part of animals see this color and use it in important questions of their biology as the social behavior, mate choice or the food search.
Arribas, O.J. (2014) -
Partial albinism and melanism cases in Iberolacerta Arribas, 1997 are reviewed, adding some new cases and photographs from other yet published.
Some remarkable altitudes of Lacerta bilineata (at 1740 and 1745 m) and Hierophis viridiflavus (at 2265 m) in the Catalan Pyrenees, and Timon lepidus (up to 1901 m) in Teleno Massif (Montes de León) are here presented.
It is described the finding of a death Lacerta bilineata and its circumstances, apparently by accidental cause when it was trapped in a small-mammal burrow.
Arronet, V.N. (1973) -
Aschauer, M. & Grabher, M. & Huber, D. & Loacker, I. & Tschisner, C. & Amann, G. (2008) -
Assmann, O. (1998) -
Assmann, O. (2002) -
Im bayerischen Donauengtal zwischen Pssau und der Landesgrenze Österreich existiert ein seit langem bekannter Bestand der Smaragdeidechse (Lacerta viridis). Insbesondere für Smaragdeidechse und Äskulapnatter wurde 1986 ein Naturschutzgebiet ausgewiesen. Der Schwerpunkt der Smaragdeidechsenvorkommen des insgesamt bandartigen Areals liegt in einem Abschnitt, bei dem am Hangfuß ein Bahndamm verläuft. Auf der Basis einer Zustandserfassung und eines Pflege- und Entwicklungsplanes werden verschiedene Artenhilfsmaßnahmen im Projekt: „Organisation und Umsetzung von Pflege- und Entwicklungsmaßnahmen im ´Naturschutzgebiet Donauleiten von Passau bis Jochenstein´“ seit 1993 umgesetzt.
Gleichzeitig gab es wesentliche Vermeidungs- und Ausgleichsmaßnahmen bei Eingriffen.
Existenziell wichtig sind die Unterhaltungsmaßnahmen in den Optimalhabitaten entlang einer Bahnstrecke, von Straßenrändern und vom Donauufer. Die Beratung und Zusammenarbeit mit den zuständigen Stellen im Rahmen des Projektes und die ökologische Baubegleitung bei Maßnahmen haben daher derzeit höchste Priorität. Daneben wurden auch aktive Pflegemaßnahmen in Form von Mahd und Entbuschung durchgeführt. Die erfolgreiche Neuschaffung von Habitaten gelang auf einer Ausgeleichsfläche. Flächenankäufe umfassten zumindest teilweise auch Habitate der Smaragdeidechse und ermöglichen künftige Pflegemaßnahmen.
Die Entstehung neuer Habitate durch natürliche Dynamik der Donau ist derzeit nicht möglich. Im Bereich zufließender Bäche bestehen hier durchaus Chancen in den Zukunft. Ein gezielter Ankauf geeigneter Flächen soll erfolgen.
Es wird empfohlen, das NSG auch weiterhin kontinuierlich zu „betreuen“. Zusätzlich sollte jedoch ein Monitoringprogramm für die Smaragdeidechse und andere hochgradig gefährdete Arten des NSG erfolgen.
Aßmann, O. (2016) -
Aßmann, O. (2021) -
Aßmann, O. (2023) -
Astudillo, G. & Garcia-Paris, M. & Prieto, J. & Rubio, J.L. (1993) -
In this paper we provide the first data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the province of Guadalajara (Castilla – La Mancha, Spain). From a heropetological point of view Guadalajara is one of the most unknown provinces in Spain. At this time we have recorded 30 species, 15 of which were not previously cited in the area. Provisional maps of distribution are presented in 10 x 10 km U.T.M. squares.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta schreiberi, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Atkins, J.D. & Franz-Odendaal, T.A. (2016) -
The sclerotic ring consists of several bones that form in the sclera of many reptiles. This element has not been well studied in squamates, a diverse order of reptiles with a rich fossil record but debated phylogeny. Squamates inhabit many environments, display a range of behaviours, and have evolved several different body plans. Most importantly, many species have secondarily lost their sclerotic rings. This research investigates the presence of sclerotic rings in squamates and traces the lineage of these bones across evolutionary time. We compiled a database on the presence/absence of the sclerotic ring in extinct and extant squamates and investigated the evolutionary history of the sclerotic ring and how its presence/absence and morphology is correlated with environment and behaviour within this clade. Of the 400 extant species examined (59 families, 214 genera), 69% have a sclerotic ring. Those species that do not are within Serpentes, Amphisbaenia, and Dibamidae. We find that three independent losses of the sclerotic ring in squamates are supported when considering both evolutionary and developmental evidence. We also show that squamate species that lack, or have a reduced, sclerotic ring, are fossorial and headfirst burrowers. Our dataset is the largest squamate dataset with measurements of sclerotic rings, and supports previous findings that size of the ring is related to both environment occupied and behaviour. Specifically, scotopic species tend to have both larger inner and outer sclerotic ring apertures, resulting in a narrower ring of bone than those found in photopic species. Non-fossorial species also have a larger sclerotic ring than fossorial species. This research expands our knowledge of these fascinating bones; with further phylogenetic analyses scleral ossicles could become an extremely useful character trait for inferring the behaviour of fossil squamates.
Augé, M. (1988) -
Augé, M. & Pouit, D. (2009) -
Un dentaire de lézard incomplet, provenant d’une carrière de falun d’Anjou, à Noyant-sous-Lude, Miocène, Orléanien, (MN3) ou MN5 est décrit. Un ensemble de caractères montre qu’il appartient aux Lacertidae ; on citera : la forme arquée de l’ensemble du dentaire, le sulcus Meckeli ouvert jusqu’à la symphyse mandibulaire, la présence de dents faiblement hétérodontes et bicuspides. Cette forme à la dentition banale chez les Lacertidae se distingue facilement des lacertidae à dentition élargie trouvés dans les mêmes niveaux miocènes des faluns. La signification paléoécologique de ces fossiles sera discutée.
Augustin, H. (2018) -
Ausanneau, M. & Baudouin, A. de & Fossé, C. & Gagnier, S. & Lelièvre, H. & Lise, H. & Lolive, N. & Oleszczynski, S. & Veron, F. (2018) -
Ausanneau, M. & Baudouin, A. de & Fossé, C. & Gagnier, S. & Lelièvre, H. & Lisse, H. & Lolive, N. & Oleszczynski, S. & Veron, F. (2018) -
Austen, E.E. (1891) -
Avery, R.A. (1976) -
Avery, R.A. (1980) -
Avery, R.A. (1993) -
Avery, R.A. & Tosini, G. (1995) -
The propability that lizards would capture crickets declined with distance from the snout, at rates which were significantly more rapid in all directions in Lacerta vivipara than in Podarcis muralis or L. viridis, i.e. the former species responded to potential prey over a smaller area. Capture probabilities at any distance in front of or behind the snout were lower in P. muralis or L. viridis which were pausing during locomotion than in basking lizards, confirming previous results with L. vivipara. Using capture probabilities for pausing lizards to calculate the average time it would take to find a single item of prey (tf) in relation to the mean length of locomotor bursts, on the assumption that prey could only be detected while a lizard was pausing, showed that actual mean burst distance corresponded exactly with the burst distance which gave rise to minimum tf in L. vivipara. Mean locomotor burst distances in P. muralis and L. viridis were lower than the distances which gave minimum tf values. It is suggested that, in these species, the mean burst length has evolved as a compromise between minimising tf and avoiding the high overall energy expenditures which would result from long burst lengths.
Aviad, B. & Haimovitch, G. (2012) -
Avramov, S. & Crnobrnja, J. & Aleksic, I. (1994) -
Axelsson, J. & Wapstra, E. & Miller, E. & Rollings, N. & Olsson, M. (2020) -
telomeres, the protective, terminal parts of the chromosomes erode during cell division and as a result of oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (RoS). ectotherms rely on the ambient temperature for maintaining temperature-dependent metabolic rate, regulated through behavioural thermoregulation. their temperature-dependant metabolism, hence also the RoS production, is indirectly regulated through thermoregulation. Consequently, a potential causal chain affecting telomere length and attrition is: temperature (in particular, its deviation from a species-specific optimum) – metabolism
- ROS production – anti-oxidation - telomere erosion. We measured telomere length in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) using qPCR on blood samples from 1998–2006. Effects of climatological parameters (mean temperature and average sunshine hours) in the summer and winter preceding telomere sampling were used as predictors of telomere length in mixed model analysis. During the lizards’ active period (summer), there was a largely negative effect of mean temperature and sun on telomere length, whereas a combined measure of age and size (head length) was positively related to telomere length. During the inactive period of lizards (winter), the results were largely the opposite with a positive relationship between temperature and sunshine hours and telomere length. in all four cases, thermal and age effects on telomere length appeared to be non-linear in the two sexes and seasons, with complex response surface effects on telomere length from combined age and thermal effects.
Ayerle, N. (2012) -
Ayllón Lopez, E. & Barbera Luna, J.C. (2011) -
Ayllón, E. & Bustamante, P. & Cabrera, F. & Flox, L. & Galindo, A.J. & Gosáövez, U. & Hernández, J.M. & Morales, M. & Torralvo, C. & Zamora, F. (2003) -
The preliminary distribution of amphibians and reptiles of the Ciudad Real province (Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) is presented. Thirty-four species, 13 amphibians and 21 reptiles, have been found. For each species, distribution maps in 10 x 10 Km U.T.M. quadrats and a discussion on the distribution, habitat and threats affecting its conservation are provided. We conclude that the Ciudad Real province presents one of the richest herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, despite the scarcity of Eurosiberian species. Among all the species present in Ciudad Real, the relative abundance of Emys orbicularis populations is especially relevant compared to the rest of Spain. Similarly, it is remarkable the presence of a newly discovered population of Hemidactylus turcicus in Castilla-La Mancha, which represents one of the most inland populations of this species in the Iberian Peninsula.
B.U.G.S. (Büro für Biologische Umwelt-Gutachten Schäfer) (2010) -
Baal, H.J. (1962) -
Babocay, G. & Vági, B. (2012) -
In 2011, the Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Group (ARCG) of BirdLife Hungary launched a conservation programme to survey the North Hungarian populations of Dolichophis caspius and its habitats in the vicinity of Budapest, and to build up a habitat management plan for the species. From March through the end of September we made a total of ten visits on four habitats. On two fragments of one habitat (Farkas-hegy), with an extension of 1–1.5 ha, we observed eleven (7 ad., 2 subad., 2 juv.) D. caspius. We captured and, after recording a few data, released five of them. Six specimens were positively identified as different. On both habitat fragments a large number of lizards (Lacerta viridis and Podarcis muralis) were observed, constituting a good supply of prey for the snakes. The habitats are burdened with an increasing number of shrubs and trees, invasive plant species and recreational activity. With help of volunteers we removed the black pines from one of the habitat fragments of Farkas-hegy. We intend to survey additional habitats and if necessary to build up management plants to improve them. Our Dolicophis programme together with other programmes of ARCG triggered an increased citizen involvement.
Babocsay, G. (1997) -
Bade, E. (1899) -
Bader, T. (2011) -
Bader, T. (2021) -
Kroatien ist eines der herpetologisch artenreichsten Länder Europas und daher ein beliebtes Reiseziel mitteleuropäischer Herpetologen. Aufgrund des in den letzten Jahrzehnten stetig weiter ausgebauten Autobahnnetzes ist das Land gut und schnell zu bereisen, lediglich die Grenzwartezeiten an den Urlaubswochenenden sind noch einigermaßen mühsam, da Kroatien noch nicht im Schengen-Raum aufgenommen wurde. Viele im Rahmen der ÖGH oder Herpetofauna.at durchgeführten Exkursionen führten uns in den letzten Jahren nach Kroatien.
Bader, T. & Kopeczky, R. & Riegler, C. & Wieland, F. (2016) -
In Armenien kommen drei Arten der Gattung Lacerta (L. agilis, L. media, L. strigata), drei Arten der Gattung Eremias (E. arguta, E. pleskei, E. strauchi) sowie jeweils eine Art der Gattung Parvilacerta (P. parva) und Ophisops (O. elegans) vor. Neben Kurzbeschreibungen der einzelnen Arten wird auf Beobachtungen der Eidechsen im Gelände während einer Reise im Jahr 2015 eingegangen.
Bader, T. & Riegler, C. (2004) -
Bader, T. & Riegler, C. & Grillitsch, H. (2009) -
Based on several recent herpetological surveys, as well as data from the literature and the collection of the Natural History Museum in Vienna, the knowledge about the herpetofauna of Rhodes is summarized and a new species list is prepared. The following species have regularly been encountered: Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelophylax cerigensis, Mauremys rivulata, Hemidactylus turcicus, Laudakia stellio, Ophisops elegans, Lacerta trilineata, Anatolacerta oertzeni, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Chalcides ocellatus, Trachylepis aurata, Blanus strauchi, Typhlops vermicularis, Dolichophis sp., Platyceps najadum, Hemorrhois nummifer, Zamenis situla, Natrix natrix and Telescopus fallax. The taxonomic status of the occurring whip snakes is discussed. Mediodactylus kotschyi has been added to the island fauna because of some records in the South part of the island. The occurrence of Testudo graeca, Pseudopus apodus and Natrix tessellata was put into question because their mention in older literature remained unconfirmed. Recent single records of Chamaeleo chamaeleon, Malpolon monspessulanus, Testudo graeca and Testudo hermanni are listed and their status is discussed. Die Herpetofauna von Rhodos wird aufgrund von Literaturdaten, Sammlungsmaterial des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien sowie Ergebnissen diverser herpetologischer Exkursionen aufgelistet. Verbreitungskarten aller nachgewiesenen Arten sowie eine aktuelle herpetologische Faunenliste werden erstellt. Folgende Arten wurden regelmäßig und wiederholt festgestellt: Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelophylax cerigensis, Mauremys rivulata, Hemidactylus turcicus, Laudakia stellio, Ophisops elegans, Lacerta trilineata, Anatolacerta oertzeni, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Chalcides ocellatus, Trachylepis aurata, Blanus strauchi, Typhlops vermicularis, Dolichophis sp., Platyceps najadum, Hemorrhois nummifer, Zamenis situla, Natrix natrix, Telescopus fallax. Der taxonomische Status der Springnatter wird diskutiert. Aufgrund mehrerer aktueller Funde wird Mediodactylus kotschyi ergänzend zur Herpetofauna von Rhodos hinzugefügt und das Auftreten folgender Arten, deren Vorkommen in der Literatur regelmäßig für Rhodos angegeben wurde, in Frage gestellt: Testudo graeca, Pseudopus apodus, Natrixm tessellata. Aktuelle Einzelfunde gelangen von Chamaeleo chamaeleon, Malpolon monspessulanus, Testudo graeca und Testudo hermanni, deren Status diskutiert wird.
Baeckens, S. & Edwards, S. & Huyghe, K. & Van Damme, R. (2015) -
Animals communicate via a variety of sensory channels and signals. Studies on acoustic and visual communication systems suggest that differences in the physical environment contribute to the variety of signalling behaviour, with species investing in those signals that are transmitted best under the local conditions. Whether or not environmental tuning also occurs in chemical communication systems has received much less attention. In the present study, we examined the effect of several aspects of the physical environment on the chemical communication system of lacertid lizards (family Lacertidae). The numbers of femoral pores are used as a proxy reflecting how much a particular species invests in and relies upon chemical signalling. Femoral pores are specialized epidermal structures that function as a secretion channel for the waxy substance produced by glands. In some lacertid species, the secretion carries infochemicals that play an important role in social communication. The number of femoral pores varies considerably among species. We have compiled data on femoral pore numbers for 162 species and tested for the effects of climate and substrate use. After correcting for body size and taking the phylogenetic relationships among the species into account, we found no effect of climate conditions or latitude on species pore numbers. Substrate use did affect pore numbers: shrub-climbing species tended to have fewer femoral pores than species inhabiting other substrates.
Baeckens, S. & Garcia-Roa, R. & Martin, J. & Damme, J. van (2017) -
Lizards communicate with others via chemical signals, the composition of which may vary among species. Although the selective pressures and constraints affecting chemical signal diversity at the species level remain poorly understood, the possible role of diet has been largely neglected. The chemical signals of many lizards originate from the femoral glands that exude a mixture of semiochemicals, and may be used in a variety of contexts. We analyzed the lipophilic fraction of the glandular secretions of 45 species of lacertid lizard species by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The proportions of nine major chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, furanones, ketones, steroids, terpenoids, tocopherols and waxy esters), the relative contributions of these different classes (‘chemical diversity’), and the total number of different lipophilic compounds (‘chemical richness’) varied greatly among species.We examined whether interspecific differences in these chemical variables could be coupled to interspecific variation in diet using data from the literature. In addition, we compared chemical signal composition among species that almost never, occasionally, or often eat plant material. We found little support for the hypothesis that the chemical profile of a given species’ secretion depends on the type of food consumed. Diet breadth did not correlate with chemical diversity or richness. The amount of plants or ants consumed did not affect the relative contribution of any of the nine major chemical classes to the secretion. Chemical diversity did not differ among lizards with different levels of plant consumption; however, chemical richness was low in species with an exclusive arthropod diet, suggesting that incorporating plants in the diet enables lizards to increase the number of compounds allocated to secretions, likely because a (partly) herbivorous diet allows them to include compounds of plant origin that are unavailable in animal prey. Still, overall, diet appears a relatively poor predictor of interspecific differences in the broad chemical profiles of secretions of lacertid lizards.
Baeckens, S. & Herrel, A. & Broeckhoven, C. & Vasilopoulou-Kampitsi, M. & Huyghe, K. & Goyens, J. & Damme, R. van (2018) -
Baeckens, S. & Huyghe, K. & Edwards, S. & Van Damme, R. (2013) -
Animals communicate with conspecifics and other species through an astonishing variety of signals and displays. Which selection pressures and developmental constraints have guided the evolution of the diversity of sending and receiving system through time, has been a much-debated issue for many decades. Studying the evolution of signalling systems may contribute to our understanding of speciation, as the ‘Sensory Drive Hypothesis’ predicts that divergent adaptation in sensory and signalling systems to different environments can cause premating isolation between populations. The effects of the physical environment on the choice of the sensory channel and the characteristics of the signals within sensory channels have been studied extensively for visual and acoustic communication systems. Much less is known on how the signalling environment affects the evolution of chemical communication. In this PhD project, we aim to examine the evolution of the chemosensorial communication system in Lacertidae. In particular, we will investigate the role of the physical environment in shaping the diversity of signalling and receiving systems. A first study would investigate the signalling system by a family-wide comparison of the role of the physical environment in the evolution of femoral pore numbers. Additionally, we will compare femoral gland and pore morphology among lacertid species living in different signalling environments. In a second section, we will examine a number of characteristics of the femoral secretion itself, and compare this among species living in disparate signalling environments. We hypothesize that the amount and the physical properties of the secretion and the composition of the lipid cocktail will vary with aspects of the environment. At the other end of the channel, reptiles possess a vomeronasal system for processing chemical cues. We aim to explore the interspecific variation in this system for environmentally induced bias. On the basis of symmorphosis, we expect to see that species that invest strongly in the production of semiochemicals, will also be best equipped to receive them. We will compare the morphology of the tongue and the Jacobson’s organ among lacertid species. We will test our hypotheses in an explicit phylogenetic context, by drawing a tailored tree from available DNA sequences and considering different models of character evolution. By taking such a comparative approach and correlate interspecific variation in the semiochemicals, the sending system and the receiving system with environmental variables, we’ll try to investigate the role of natural selection in shaping chemical communication in lacertid lizards.
Baeckens, S. & Martin, J. & Garcia-Roa, R. & Damme, R. van (2017) -
Animal signals can differ considerably in complexity and composition, even among closely related species. Work on vocal and visual signals has revealed how sexual selection can elaborate signals relevant in mate choice or rival assessment, but few studies have investigated this process in chemical signals. In this study, we correlated chemical signalling diversity and richness with degree of sexual dimorphism in a data set of 60 species of the lizard family Lacertidae. The femoral glands of male lacertid lizards exude waxy secretions, of which the lipophilic fraction is known to function in chemical communication. We determined the composition of the gland secretions using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and calculated the chemical richness (total number of compounds) and the chemical diversity (Shannon–Wiener H’) for each species. We used sexual dimorphism in size, in shape, and a combination of both, as proxies for the intensity of sexual selection acting on each species. Although our data revealed considerable interspecific variation in the composition and complexity of the chemical signals, as well as in sexual dimorphism, we found no evidence for the idea that more elaborate signals arise through intensified sexual selection. We offer a number of conceptual and methodological explanations for this unexpected finding.
Baeckens, S. & Martin, J. & Huyghe, K. & Garcia-Roa, R. & Pafilis, P. & Damme, R. van (2016) -
Animals rely on a variety of signalling systems to communicate with conspecifics. Because the efficacy of a signal (transmission, durability, detectability) may vary depending on the physical environment, Darwinian selection can be expected to cause signalling diversity along an environmental gradient. As opposed to the many studies on the effect of the natural environment on visual and acoustic communication systems, the role of the physical environment in the evolution of chemical signals is far less investigated. Chemical signals are essential for inter- and intrasexual communication in many animals, and lizards represent no exception. In lacertids, the femoral gland secretions are believed to be the main source of chemical signals involved in communication. The major factor determining chemosignal efficacy is thought to be the chemical composition of the femoral secretion, which directly affects the longevity, persistence and detectability of the secretion in the environment. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we investigated whether and how the natural environment affects the chemical composition of the femoral gland secretions of lacertid lizards. First, we collected femoral gland secretions of 65 lacertid species and analysed their lipophilic chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Second, we extracted climate data from the WorldClim and ECMWF database, based on the geographical coordinates of catch- localities of the examined species. A phylogenetic canonical correlations test showed — as hypothesized — a significant correlation between the environment that a species inhabits and the chemical composition of its femoral gland secretions. High proportions of heavy alcohols and fatty acid esters are characteristic for secretions of species from hot and arid environments. In comparison, species from humid, windy and high altitude localities have secretions with higher proportions of aldehydes.
Baeckens, S. & Martin, S. & Garcia-Roa, R. & Pafilis, P. & Huyghe, K. & Damme, R. van (2017) -
1. The signals that animals use to communicate often differ considerably among species. Part of this variation in signal design may derive from differential natural selection on signal efficacy: the ability of the signal to travel efficiently through the environment and attract the receiver`s attention. For the visual and acoustic modalities, the effect of the physical environment on signal efficacy is a well-studied selective force. Still, very little is known on its impact on chemical signals. 2. Here, we took a broad, phylogenetic comparative approach to test for a relationship between animals` signal chemistry and properties of their natural environment. Our study focused on lizards from the Lacertidae family. 3. We sampled 64 species across three continents and determined the lipophilic composition of their glandular signalling secretions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For each species, an array of environmental variables of high temporal and spatial resolution was obtained from climate databases. 4. Species varied considerably in the overall richness (number of constituents) of their secretions, as well as in the relative contribution of the major chemical compound classes. Signal richness and the relative contribution of the respective compounds exhibited little evidence of phylogenetic relatedness, suggesting that chemical signals may change very rapidly. Neither insularity nor substrate use affected chemical signal composition, however, we found a strong statistical relationship between the chemistry of the lizards` secretions and aspects of the thermal and hydric environment they inhabit. 5. Species from `xeric` milieus contained high proportions of stable fatty acid esters and high molecular weight alcohols in their glandular secretions, which likely increase the persistence of secretion scent-marks. In contrast, species inhabiting `mesic` environments produced secretions of a high chemical richness comprising high levels of aldehydes and low molecular weight alcohols. This chemical mix probably creates a volatile-rich signal that can be used for long-distance airborne communication. 6. We argue that the observed variation in signal design results from differential natural selection, optimizing signal efficacy under contrasting environmental conditions.
Bahl, A. & Laue, C. & Martens, B. & Pfenninger, M. (1997) -
Die Autoren haben mittels der RAPD-Methode die genetische Variation in 5 Zauneidechsenpopulationen untersucht, wobei drei Populationen westlich der Saale bei Halle nur jeweils 700-1200 m voneiander entfernt lagen, eine weitere östlich des Flusses in 5 km Entfernung und die fünfte Population etwa 60 km entfernt bei Leipzig lebt. Mit verschiedenen multivariaten Verfahren wurde die Variation innerhalb und zwischen den Populationen analysiert. Es ergibt sich, daß die Isolationswirkung der Saale deutlicher ist als die durch eine Entfernung von 60 km und zwei Autobahnen erzeugte Einschränkung des Genflusses, so daß sich der nacheiszeitliche Einwanderungsweg anscheinend noch in der genetischen Ähnlichkeit nachweisen läßt. Auch zwischen den drei nahe benachbarten, aber durch lange bestehende Ackerflächen teilweise isolierten Populationen lassen sich kleine genetische Differenzen aufzeigen, die im Einklang mit mutmaßlichen Isolationsmustern interpretiert werden können.
Leider sind die Ergebnisse nur sehr knapp und summarisch dargestellt, so daß eine eingehendere Diskussion auch der methodischen Ansätze nicht möglich ist. Die Autoren weisen insbesondere auf die Bedeutung junger Isolationsfaktoren in der intensivierten Agrarlandschaft hin, doch erscheinen mir aus Sicht des Artenschutzes die dargestellten historisch-geographischen Differenzen wesentlicher, weil sie eine Vorstellung davon vermitteln, welche Vielfalt an historisch entstanden Isolaten sich innerhalb der Arten verbergen lassen. Solche bislang kaum beachtete Vielfalt kann durch Ansiedelaktionismus zur Vermeidung genetischer Verarmung unwiederbringlich zerstört werden.
Bailey, S.E. (1969) -
1. Discharges from mechanoreceptors in lizard skin cover the complete range between brief, high frequency bursts and slowly adapting, low frequency discharges. 2. Unimodal “cold units” and bimodal units (responding also to pressure) are both present and respond to rapid cooling of more than 3–5°C. 3. Discharges occur only on warming above 72°C, except on the upper jaw where the threshold is lower. 4. Larger mechanical stimuli and greater cooling both increase initial frequency and slow down adaptation, but initial frequency and adaptation are faster at higher temperatures. 5. Responses to mechanical stimuli applied immediately after cooling do not show the lowered initial frequency shown by later responses but the adaptation slows at once to the rate characteristics of the new temperature. Conversely, responses after warming are inhibited.
Bailón, S. (2001) -
Bajer, K. (2013) -
Bajer, K. & Horváth, G. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Garamnszegi, L.Z. & Herczeg, G. (2015) -
Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2–3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness.
Bajer, K. & Molnar, O. & Gergely, H. & Herczeg, G. & Laczi, M. & Török, J. (2009) -
Morphological traits and elaborate colouration may play important roles in inter- and intrasexual communication, but sexual signalling has been little studied in reptiles. We conducted experiments of female choice and male competition in green lizards (Lacerta viridis), a species from which no information on sexual selection is available. We performed 24 mate choice trials using a total of 57 males, and allowed 12 males to compete in all potential pairwise combinations. Correlated aspects of morphology and colour were condensed into principal components. Only the body shape of males predicted the outcome of female choice trials. Females preferred males with longer body and narrower head. However, both morphology and colour seemed important in male competition. Our study species was the green lizard (Lacerta viridis), which has not been studied in this aspect. Our aim was to examine the associations between t.hese traits, the female mating preference, and the outcome of male-male contest. We captured 57 males in 2005, and we measured their morphological and spectral properties. The females chose between the possible mating partners exclusively by visual cues. In the contest trial, 12 males fought with each other in all potential combinations . However, the results revealed that the colouration did not associate with the female mate choice, but there was a strong association between the choice and some morphological characters of males: females preferred males with larger body length and smaller head width. According to thee analyses the height, width and length of the head, UV and blue chroma of the throat, and UV chroma of the abdomen were associated positively with the fighting ability; if the two rival males were more similarly for each other in the case of the above mentioned traits, they were much more aggressive during contest. Our results suggest that the expression of multiple ornamental colouration and morphological traits of green lizard males may serve as inter- and intrasexual signals advertising individual quality honestly.
Korábbi tanulmányokból ismeretes, hogy egyes hüllıfajok esetében az inter- és az intraszexuális kommunikációban szerepet játszhatnak az egyedek morfológiai jellemzıi és a szaporo- dási idıszakban kialakított feltőnı színezeti bélyegei. Vizsgálatunk alanya az e tekintetben még nem kutatott zöld gyík (Lacerta viridis) volt. Célunk volt annak kiderítése, hogy e bélyegek elırejelzik-e a nıstények párválasztási preferenciáját és a hím–hím versengés kimenetelét. 2005-ben az aktivitási idıszakban összesen 57 állatot fogtunk be, és rögzítettük azok morfológiai és spektrális változóit. A nıstények vizuális ingerek alapján választhattak a potenciális szaporodási partnerek közül. A hímek közötti versengés tesztelésekor két–két hím harcolt egymással, az összes lehetséges kombinációban. Eredményeink szerint a nıstények a nagyobb testhosszú hímeket választották gyakrabban, ugyanak- kor a színezet nem játszott szerepet a nıstényválaszban. Az analízisek föltárták, hogy a fejmagasság, a fejszélesség és a fejhossz, valamint a torokfolt relatív kék-UV intenzitása és a hasoldal relatív UV intenzitása pozitívan asszociálódott a versengés kimenetelével. Mindezek azt bizonyítják, hogy a zöld gyík hímek esetében a színezeti illetve a morfológiai tulajdonságok szignálként funkcionálhatnak a párválasztás illetve a hím–hím versengés során, s ezen bélyegek elıre jelezhetik a nıstények párvá- lasztási preferenciáját és a versengések eredményét.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2010) -
The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has been identified in a number of vertebrate taxa. In lizards, the signalling role of UV has only been shown in male–male competition and male mate choice. Here, we investigated whether male UV colour can be a basis of female association preference in European green lizards (Lacerta viridis), a species where males develop blue nuptial throat colouration with high UV reflectance. We experimentally manipulated the UV colour of male pairs, where the members of the pair did not differ significantly in body length, body weight, head size, throat UV chroma and brightness or throat blue chroma and brightness measured prior to colour manipulation. By providing these pairs of males to females (only visual stimuli could be perceived by the females), we assessed the role of UV in female association preference irrespective of other potentially important visual traits. We found that unmated but receptive females preferred males of higher UV reflectance. Our results show for the first time that UV colour can be an important male signal in female preference in reptiles.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2011) -
Animal communication through colour signals is a
central themein sexual selection. Structural colours
can be just as costly and honest signals as pigmentbased
colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural
colour that can be important both in intrasexual
competition and mate choice. However, it is still
unknownif aUVsignal alone can determine the outcome
of male–male fights. European green lizard
(Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat
coloration with a strong UV component. Among
males differing only in their manipulated UV
colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here,
we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of
randomly chosen males from otherwise similar
male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference
in UV colour alone can affect fight success during
male–male competition. Our results fully supported
the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the
contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight.
Our results show that UV can be an important
signal, affecting both female mate choice and
determining male fight success.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2012) -
Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids) colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV]) this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates.
In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i) while food shortage decreased lizards` body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii) the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits.
Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O.R. (2007) -
Bakiev, A.G. (2018) -
Background. The purpose of the work is to clarify the species of turtles, lizards and snakes that P. S. Pallas noted in the Volga river basin and the Volga-Ural inter fluve. Pallas’s data on the reptile fauna of the region are compared with current data Materials an methods. The basis of the study was the analysis of Pallas’s publications. The names of reptiles used by Pallas with their modern names are identified. Results. From the Volga region, Pallas described two species of reptiles that are new to science: “Coluber melanis” (black forest-steppe form of the Vipera berus) and “Lacerta pipiens” (Alsophylax pipiens). From the interfluve of the Volga and the Ural Pallas described two species yet: “Lacerta apoda” (Pseudopus apodus) and “Lacerta mystacea” (Phrynocephalus mystaceus). The great naturalist noted in the Volga region also reptiles, whose modern names are: Emys orbicularis, Phrynocephalus helioscopus, Phrynocephalus guttatus, Phrynocephalus mystaceus, Eremias velox, Lacerta agilis, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Hierophis caspius, Gloydius halys, Vipera berus, Vipera renardi. At the beginning of the XXI century, one species of turtles, 11 species of lizards and 10 species of snakes reliably inhabit the region. Conclusions. The species of reptiles noted by Pallas, except for the Pseudopus apodus and the Gloydius halys, reliably inhabit the region at present. The data of the Pallas serve as a basis for studying the dynamics of species composition, distribution, abundance and phenology of reptiles in the Volga basin.
Bakiev, A.G. & Gorelov, R.A. & Klenina, A.A. (2019) -
In different months during 2015-2017, the abundance and sex-age structure of the Sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) were studied on two transects. Parallel transects were established in the southeastern part of the cluster area «Burtinskaya steppe» of the Orenburg State Nature Reserve (Russia). The length of each transect was 3 km. The width of the mineralised plowed strip between the transects was 9-11 m. Transect 2 was located in the area burnt in August 2014, while transect 1 was situated in the area burnt in August 2016. In terms of size and external morphological traits, the captured Sand lizards were divided into three groups: juvenile individuals, adult males, and adult females. After measurements, the marked animals were put back to the places of capture. The number and sex-age structure were restored on transects in May June, after the first winter following the fire impact. We found that on transect 1, the species abundance at late April early May 2015 was almost three times higher (18.67 individuals / km) than on transect 2 (6.67 individuals / km). However, at late May 2015, the species abundance on both transects became almost the same (12.67 individuals / km in transect 1 against 11.33 individuals / km in transect 2). The juvenile individuals suffered from the fire influence more than adults. After the 2016 fire (i.e., in mid-May 2017), the proportion of one-year-old individuals was 21.2% of the total number of Sand lizards recorded in transect 1, while it counted 67.3% of the total number of Sand lizards recorded in transect 2, burnt in 2014. We believe that the rapid recovery of the abundance and sex-age structure in the Burtinskaya steppe was associated with the migration of Sand lizards through the mineralised strip separating the burnt and non-burnt transects.
Bakiev, A.G. & Gorelov, R.A. & Klenina, A.A. (2020) -
Nine reptile species inhabited on the five sites in the Orenburgsky State Nature Reserve, these are Emys orbicularis, Eremias arguta, Lacerta agilis, Zootoca vivipara, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe dione, and Vipera renardi. Lacerta agilis is the only abundant species. Over the last 20-25 years, the abundance of at least three species (Emys orbicularis, Zootoca vivipara, Natrix natrix) has decreased in some clusters of the reserve.
Bakker, A. (1988) -
In June and July 1986 observations were made on the reptiles and amphibians in the surroundings of a camping in the Perigord (France). Eight species were observed: Rana dalmatina, Alytes obstetricans, Bufo bufo, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta viridis, Natrix maura, Elaphe longissima and Coluber viridiflavus.
Balletto, E- (2005) -
Baloutch, M. (1976) -
Bamann, T. (2022) -
Bamann, T. (2023) -
Bamann, T. & Aust, I. & Hauser, D. (2021) -
Banchi, A. (1900) -
Bank, J., Kruyntjens, B. & P. Paulissen (1982) -
The authors give a description of the herpetofauna of some area´s in Yougoslavia they visited in june 1979. Some attention is given to the habitat of several species. The differences between certain island and mainland populations of some Lacerta- and Podarcis-species are discussed to some extend.
During the month of June 1980 the authors observed several species of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal. Notes are given on their habitat. Problems concerning the determination of some species of the genus Podarcis are discussed.
Bannert, B. (1991) -
Es gibt sicherlich verschiedene Möglichkeiten, im Terrarium gehaltene Eidechsen zu überwintern. Der eine schwört auf seinen Keller, der andere auf eine laubgefüllte Grube in seinem Garten. Nun, wem beides nicht zur Verfügung steht, dem kann auch ein Kühlschrank ganz ausgezeichnete Dienste leisten. Freilich ist nicht gemeint, die Eidechsen frei zwischen Wurst und Käse zu betten, vielmehr bedarf es einiger Vorbereitungen. Im wesentlichen stellen sich zur Überwinterung von Eidechsen 4 Fragen: 1. wen? 2. wann? 3. wie? Und 4. wie lange? Auf diese 4 Fragen soll im in diesem Bericht eine Antwort gegeben werden.
Bannert, B. (1992) -
Bannert, B. (1993) -
Bannert, B. (1997) -
Bannert, B. (1998) -
The longevity of several lacertid lizard species in captivity is reported. The conditions of keeping, which have been successful throughout many years, are briefly presented.
Bannert, B. & Kühnel, K.-D. (2017) -
In drei Ersatzhabitaten für Zauneidechsen (Lacerta agilis), die im Rahmen von Umsiedlungsmaßnahmen in Berlin angelegt wurden, wurden Strukturelemente eingebracht, die hinsichtlich der verwendeten Materialien, ihrer Größe und ihres Aufbaus große Unterschiede aufwiesen. Im Zuge von Monitoring-Untersuchungen konnte beobachtet werden, dass nicht alle Strukturelemente von den Eidechsen besiedelt wurden. Je nach Ausstattung wurden einige völlig gemieden, während andere deutlich bevorzugt wurden. Nach den bisherigen Beobachtungen wurden strukturreiche Altholzhaufen von den Zauneidechsen am häufigsten besiedelt, während an den steindominierten Strukturen gar nicht oder nur vereinzelt Eidechsen beobachtet werden konnten. Von entscheidender Bedeutung scheint zu sein, ob die angelegten Sonderstrukturen den Eidechsen genügend Deckung bieten. Somit zeigen sich Qualitätsunterschiede bei den Anlagen, die in der Praxis unbedingt mehr Beachtung finden sollten.
Bannert, B. & Mayer, W. & Bischoff, W. (1996) -
Bannert, B. & Mayer, W. & Bischoff, W. (1999) -
Bannikov, A.G. (1971) -
Eremias guttulata, Eremias velox, Eremias strauchi, Eremias persica, Eremias regeli, Eremias multiocellata, Eremias nikolskii, Eremias pleskei, Eremias lineolata, Eremias scripta, Eremias intermedia, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias arguta, Eremias argus, Eremias brenchleyi, Eremias przewalskii, Eremias grammica, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta parva, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta taurica, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta rudis, Ophisops elegans, Takydromus amurensis, Takydromus wolteri.
Bannikov, A.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ishchenko, V.G. & Rustamov, A.K. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1977) -
Банников А.Г. & Даревский И.С. & Ищенко, В.Г. & Рустамов, А.К. & Щербак, Н.Н. (1977) -
Bar, A. & Haimovitch, G. & Meiri, S. (2021) -
Barahona, F. (1996) -
Barahona, F. & Barbadillo, L. (1997) -
We carried out a morphometric study of the skull throughout postnatal ontogeny in 14 species of Iberian lacertid lizards belonging to the genera Acanthodactylus, Algyroides, Psammodromus, Podarcis, Zootoca, Timon and Lacerta s. latu with the aim of elaborating a key of identification for the studies species. A total of sixty one characters showing interspecific variation are identified. The characters are defined in articulated and disarticulated skulls.
Barahona, F. & Barbadillo, L.J. (1991) -
Baran, I. (1968) -
Baran, I. (1969) -
Baran, I. & Atatür, M.K. (1998) -
Baran, I. & Başoğlu, M. (1977) -
Baran, I. & Lumlutas, Y. & Kaska, Y. & Türkozan, O. (1994) -
Following examination of the amphibia, reptila and mammalia species which are distributed in the Special Protected Area around Köycegiz-Dalyan, the area`s natural resources were investigated. Establishment of the distribution of these species and their population cases has also been attempted by systemical and periodic investigaitons As a result, 5 frogs. 5 turtles, 11 lizards, 13 snakes and 18 mammal species have been discovered for the first time in this region. Furthermore, measures which must be taken into consideration for protection of these species, especially turtles, are given.
Baran, I., Kumlutaş, Y., Tok, C.V., Ilgaz, C., Kaska, Y., Olgun, K., Türkozan, O. & F. Iret (2004) -
Die Autotren berichten über zwei Aufsammlungen von Amphibien und Reptilien aus dem Gebiet der ostanatolischen Städte Erzurum, Iğdir, Kars und Ardahan. Das Material umfaßt drei Anurentaxa, eine Schildkrötenform, 11 Eidechsen- und 11 Schlangenarten in 172 Exemplaren.
Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda complex, Rana camerani, Testudo graeca armeniaca, Phrynocephalus persicus, Eremias pleskei, Eremias strauchi, Lacerta agilis brevicaudata, Parvilacerta parva, Darevskia parvula, Darevskia raddei, Darevskia valentini valentini, Darevskia uzzelli, Lacerta trilineata, Ophisops elegans, Typhlops vermicularis, Eryx jaculus turcicus, Haemorrhois ravergieri, Hierophis schmidti, Platyceps najadum, eirenis modestus, Eirenis punctatolineatus, Coronella austriaca, natrix natrix persa, Natrix tessellata, Vipera wagneri.
Barandun, J. & Kühnis, J. (2000) -
Barandun, J. & Kühnis, J.B. (2001) -
Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Verbreitung der Reptilienarten, ihre Gefährdung sowie ihre Lebensräume und Förderungsmöglichkeiten in den Kantonen St.Gallen, Appenzell Ausserrhoden und Appenzell Innerrhoden dargestellt. Die Arbeit basiert auf über 2500 weitgehend unsystematischen Beobachtungen von 1978 bis 2001. Die meisten Artnachweise stammen von rund 350 Personen als Ergebnis von Umfragen in den Jahren 1987 sowie 1998 bis 2000. In Gebieten, aus denen kaum Reptilienvorkommen gemeldet wurden, erfolgten stichprobenartige Geländebegehungen. Gegenwärtig kommen im Projektgebiet sechs einheimische Arten vor: Waldeidechse, Zauneidechse, Blindschleiche, Ringelnatter, Schlingnatter und Kreuzotter. Daneben sind sechs fremde, eingeschleppte Reptilienarten verbreitet: Mauereidechse, Ruineneidechse, Würfelnatter, Aeskulapnatter, Kaspische Wasserschildkröte und Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkröte. Die Blindschleiche ist weit verbreitet und häufig. Von der Waldeidechse konzentrieren sich Nachweise auf höhere Lagen. Tiefer gelegene Vorkommen sind oft isoliert und gefährdet. Die Kreuzotter kommt nur in wenigen alpinen Gebieten vor, ist dort aber selten gefährdet. Vorkommen von Zauneidechse und Ringelnatter sind vorwiegend isoliert und klein; die Arten sind daher überall gefährdet. Stark gefährdet ist die Schlingnatter, die nur im Rheintal noch grössere Bestandesreserven aufweist. Entsprechend der Bedeutung und dem Potenzial der Reptilien-Lebensräume wurden Kern-, Förderungs- und Vernetzungsgebiete ausgeschieden.
Baranov, A.S. & Valetzkii, A.V. (1975) -
Barbadillo, L.J. (2002) -
Barbadillo, L.J. & Lacomba, J.I. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Sancho, V. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
Barbadillo, L.J. & Martínez-Solano, I. (2002) -
The existence of both interspecific and intraspecific morphological and anatomical variation in vertebral intercentra is described for the first time in Lacertidae. A sample of 380 cleared-and-stained specimens of 12 species of lacertid lizards reveals also the presence of thoracolumbar intercentra in Lacertidae, a condition previously reported within Squamata only for the families Xantusiidae and Gekkonidae. The significance of these findings in the context of phylogenetic analyses within Squamata is discussed.
Barbadillo, L.J. & Sanz, J.L. (1983) -
An osteometric analysis of sacral and presacral regions in three species of iberian lizards (Lacerta lepida, L. schreiberi and L. viridis) has been carried out. For this purpose, 11 osteometric vertebral parameters were proposed, and some of the parameters used by other authors were revised. The topographical variation of the most significant parameters were described and several indices based on them were elaborated. Lacerta viridis differs considerably from L. schreiberi and L. lepida, both qualitatively and quantitatively, especially in the positions of the maximum and minimum for each parameter, and in the percentage of general elongation of the presacral vertebrae, more marked in L. viridis than in the other two species. The sexual and ontogenetic variations include qualitative and quantitative differences as well. A greater percentage of elongation of presacral vertebrae exists in the females. There is some sexual correlation of the existence oscillations in certain parameters (for example pre-postzygapophysis distance) along the vertebral axis (L. lepida and L. schreiberi). The relative height of the neurapophysis shows the most important ontogenetic variation. It is progressively enhanced with size. The vertebral widening that occurs in the last presacral zone is more marked in immature individuals. An interspecific vertebral diagnosis (of particular importance in the axis and sacrum) is proposed.
Barbier, H. (1905) -
Barisic, F. & Bogdanovic, T. (2011) -
Research of fauna and biology of particular species of reptiles in the area of Nature park Papuk were done in the period from February 2009 to September 2009, in 15 locations. The transect method was used in data gathering on reptiles. The sampled units were measured for length or photographed, and during sampling the environmental parametres were measured. The collected data were entered in the database and with the help of GIS technology distribution maps of particular species on the examined area were made. The species Natrix natrix and Lacerta viridis had the largest quantitative structure. The eudominant species were established to be Natrix natrix, Lacerta viridis, Natrix tessellata and Lacerta vivipara, while the recent species are Vipera berus and Ablepharus kitaibelii. The numerousness of species in the researched area as well as their distribution are the result of various conditions in microhabitats, where species find the optimal conditions for survival. Furthermore, seasonal and daily dynamics were analysed. Daily activities, of species and of individuals, show a decrease of value from morning to afternoon, and as far as seasonal dynamics is concerned, the most intensive period of appearance of reptile is in the period from July to September.
Barkat, H. (2014) -
Our present study is an inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles at region of Beni Aziz. The work involves the index of the presence / absence and distribution. The selected zones are: Mountainous site (Djebels) (Sd), cultivated Site (Sc) and humid Site (Oued El kebir ) (So), different methods are used: listens chants anuran, the dip netting for larvae and tadpoles, search streams, visual inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles, trapping (pot Berber) for lizards and amphibians, search under various objects for snakes. We recorded 7 Amphibians and 15 Reptiles. The results also include the biogeographic status, distribution and habitat. We have elaborated an illustrated catalog of existing species in conclusion.
Barnett, C.L. & Gaschak, S. & Beresford, N. & Howard, B.J. & Maksimenko, A. (2009) -
Assessments of radiation exposure of reptiles may be required in some countries as many species are protected. However, there are few data available for the transfer of radionuclides to them, especially in terrestrial ecosystems, and consequently, no specific peer reviewed reptile data have been used in the derivation of default transfer parameters in the ERICA Tool. Twenty samples of Lacerta agilis (sand lizard) and five of Natrix natrix (grass snake) were collected from two sites within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and analysed for Pu-isotopes, 137Cs and 90Sr. Corresponding activity concentrations for soil from the sampling sites were available. These data have been used to derive concentration ratios (CR) (i.e. reptile whole-body fresh weight activity concentration relative to the dry weight activity concentration in soil). CR values for N. natrix tended to be lower than those for L. agilis. The CR values derived in this paper will be used to improve the default values provided within the ERICA Tool. Whole-body activity concentrations determined in the reptile samples were broadly comparable with data available from the same sampling sites for small mammal species.
Baron, G. (1996) -
Barreto, F.J.C. (2019) -
Fire is amongst one of the main ecological drivers, particularly in the Mediterranean. Despite being a fire-adapted region, over the last few years we have seen an increase in the frequency of this type of disturbance. In 2017, a large fire in Mata da Margaraça, located in a protected area in central Portugal, created an adequate opportunity to assess its impacts. In this study, we evaluated the effect of fire severity on the abundance, richness, and diversity of reptiles. Richness and diversity were not affected by the cline of fire severity. However, at species-specific level, Psammodromus algirus, a common lizard and habitat generalist Mediterranean species, had its abundance positively affected with the increase of fire severity. The absence of a linear response from this taxonomic group reinforces the need for further studies on post-fire response, key information for the design and implementation of mitigation measures in the future.
Barrett, C. (1999) -
Reptiles are target species in Dutch nature conservation. Monitoring populations serves as a tool for the evaluation of nature conservation. The Dutch reptile monitoring program started in 1993 with 170 plots where reptiles are counted at least seven times a year by volunteers. The monitoring network has been steadily growing since then. During 1999 240 plots have been searched. Plots are located in all major reptile areas over the country. About 80 monitoring trajects are situated in the dunes. Most of these habitats are inhabited by Sand Lizards. In the following text one of the volunteers describes his observations from a dune patch during 1999. Apart from just counting the lizards, he makes photographs, which enables him a recognise the lizards individually.
Barrioz, M. (2014) -
Barrioz, M. & Voeltzel, V. (2012) -
Barroso, F.M. & Carretero, M.A. & Silva, F. & Sannolo, M. (2016) -
For many years lizard thermal ecology studies have relied on the use of contact thermometry to obtain internal body temperature (Tb) of the animals. However, with progressing technology, an interest grew in using new, less invasive methods, such as InfraRed (IR) pyrometry and thermography, to infer Tb of reptiles. Nonetheless few studies have tested the reliability of these new tools. The present study tested the use of IR cameras as a non-invasive tool to infer Tb of lizards, using three differently body-sized lacertid species (Podarcis virescens, Lacerta schreiberi and Timon lepidus). Given the occurrence of regional heterothermy, we pairwise compared thermography readings of six body parts (snout, eye, head, dorsal, hind limb, tail base) to cloacal temperature (measured by a thermometer-associated thermocouple probe) commonly employed to measure Tb in field and lab studies. The results showed moderate to strong correlations (R2 = 0.84 − 0.99) between all body parts and cloacal temperature. However, despite the readings on the tail base showed the strongest correlation in all three species, it was the eye where the absolute values and pattern of temperature change most consistently followed the cloacal measurements. Hence, we concluded that the eye would be the body location whose IR camera readings more closely approximate that of the animal`s internal environment. Alternatively, other body parts can be used, provided that a careful calibration is carried out. We provide guidelines for future research using thermography to infer Tb of lizards.
Barsch, H. (1997) -
Bartels, M. (1888) -
Bartenjew, A. & Rjeznikowa, M. (1931) -
Barthe, L. (Coord.) (2014) -
Bartheau, F. & Dusoulier, F. & Gouret, L. & Grosselet, O. (1999) -
Bartheau, F. & Dusoulier, F. & Gouret, L. & Grosselet, O. (2001) -
Bartolomei, R. & Conte, A.L. & Romano, A. (2016) -
Barun, A. & Simberloff, D. & Budinski, I. (2010) -
We studied impacts of the introduced small Indian mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus on the herpetofauna on six islands in the Adriatic Sea, Croatia, comparing abundances of reptiles and amphibians on three islands with the mongoose to those on three islands without the mongoose. We used four types of sampling surveys: distance-constrained surveys, visual encounter surveys, special searches and accidental trapping. The horned viper Vipera ammodytes and Balkan green lizard Lacerta trilineata were absent from two mongoose-infested islands (Korčula and Mljet) and rare on the third (Hvar); they were common only on the mongoose-free island where they had historically been present (Brač). The European green toad was absent from one mongoose-infested island, where it had historically been present and rare on the other two. It was common on two of the three mongoose-free islands. Other herpetofaunal species were either very scarce or completely absent on the three mongoose-infested islands. Most of these species also occur on the mainland but are already scarce there; some are strictly protected under Appendix II of the Berne Convention. The recent spread of the mongoose to the European mainland suggests the need for urgent control to protect vulnerable herpetofauna.
Bas-López, S. (1980) -
Bas-López, S. (1982) -
The present work studies the herpetological community of Caural (NW, of Spain): biogeography and ecology.
Biogeography altitudinal distribution of species, altitudinal variation in abundance of species and stratification reflect a decrease with the altitude bound to climatic reasons and reproductivity in reptiles and to lesser heterogeneity of biotopes in amphibians. There is a greater altitudinal stratification of the subcommunity of amphibians than of reptiles.
Ecology: the different physiological requirements of amphibians from land habitats and lizards are reflected in a temporal alternation (seasonal and daily) in the exploitation of the same trophical resource. The snakes occupy anoth trophical level (predators and superpredators) and the tritons live inanother habitat (subaquatic) with different resources and they have a different diet.
The problem of interspecific competition is dealt with in two concrete cases: Lacertidae and Triturus. Great differences in size or corporal shape and behaviour permit coexistence but in the opposite case they separate themselves throughout the area, distributing the biotopes according to their physiological preferences.
There are cases (Lacerta schreiberi and Triturus boscai) in which there appears to be a spatial displacement due to a diffuse competition with congenital species.
One highlights the importance of the habitat in the food diet of some species, which becomes very clear comparing the tritons with the lizards and amphibians from land habitats.
One questions the problem of stability and heterogeneity (climatic and spatial), competition and predation as factors which impel and influence the evolution of communities and species.
In relation with studies realized in other areas we see that the herpetological community of Caurel represents the transition from the Mediterranean region to the European shore region, very much in accordance with the climatic and botanical characteristics of the zone, where the seasonality plays an important role just as the glaciarism appears to have determined a reptile community evolutionally young.
Bas-López, S. (1984) -
In this work the actual state of knowledge on biogeography of amphibians and reptiles from Galicia is exposed in a synthetical way based upon distributional data gathered during the last 10 years.
The geographic distribution of species and communities on latitudinal and altitudinal gradients indicates that climate and biotope are more important factors than latitude or altitude over sea.
The presence of relict populations of eurosibirian taxa and the geographic distribution of endemism poit to the importance of climatic alterations during the Quaternary Age (Glaciarism). Thus, the eurosibirian taxa were driven towards Galicia following both the Cornice and the Cantabrian Chain as a mountains, giving rise to sub-especiation or speciation in allopatry of some endemisms.
As the present data are poor we must consider our conclusions as a first hypothesis.
Bas, S. (1983) -
Baskiera, S. & Vucic, M. & Jelic, D. (2016) -
The sand lizard, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758, is a small lacertid lizard distributed across Europe and western Asia. The sand lizard also inhabits most of Croatia where two subspecies appear: Lacerta agilis argus Laurenti, 1768 (disputable by some authors) in the northern lowlands and L. a. bosnica Schreiber, 1912 in the Dinaric mountain system. In August 2012, we conducted a population study of L. a. bosnica on Dinara Mountain in Croatia. Dinara is the highest Croatian mountain stretching from Dalmatia (region in Croatia) into Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sexual dimorphism was established in this population but focus of this study was to analyze ecological and microhabitat parameters on locations where individuals were sampled. Collected data were further analyzed to check whether males and females prefer different environmental conditions. During this research we visited high mountain grasslands between 1000 and 1400 m a.s.l. with mean habitat temperature of 25.6 °C and measured 100 individuals of sand lizard. These individuals were divided into three groups: 56 females, 40 males and 4 juveniles. For each individual a set of ecological and microhabitat preferences parameters was taken within minutes from capture: altitude, wind intensity, cloudiness, substrate temperature, air temperature measured at 5 centimeter above ground, air temperature measured at 60 centimeters above ground and cloaca temperature. Five microhabitats were recognized and all individuals were also analyzed according to differences among them. Mean body temperature of adult individuals was 27.7 °C with no significant difference between sexes. Almost 60% of captured individuals had regenerated tails, indicating high predation pressure.
Başoğlu, M. & Hellmich, W. (1959) -
Başoğlu, M. & Hellmich, W. (1970) -
Basoglu, M. & I. Baran (1977) -
Batelli, A. (1880) -
Battisti, C. & Luiselli, L. (2011) -
In connectivity conservation and ecological network planning, the selection of focal fragmentationsensitive species represents a priority step. Nevertheless, despite their strategic role, selection of focal species has traditionally been carried out using charismatic and/or non objective approaches. In this way, actions of planning and conservation could be ineffective. Using as a case study Italian reptiles, we apply an expert-based approach for the selection of focal species on the basis of sensitivity to components of habitat fragmentation (habitat area reduction, increase of habitat isolation, increase of edge effect and landscape matrix disturbance) and of intrinsic ecological traits of the species (trophic level, dispersal ability, body size, niche breadth, rarity). The threshold values for each component of fragmentation defined a set of 21 focal species that can be divided into the three macro-components of human-induced habitat fragmentation (HIHF) towards which they show a sensitivity, the suitable spatial scale of populations and relative suitable habitat categories. Among these species, seven can be sampled easily with standard, low-cost field protocols. The selected species largely coincide with the species known in literature as fragmentation-sensitive.
Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. (1995) -
A complete catalogue is provided for the type specimens of lacertid lizards in the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, Berlin, as of December, 1993. The collection contains a total of 514 type specimens, representing 63 taxa, of which 42 are currently regarded as valid at the specific or subspecific level. Types representing an additional four taxa appear to have been lost from the collection. The collections are especially rich in African lacertid types and in historically significant specimens collected early in the Nineteenth Century by Pallas, Eversmann, and Hemprich & Ehrenberg. Also present are the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis described by Eisentraut.
Bauer, L. (2005) -
First week of October 2004 a group of nature lovers visited the southern continental part of Hellas (Greece): the Peloponnesos. Nesos means island. According to mythology Pelops, son of Tantalos, was awarded with an island, in his case a pseudo-island. The Island of Pelops or Pelopo-nesos is almost an island: it is THE original peninsula connected to the Balkans via the original Isthmos!
From a biogeographical point of view this peninsula is interesting, with plants and animals found elsewhere in Europe, but also with island characteristics and with some endemical forms. Cyclamens, Peloponnesos Colchicum and several other plants were encountered.
The author gives a short travelogue. He describes batrachological and herpetological results of the excur- sions made. The situation of chameleons and slowworms on the peninsula receives some extra concern. Also a list of herpspecies found and photographed is added.
Bauer, L. (2011) -
Baum-Nägel, T. & Schneider, A. (2022) -
Baumgarten, H.G. & Braak, H. (1968) -
The distribution of catecholamines in the central nervous system of Lacerta viridis and muralis was investigated by means of the method for fluorescence-microscopical detection of catechol- and tryptamines. Most nuclear areas of the mes-, di- and telencephalon receive terminal ramifications of catecholamine-containing neurones, the distribution pattern of which is typical for each nucleus; these neurones originate in the tegmentum (nucleus reticularis mesencephali) and in the hypothalamus (nucleus diffusus tuberis). Apart from these nuclei another paraventricular nucleus (nucleus ependymalis hypothalami) was found to contain catecholamines. The short neurones of this nucleus mainly innervate the nucleus ventromedialis tuberis and the area praeoptica. It is assumed that these neurones also supply the nuclei commissurales of the telencephalon.
According to the results of spectrographical and histochemical tests it is assumed that the fluorescent substance in the palaeostriatum of Lacerta is mainly noradrenaline and that the neurones of the nucleus ependymalis hypothalami besides little adrenaline contain huge amounts of primary catecholamines. The possibility of the fluorescent substances acting as transmitters is discussed.
Baumgarten, H.G. & Braak, H. & Wartenberg, H. (1969) -
Difficulties to demonstrate the storage sites of noradrenaline by means of electronmicroscopy in neurones from the nucleus ependymalis hypothalami of Lacerta have been overcome by pretreatment of animals with 5-hydroxydopamine and 5-hydroxydopa. 5-hydroxydopamine which has been shown to act as a false sympathetic transmitter in the peripheral nervous system is specifically taken up and stored by dense core vesicles from the noradrenaline neurones while the storage sites of serotonin containing neurones do not concentrate this pyrogallol analogue. A reduction in the number of dense core vesicles from the serotonin storing neurones might indicate that both substances are capable of releasing tryptamine-like substances besides replacing catecholamines. This observation was confirmed by measurements of the noradrenaline- and serotonin-depletion from the brain following pretreatment of animals with both pyrogallol analogues. Moderate doses of 5-hydroxydopamine and 5-hydroxydopa (100 mg/kg) caused a considerable decrease in the concentration of serotonin whereas the loss of noradrenaline was lower. The effect of the amino acid on the content of brain-monoamines was more pronounced than the effect of the amine itself. It is suggested that a pretreatment of animals with 5-hydroxydopa and/or 5-hydroxydopamine will provide a safe identification of catecholamine storing neurones in the central nervous system — a prerequisite for studies of the organization of synaptic connections from noradernergic and dopaminergic neurones to their effectors.
Bauwens, D. (1998) -
Bauwens, D. (1999) -
The life history of an organism is the combination of age-specific survival probabilities and fecundities
it displays in its natural environment. Hence, an organism`s life history is characterised
by its age and size at maturity, frequency of reproduction, clutch or litter size, size of eggs and
hatchlings, and survivorship at different life stages (as embryos, neonates, immatures, adults).
Variation in these traits can be studied at different levels: within a population, among populations
of a single species, and among different species. I here give an overview of studies that explored
life history variation in European lacertid lizards.
Bauwens, D. & Diaz-Uriarte, R. (1997) -
Bauwens, D. & Diaz-Uriarte, R. (2001) -
Bauwens, D. & Garland, T. & Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. (1995) -
Oganismal performance abilities occupy a central position in phenotypic evolution; they are determined by suites of interacting lower-level traits (e.g., morphology and physiology) and they are a primary focus of natural selection. The mechanisms by which higher levels of organismal performance are achieved during evolution are therefore fundamentally important for understanding correlated evolution in general and coadaptation in particular. Here we address correlated evolution of morphological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that influence interspecific variation in sprint speed in a clade of lacertid lizards. Phylogenetic analyses using independent contrasts indicate that the evolution of high maximum sprinting abilities (measured on a photocell-timed racetrack) has occurred via the evolution of (1) longer hind limbs relative to body size, and (2) a higher physiologically optimum temperature for sprinting. For ectotherms, which experience variable body temperatures while active, sprinting abilities in nature depend on both maximum capacities and relative performance levels (i.e., percent of maximum) that can be attained. With respect to temperature effects, relative performance levels are determined by the interaction between thermal physiology and thermoregulatory behavior. Among the 13 species or subspecies of lizards in the present study, differences in the optimal temperature for sprinting (body temperature at which lizards run fastest) closely matched interspecific variation in median preferred body temperature (measured in a laboratory photothermal gradient), in- dicating correlated evolution of thermal physiology and thermal preferences. variability of the preferred body tem- peratures maintained by each species is, across species, negatively correlated with the thermal-performance breadth (range of body temperatures over which lizards can run relatively fast). This pattern leads to interspecific differences in the levels of relative sprint speed that lizards are predicted to attain while active at their preferred temperatures. The highest levels of predicted relative performance are achieved by species that combine a narrow, precise distribution of preferred temperatures with the ability to sprint at near-maximum speeds over a wide range of body temperatures. The observed among-species differences in predicted relative speed were positively correlated with the interspecific variation in maximum sprinting capacities. Thus, species that attain the highest maximum speeds are (1) also able to run at near-maximum levels over a wide range of temperatures and (2) also maintain body temperatures within a narrow zone near the optimal temperature for sprinting. The observed pattern of correlated evolution therefore has involved traits at distinct levels of biological organization, that is, morphology, physiology, and behavior; and trade- offs are not evident. We hypothesize that this particular trait combination has evolved in response to coadaptational selection pressures. We also discuss our results in the context of possible evolutionary responses to global climatic change.
Bauwens, D. & Strijbosch, H. & Stumpel, A.H.P. (1983) -
In this paper we provide quantitative information on the occurrence of larvae and nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus in populations of the lizards Lacerta agilis and L. vivipara. Levels of infestation were rather low, at least when compared with those of small mammals and sheep. Hence we suppose that lizards feed only a minor fraction of the total tick population. Differences in tick loads among lizard subpopulations are probably attributable to difference in body size and mobility among the host groups. Ticks exhibit a markedly clumped distribution on the lizards. This distribution pattern fits with the negative binomial distribution. The overdispersed distribution of tick larvae in the field and aspects of the lizards` behaviour are considered as factors which contribute to the observed infestation patterns. Tick larvae were active throughout summer, with peak levels occurring during June-July. Nymphs were most numerous during May-June but almost absent during the summer months. Almost always ticks were attached near the lizards` forelimbs. Possible mortality resulting from tick infestation does not contribute significantly to the overall lizard mortality. Hence, these ectoparasites seem to have but a minor impact on the lizard populations.
Differences in tick loads among lizard subpopulations are probably attributable to difference in body size and mobility among the host groups.
Ticks exhibit a markedly clumped distribution on the lizards. This distribution pattern fits with the negative binomial distribution. The overdispersed distribution of tick larvae in the field and aspects of the lizards` behaviour are considered as factors which contribute to the observed infestation patterns.
Tick larvae were active throughout summer, with peak levels occurring during June-July. Nymphs were most numerous during May-June but almost absent during the summer months. Almost always ticks were attached near the lizards` forelimbs. Possible mortality resulting from tick infestation does not contribute significantly to the overall lizard mortality. Hence, these ectoparasites seem to have but a minor impact on the lizard populations.
Baxter, J.S. & Meek, R. (1988) -
Cryosurgery has been used for the treatment of skin disorders in two lizards and a chelonian. The results of this and a previous application (Green et al., 1977) indicate that cryotherapy may be a valuable surgical tool for use in reptilian veterinary science.
Bayger, J.A. (1909) -
Im voranstehenden Aufsatz wird eine neue Form der gewöhnlichen Eidechse Lacerta agilis L . als var. Dzieduszyckii m. beschrieben. Dieselbe unterscheidet sich sehr scharf von anderen bekannten Formen dieser Art durch eine besonders charakteristische Zeichnung und Färbung der Rückenzone. Es ist nämlich das Rückenband in zwei Reihen tiefschwarzer, länglicher, hellgrün umsäumter Flecken zerlegt. Das Exemplar, ein Männchen, stammt aus der nächsten Umgebung von Lemberg (Hołosko). Auf der beigesetzten Tafel sind ausser der beschriebenen Varietät noch die ebenfalls aus der Umgebung der Stadt Lemberg bekannten Formen: v. annulata Wern, und lineata Dürigen (albo v. spinalis Wern.) dargestellt.
Bea, A. (1980) -
Two new quotations of Lacerta schreiberi are presented. Both of them are from Gui- puzcoa and that permits to extend the oriental limit of the area of distribution of the spe- cies and also to check definitively its presence in the Basque Country.
Bea, A. (1981) -
A description of the geographical area, soil. vegetation, clima and herpetofauna from the province of Guipuzcoa (Spain) has been made. From a climatical point of view, it has been set that average rain-full was 1727.9 l/year, with 170.5 rain days. Temperatures are mild. During the year the average temperature is 12.6ºC. Along 1978-1979, 796 observations of amphibians and reptiles species have been made. Quotations are distributed by months and by species. For taxonomicals groups correlations have been calculated in order to see the relationship with climatology. At the same time multiple regresion methods have been also used in both the cases results have been positive. Reptiles and lizards species presents a negative correlation with precipitation. Lizards species also with the days of rain-full. All the species, reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures. Reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum-minimum difference temperature. By the other hand, we comment the relationship between environmental factors and the sun`s time, and the catchings of amphibians and reptiles. Among considered environmental variables, the slope orientation, insolation, cloudness and wind have been choosen. Lastly, spatial distribution of every species has been presented. The 89.6% of the grid squares presents at least one observation. So, for each species found in Guipuzcoa, temporal and spatial distribution and habitat are comented. Up to present, in Guipuzcoa the following species of amphibians and reptiles have been found: Salamandra salamandra, Triturus helveticus, T. marmoratus, Bufo bufo, Alytes obstetricans, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana temporaria, Anguis fragilis, Lacerta schreiberi, L. viridis. L. vivipara, Podarcis muralis, Coronella austriaca, C. girondica, Elaphe longissima, Natrix maura, N. natrix y Vipera seoanei.
Bea, A. (1983) -
Se publica nuevas citas de anfibios y repti- les para el País Vasco. Triturus alpestris, Disco- glossus pictus, Hyla arborea, H. meridionalis, Bufo calamita, Podarcis hispanica y Lacerta schreiberi son especies que amplían el área de distribución conocido o confirman antiguas re- ferencias bibliográficas, mientras que Rana ibe- rica es una nueva especie para la región.
Bea, A. (1999) -
Beaune, D. & Savier, H.-P. (2019) -
Beaux, O. de (1928) -
Bechtle, W. (1966) -
Beck, P. (1943) -
Becker, C. (1982) -
The author describes the variety of social behavioural patterns between both sexes of the Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis) in captivity, observed during a complete mating season. The single elements of these behavioural sequences - often developed from ritualization - `display`, `running on the spot`, `turning round and handling of the female` and `tail-biting and march of mating` are discussed. In addition an account of behavioural patterns which prevent or terminate a copulation are provided as well as those of the actual copulation.
In this connection it is shown how each partner comprehends a variety of different behaviour patterns and responds to them specifically (= intraspecific communicative elements). The daily development of the mating biology of the Green Lizard is depicted by some extracts of protocol, the seasonal development by a chronological table.
Becker, C. (1984) -
Becker, H.O. (1993) -
Becker, M. & Buchholz, S. (2015) -
Urbanisation can be dangerous to biological diversity, but on the other hand cities can enhance local and regional biodiversity by providing habitat analogues for many – sometimes endangered – species that are elsewhere excluded from natural habitats. Sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) are endangered in Germany and populations are declining. This species may colonise urban habitats to a certain degree, but the effects of urban development or urbanisation on their distribution and population densities remain unexplained. The aim of this study was to ascertain if the metropolitan area of Berlin offers secondary habitats for sand lizard populations, which environmental factors affect colonisation success and to what degree they tolerate human impacts. In 2012, sand lizard populations in 30 plots (ten urban, ten suburban, ten rural) were assessed regarding their conservation status and environmental variables. We found 15 sand lizard populations; statistical analyses showed no significant differences in individual numbers among the three urbanisation categories. Regression models revealed that the percentage of suitable nesting sites, basking places and suitable microhabitats had a positive effect on density while individual numbers responded negatively to pets and isolation. Urbanisation neither affected sand lizard population densities nor their conservation status, and optimal habitats appeared independent of urbanisation. Urban as well as metropolitan habitats can therefore serve as refuges for this endangered species and negative impacts can be mitigated by forward-looking management, which is characterised by only minimal interventions.
Bedriaga, J. von (1874) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1878) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1882) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1886) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1912) -
Beebee, T.J.C. (1978) -
Beebee, T.J.C. (2008) -
Buccal swabbing was compared with other tissues as a source of DNA for microsatellite genotyping from two squamate reptiles. For both species, the lizard Lacerta agilis and the snake Coronella austriaca, buccal swabbing proved more reliable than tissues including tail tips, toe clips and ventral scale clips.
Beebee, T.J.C. & Rowe, G. (2001) -
We investigated sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) populations in Britain by genetic analysis across eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity as determined by mean expected heterozygosity was high in all three distinct regions where the species occurs (Dorset, Surrey and Merseyside), though allelic diversity was lower on Merseyside than in Surrey or Dorset. There was significant genetic differentiation between populations in all three of these widely separated zones, as judged both by Fst and Rst estimators. A genetic test for population bottlenecks confirmed that in at least two of the areas currently inhabited, Surrey and Merseyside, L. agilis has undergone substantial recent declines. The significance of these findings for sand lizard conservation is discussed.
Beek, A. van (2012) -
Beer, G.R. de (1930) -
Behnke-Borowczyk, J. & Kurcewski, R. & Gwiazdowicz, D.J. (2021) -
The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased in recent years. Studies on sand lizards have demon-strated that they carry a number of acarid species. The purpose of this study was to identify the transmissible pathogenic organisms in Ixodes ricinus removed from Lacerta agilis in the Wielkopolska National Park in 2015. The ticks were identified using a stereomicroscope and by comparing with taxonomical descriptions. Isolation of DNA was performed using a Modified Genomic Maxi AX Direct. The primers used were those used for the detection of haemoparasites transmitted by ticks. In total, 56 nymphs and 34 larvae were re-moved from 15 of 47 examined lizards (overall tick prevalence 31.9%). Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinuswere found on 12 lizards. The highest tick burden was 14 (nymphs). Successful PCR amplicons were fromRickettsia spp. These mono-specific infections did not allow analysis of interactions between co-occurring pathogens. It is clearly necessary to extend this work targeting a much larger sample size of sand lizards and to combine this with concurrent sampling of blood from lizards.
Behrens, M. & Fartmann, T. & Hölzel, N. (2009) -
Belamendia, G. (2010) -
Belik, V. (2011) -
Bell, R. (1991) -
Bellenque, S. & Gadot, A.-S. & Mionnet, A. (2014) -
Bellese, A. (2013) -
Bels, V.L. & Goosse, V. (1990) -
The kinematic profiles of jaw movements are described for Anolis carolinensis and Lacerta viridis feeding on the same prey item (maggot). A. carolinensis is an iguanian (typified by lingual prey capture) and L. viridis is a scleroglossan (typified by prey capture using jaws alone). A. carolinensis, however, catches maggots by using only the jaws. In so doing, it exhibits the four stages of gape profile considered typical for lizards (slow open, fast open, fast close, slow close). Gape cycle in L. viridis shows a hyperbolic curve (no slow open). Two hypotheses concerning the relationship between the two gape cycles are discussed.
Bels, V.L. & Goosse, V. (1993) -
The kinematics of drinking of Lacerta viridis were analysed. A drinking bout is composed of four phases: approach, immersion, emersion and withdrawal. The tongue and gravity are central to moving water through successive compartments of the buccal cavity and into the oesophagus. Upon the basis of formifunction analysis of water intake and transport, a kinematic modcl of drinking in lizards is proposed.
Beltra, S. (2012) -
The list of amphibians and reptiles living in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur constitutes an inventory of up-to-date knowledge on herpetofauna. It contains 22 amphibian taxons and 41 reptile taxons. It also contains their regional distribution, a list of the relevant national, European, and international protection laws, as well as the conservation status of each species.
Beltra, S. (2013) -
The list of amphibians and reptiles living in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur constitutes an inventory of up-to-date knowledge on herpetofauna.
Beltremieux, E. (1863) -
Beltremieux, E. (1884) -
Bennati, R. (1988) -
The author describes the results of many years of research on the erpetological fauna of Mount Adamello.
Bennati, R. & Bonetti, M. & Mazzi, F. & Povinelli, G. (1996) -
Bennati, R. & Mazzi, F. & Sportelli, L. (1975) -
Bererhi, B. (2021) -
Bererhi, B. & Duchesne, P. & Schwartz, T.S. & Ujvari, B. & Wapxstra, E. & Olsson, M. (2023) -
The harmful effects of close inbreeding have been recognized for centuries and, with the rise of Mendelian genetics, was realized to be an effect of homozygosis. This historical background led to great interest in ways to quantify inbreeding, its depression effects on the phenotype and flow-on effects on mate choice and other aspects of behavioral ecology. The mechanisms and cues used to avoid inbreeding are varied and include major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and the peptides they transport as predictors of the degree of genetic relatedness. Here, we revisit and complement data from a Swedish population of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) showing signs of inbreeding depression to assess the effects of genetic relatedness on pair formation in the wild. Parental pairs were less similar at the MHC than expected under random mating but mated at random with respect to microsatellite relatedness. MHC clustered in groups of RFLP bands but no partner preference was observed with respect to partner MHC cluster genotype. Male MHC band patterns were unrelated to their fertilization success in clutches selected for analysis on the basis of showing mixed paternity. Thus, our data suggest that MHC plays a role in pre-copulatory, but not post-copulatory partner association, suggesting that MHC is not the driver of fertilization bias and gamete recognition in sand lizards.
Bererhi, B. & Wapstra, E. & Schwartz, T.S. & Olsson, M. (2019) -
Reported effects of inbreeding vary among taxa and may depend on a number of factors, including what trait is measured, temporal variability, parental effects, or life history stage. To understand the effects of inbreeding during early life history stages, we estimated the effects of individual-level heterozygosity on hatching success and first year survival in a Swedish population of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) over a period of almost a decade, using over 4000 eggs, 400 clutches, and over 3000 juveniles. Heterozygosity had a positive effect on hatching success, in standardized laboratory conditions, but no effect on first year survival. Also, both of these measures of viability varied across the years of the study, demonstrating the importance of temporal heterogeneity in pre and post-hatching conditions. Finally, we identified both paternal and maternal identity effects on hatching success. Thus, we show that selection on heterozygosity was not consistent across developmental life stages, emphasizing the need of considering a number of ontogenic stages, as well as potential parental and environmental effects, when studying the effects of heterozygosity on viability in natural populations.
Berezowski, T. & Kosmider, J. & Greczuk, M. & Chormanski, J. (2015) -
Reptile habitats are described using various indices. The definitions of such indices are crucial, as they are applied to habitat modelling for numerous species on local to continental scales. We examined the Leaf Area Index (LAI) for its value as a tool for determining reptile habitat. During measurements carried out in spring and summer months between 2011 and 2013, LAI values were assessed and surveys were conducted on reptile fauna at 11 survey sites in the Solska Forest and Roztocze National Parks areas in Eastern Poland. In total, six Squamata reptiles occurring in Poland were found. We determined that LAI can be utilized as a reptile habitat index, with reptile species associated with LAI seasonal variability as well as LAI range. Moreover, we found that the higher the LAI median value, the greater the variety of reptile species. These findings are useful for development of spatial models of habitats based on LAI as they point to the importance of its seasonal variation.
Berg, G. van den (1955) -
Berg, J. (1894) -
Berger, H. (1999) -
Berglind, S.A. (1988) -
Four subpopulations of the Sandlizard are known. All are restricted to areas of undulating topography. Their habitat is characterized by patches of bare sand, sun-exposed during a major part of the day, and relatively open areas dominated by heather, grasses (one locality) and shrubs. This habitat occurs at a very small scale; in the form of: 1) south-facing banks of two forest tarns; 2) two small, sandy remnants of a forest fire; 3) some forest ride verges; 4) a powerline corridor; and 5) a grass-grown sandpit. The area of suitable habitat varies between the four localities from 0.1 to 1 ha. They are mainly surrounded by plantations of 20-40 year old pines, within which almost no lizards have been observed.
Berglind, S.A. (1995) -
Berglind, S.A. (1999) -
Berglind, S.A. (2000) -
The sand lizard Lacerta agilis has declined in most of north-western Europe during the last decades, mainly due to loss and fragmentation of its habitat. The species reaches the northern periphery of its range in central Sweden, with a few, isolated relict populations restricted to large, sandy areas dominated by pine forest. Six local populations within one of these areas were censused during 1984-1998. Two populations went extinct and the remaining four declined, each with less than ten adult females left in 1998. Efficient afforestation and fire suppression seem to be the most important factors behind the recent decline of the species, having reduced the amount of open, suitable habitat. Life table analysis of two populations implied an average 6% decline and 3% increase in population size per year, respectively (λ = 0.94 and 1.03). Simulations of stochastic future population growth for 20 yr with no management predicted a 39% and 8% risk of extinction, respectively. Projected risks of population extinction and decline were highly dependent on the population growth rate, which in turn was greatly affected by the estimates of juvenile survival. Elasticity analysis demonstrated that this latter demographic parameter contributed most to population growth rate under asymptotic conditions. Simulations of five different conservation management options ranked a programme of captive raising (increased juvenile survival in captivity during the first hibernation) or captive breeding (using a breeding stock from the two populations, respectively), in parallel with habitat management, potentially to be the most effective options to drastically reduce the risk of extinction and decline.
Berglind, S.A. (2004) -
Pine heath forests on sandy sediments occur as `biotope islands` all over Fennoscandia. An important component of the biodiversity within such pine heaths is early successional species restricted to open patches with sparsely vegetated sand. Surveys of the endangered sand lizard Lacerta agilis on a regional scale in south-central Sweden showed that populated pine heaths were significantly larger (median area 65 km²) than those where the species was absent (median area 5 km²). No effect of pine heath isolation was found. Moreover, on a landscape scale, occupied habitat patches within individual pine heaths were significantly larger than patches where the sand lizard had recently gone extinct. Patch isolation had no significant effect. Furthermore, an analysis of presence/absence of ground-nesting spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) on sandy pine heaths of different size showed that species composition was significantly nested. The highest diversity, of all species and red-listed ones, was found on the largest pine heaths, in sympatry with the sand lizard. It is argued that only the largest sandy pine heaths have provided historical continuity of suitable early successional habitat patches with exposed sand for the most dispersal-limited species. Because of forest fire suppression and afforestation since the beginning of the 20th century, many early successional species in sandy pine heath forests are now threatened due to loss of such patches. To provide habitat for these species, measures to re-create early successional patches must be taken. The sand lizard can be used as a cross-taxonomic umbrella species for red-listed spider wasps and other early successional species. However, to preserve the existing threatened biodiversity within a given pine heath (including the many pine heaths where the sand lizard is absent), a strategy of multiple umbrella species and demarcation of patches with key habitat components is needed.
When habitat loss and fragmentation have caused local populations to become so isolated that among-population dispersal no longer occurs, habitat restoration and reintroduction at the scale of metapopulations should be considered. The potential for metapopulation establishment of the endangered sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) in a sandy pine heath reserve in central Sweden was explored by modelling the effect of differences in: 1) patch size, 2) number of patches, 3) number of introduced juveniles, and 4) among-patch dispersal. My basic model is presented as a spatially explicit, age-structured, stochastic metapopulation model, and it is parameterized with long-term demographic data from two local populations inhabiting the area subject for this study. Simulations of population growth for 50 years showed that the quasi-extinction risk (threshold < 10 females) was > 56% for patches < 1 ha; which is the average size of suitable habitat for inhabited patches during the past 10 years. The quasi-extinction risk decreased to < 6% for patches > 5 ha. Extinction risks decreased with larger propagule size of introduced juveniles and with increasing number of annual introductions. The same total number of introduced juveniles gave roughly the same extinction risk irrespective of if these individuals were placed in 1 patch or divided into several patches in highly correlated, managed metapopulation networks. Dispersal was not important to reduce extinction risks over a 50-year horizon for these types of metapopulation networks. Given that the supply of juveniles for release is limited, it seems that a wise strategy may be to introduce juveniles for three successive years into one patch in each of several metapopulation networks to minimize correlation among the initial populations. Dispersal was probably much more important in the past landscape, with a natural forest fire regime and extensive human activities like forest grazing by cattle, that created spatiotemporal variation in growth rates within sand lizard metapopulation networks. Yet, the potential for substantial dispersal also within future restored networks is important for colonization of empty patches (assuming that juveniles are not introduced into all patches in each network), and for metapopulation persistence on longer, evolutionary time-scales.
Berglind, S.A. (2005) -
Berglind, S.A. & Gullberg, A. & Olsson, M. (2004) -
Bergman, J. (1995) -
Während eines dreitägigen Aufenthaltes wurde die Herpetofauna von Skiathos (Nördliche Sporaden, Griechenland) untersucht. Insgesamt konnten drei Schlangen- und drei bzw. vier Echsenarten (Coluber najadum, Elaphe situla, Malpolon monspessulanus, Ophisaurus apodus, Podarcis erhardii, Lacerta triliniata und vermutlich Lacerta viridis) beobachtet werden. Eine Schlangenart (Elaphe situla) und zwei Echsenarten (Ophisaurus apodus und Podaras erhardii) sind Erstnachweise für Skiathos.
Bergmann, F. & Fritz, K. (2002) -
The distribution of the Western Green Lizard in Baden-Württemberg ist restricted to the Kaiserstuhl-area and
the Tuniberg, a hillside few kilometres south of the Kaiserstuhl-area. In this article we describe new records
of the species at the western slopes of the Tuniberg, suggesting that Western Green Lizards are more widespread
at the hillside as formerly supposed. However, population density at the western slopes seems to be
rather small as suggested by the low numbers of individuals found. Habitats inhabitated by the species do not
differ from those of the Kaiserstuhl-area. Since the area between Kaiserstuhl and Tuniberg hill contains no
suitable habitats for Western Green Lizards, contacts between both populations are rather unlikely.
Bergmans, W. & Zuiderwijk, A. (1986) -
Bernabò, I. & Boldrini, N. & Sperone, E. & Amendola, L. & Pellegrino, F. & Leonetti, F. & Iantorno, A. & Paolillo, G. & Tripepi, S. (2021) -
Bernecker, K. (1988) -
Bernini, F. & Bonini, L. & Ferri, V. & Gentilli, A. & Razzetti, E. & Scali, S. (2004) -
Bernsen, P.L.J.A. (1988) -
Berroneau, M. (2010) -
Bersch, C. (1893) -
Berthold, A.A. (1840) -
Bertoni, G. (1913) -
Beshkov, V. (0000) -
Beshkov, V. & Beron, P. (1964) -
Beshkov, V. & Dushkov, D. (1981) -
Beshkov, V. & Nanev, K. (2006) -
Betta, E. de (1863) -
Betta, E. de (1868) -
Bettencourt Ferreira, J. (1892) -
Bettencourt Ferreira, J. (1895) -
Bettencourt Ferreira, J. (1897) -
Beutler, A. & Frör, E. (1980) -
Cyrtodactylus kotschyi tinensig n. subsp. is olescribed
as ä hew subspecies from Tinos. This subspecies is
distinguished from C. k. saronicus by the larger number of
tubercles on the thigh. lt` is distributed on Andros too,
while Ce k. kotschyi occurs on the Syros-Archipelago, and
intermediate popülations between C. k, tinensis n. subsp.
and C. k. saronicus ranging over Seriphos, Jyaros, Myconos,
Naxe, Ikaria and the adjacent Islands. From-Ikaria, Agama
stellio daani n. subsp. is described. It differs from A. s.
stellio in its blackish grey instead of yellow or red head,
the dark spotted throat and in serological characters. All
^^ A» s`^1^0 whi0^ h-as tieen added to the nominate sub-
sp ecTe^~Toj^iirly belong to this subspecies, beside those
of the Mycpnos-Archipelago which have to remain to A.s,
stellio. The Podarcis erhardi from Syros and Stapod`ia do
not belong to P. e. `mykoriensis; they intermediate between
this subspecies and` P.e. naxensis. Also Matrix natriy from
the Northern Cyclades`does not belong to` N. n^persa but
intermediate between this rac?e and H. n> schw`eizerT7 The
green`lizards of Tinos are Lacgrta triliheata; this race,
now named L. t. citrovittata occurs also on Andros and
probably on Mycöno s toQ,`while the L. trilineata of Syros
belong to the same race as those from Naxe.`
The records of ERHARD, V. HELPREICH and ERBER (partly) were omitted out of the qhecklist as very doubtful. Tab. 2
Shows which kinds of amphibians and reptiles occur on the
Northern Cyclades`. The following species were first recorded
fropi several Islands in th^s paper: Cyrtodactylus kotschyi
(Tragonisi), Hemidae-frylus turcicus (Aridros, Tinos, Hyconos,
Jyaros), Agamä^atglljo (Riniaj, PocLarcIs erhardi (Tragonisi,
Stapodia, Cherrönisi, Strongylo~7 Schinonisi, Aspronisi,
Hegalo and Hikro Gaidaronisi), Ablepharus kitaibelii
(Jyaros, Rinia), Elaphe situla (Tinos), Elaphe quatuor—^
`Ij.nea.tj9. (Tipps), Natrlx`.hätriy (Tinos), Confirination is
givep` `to many recörds, especially from the last Century
(s, £ig. 1, tab. 2).
The herpetofaunas of Andros, Tinos and the Myconos-
Archipelago are y^ry similar, while that of Syros resembles
more those of the Centra,! Cyclades. In summing up the
differences between the Northern Cyclades and the •Western
or Central Cyclades are rather small. The herpetofauna of
Ikaria is rather similar to that of the Northern Cyclades
too. But there are large differences between the herpeto-
fauna of the Cyclades and that of the mainland and Euboee.
In the case of the amphibians and reptiles, the wetland
and the terrassed fields, many of them are abandoned now
and give rise to phryganas, ma,cchias and secondary `woodlands
with all stages of succession, are the most important
habitats. But phryganas and intensively cultivated areas
were settled by few species only, and in the towns only
Hemidactylus turcicus occurs. More extended rocky areas
^ithbüf äny` Vegetation do not bear any amphibians or
reptiles. Those species which are restricted merely to
wetlands like Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda,
M caspica, L`acer.ta trilineata ahd Nafrlx natrix are
rather `endangered `on the` Northern Cyclades by habitat
destruction, and some populations of these species may
have disappeared in the meantime.
Beutler, A. & Heckes, U. (1984) -
Beutler, A. & Kaule, G. (1984) -
Beyer, W. (2016) -
Beyloos, B. & Ven, M. van den (1991) -
Biaggini, M. & Corti, C. (2015) -
Reptile assemblages across agricultural landscapes: where does biodiversity hide?— The transition from traditional to intensive farming, aimed at large–scale production, has rapidly altered agricultural landscapes, leading to the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats and to the consequent loss of biodiversity. Herpetofauna is seriously threatened by agriculture intensification worldwide, but less is known about its distribution in agro–ecosystems, especially at field scale. We analysed reptile abundance and diversity in eight agricultural and semi–natural land uses, and inside vegetated buffer strips interspersed among fields. Interestingly, most reptiles were recorded in the buffer strips while intensive crops and pastures hosted just one lizard species. Richness of individuals and species increased when strips were connected to semi–natural areas, independently of their width and vegetation structure. In view of our results, that highlight the role of minor landscape features for the presence of vertebrates in intensive agro–ecosystems, we recommend the implementation of buffer strips among the measures for vertebrate conservation in agricultural landscapes.
Biaggini, M. & Dapporto, L. & Paggetti, E. & Corti, C. (2006) -
Biaggini, M. & Paggetti, E. & Bazzoffi, P. & Brizzi, R. & Corti, C. (2004) -
Biard, H. (1989) -
Lacerta schreiberi is a close relative of L. viridis. Differences between the species are: L. schreiberi has a wider occipital scale than the interparietal and eight rows of ventral scales. L. viridis has a less wide occipital than the interparietal and six rowsofventrals. Sexualdifferencesare: malesare mostlygreen,heavilyspottedwithblack,andha- ve c l e a r f e m o r a l p o r e s . F e m a l es a r e e i t h e r g r e e n o r brown, with rather big black dots, more or less ar- ranged in rows. L. schreiberi lives in Northern, Western and Middle Iberia. They are found most commonly near flowing water, however someti- mes these lizards are found in dry oakforest. The lizards are kept in a glasshouse. In winter they hi-
bernate in the glasshouse. Hibernation places are insulated by a layer of dry leaves.
Biard, H. (1991) -
This article is a continuation of a former article (BIARD, 1989), of which a short summary is gi- ven. A female L. schreiberi was bought pregnant. It laid 17 eggs, which, at temperatures between 28 and 30 oc hatched 42 days later.
The next year the same female, and another one, living in an outdoor vivarium, each laid 19 eggs. Incubated the same way as the first clutch, these eggs were fully developed after six weeks, but most juveniles died in the eggshell and just a few hatched. In the dead juveniles malformations we- re observed.
The following year, a couple of L. schreiberi was kept indoor and given artificial light, vitamine AD3 and calcium. Twelve eggs were produced in January. They all hatched without problems after six weeks.
Juveniles were raised in an indoor vivarium. It is heated by a 25 W lightbulb and accomodation consists of humid peat soil, dry sand and a piece of cork. Crickets, and to a lesser extent buffalo- worms, both enriched with Gistocal to complete the diet. Within half a year the juveniles became sexual active and the females produced their first eggs.
Biard, H. (2001) -
Lacerta schreiberi is a lizard that is especially suited to an outdoor terrarium. Provided that the necessary precautions are taken, this species is relatively easy to breed.
Females and males of this species can be distinguished easily by the pattern of spots on their back. The scalation of the head does not give conclusive information on the animal’s sex. In nature these lizards are often found near water, but definitely not always. Under Dutch climatic conditions, these animals can be kept outside perfectly well. During the summer months my terraria are mostly open on the top, but in the winter they are covered again. The bottom substrate consists mainly of rocks, with only one suitable place where the animals can lay their eggs. There is a hiding place where the animals can retreat in winter, or during the summer when the conditions are unfavourable. The remainder of the decoration consists of some plants and logs. The lizards are mostly fed mealworms and their drinking water is enriched with vitamins A and D3.
Biard, H. & Mudde, P. (1991) -
Biard, H. & Mudde, P. (1993) -
Biehler, J.G. & Scholl, G. (1976) -
Bielawski, R. & Ramik, T. (1972) -
BIJ12 (2017) -
Bijlsma, R. & Verhoogt, H. (1994) -
Bille, T. (1996) -
Bimmer, E. (1949) -
Birckel, S. (2003) -
Bird, C.G. (1936) -
Birukow, G. & Fischer, K. & Böttcher, H. (1969) -
Das Vermögen, sich kompaBgerecht nach dem Stand der Sonne zu orientieren und ihre tageszeitliche Wanderung einzurechnen, ist seit den grundlegenden Entdeckungen von K. v. Frisch (1950, 1951) an der Biene auch bei zahlreichen anderen Vertretern der Arthropoden und Wirbeltiere nachgewiesen worden. Soweit wir heute wissen, setzt das Richtungsfinden mittels eines Himmelsgestirnes mindestens zwei Grundleistungen des tierischen Organismus voraus: erstens die Fähigkeit, „Zeit zu messen“ (physiologische oder innere Uhr; vgl. Bünning, 1958; Aschoff, 1960); zweitens den zeitgerechten Gebrauch eines Orientierungsmechanismus, der die tageszeitlichen Azimutänderungen des Gestirnes „rechnerisch“ mit Hilfe der inneren Uhr kompensiert. Während das erste Grundvermögen wohl eine sehr allgemeine Eigenschaft von Lebewesen ist, wie es der tagesrhythmische, annähernd mit der Erdumdrehung synchronisierte Ablauf zahlreicher Lebensprozesse bei Tieren und Pflanzen zeigt, sichert das zweite Vermögen speziellere Lebensbedürfnisse des tierischen Organismus; die Fähigkeit, Zeit zu messen, wird dabei in den Dienst der Orientierungsfunktion gestellt.
Bischoff, W. (1966) -
Bischoff, W. (1969) -
Bischoff, W. (1970) -
Bischoff, W. (1973) -
Bischoff, W. (1974) -
Bischoff, W. (1975) -
Bischoff, W. (1976) -
Bischoff, W. (1978) -
The final part of a series of papers on the lizards of the Caucasus, that have been published in previous years.
The paper reports on the life habits, capture and keeping in terraria of several lizards of Soviet Transcaucasia. In these respects the agamid Phrynocephalus helioscopus persi- cus and three species of the lacertid genus Eremias occuring in that area (i. e. strauchi, velox, pleskei) are discussed. Finally a !ist of all lizard species and subspecies actually known to occur in this region is given.
Bischoff, W. (1981) -
Remarks on distribution and mode of life of Lacerta agilis. Short review of its subspecies . Critical remarks on their status.
Bischoff, W. (1984) -
Bischoff, W. (1988) -
Bischoff, W. (1991) -
Bischoff, W. (1998) -
Bischoff, W. (2003) -
General remarks on Georgia as nature area and on ist herpetofauna, with discussion about ist population density. Short presentation and hints on distribution and habitats of Eremias arguta transcaucasica, E. velox caucasica, Ophisops elegans elegans, Lacerta agilis brevicaudata, L. agilis ioriensis, L. agilis grusinica, L. media media and L. strigata.
Bischoff, W. (2020) -
The author gives an insight into his decade-long engagement with the sand lizard.
Brief presentation of some stamps and baknotes on which Lacerta agilis is pictured.
Bischoff, W. (2021) -
A work by the Polish teacher and natural scientist JAN ALEKSANDER BAYGER (1867-1958) from 1909 is presented that has hitherto been overlooked by experts. BAYGER describes a subspecies of the sand lizard under the name Lacerta agilis L. var. Dzieduszyckii from the area around the city of Lviv, which today belongs to the Ukraine. This name is a synonym for Lacerta agilis chersonensis. In addition, the largely unknown outside of Poland J.A. BAYGER briefly introduced.
GEORGI FEDOROWITSCH SUCHOW (1899-1942) was one of those researchers from the former Soviet Union who has been completely forgotten. This changed with the memories of his daughter NATALIA GEORGIEVNA SUKHOVA, published in 2015. Born in Ukraine, SUKHOV went to Leningrad in 1930, but did not get the hoped-for position as a scientist in the local herpetological department of the Zoological Museum of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He was only hired as a museum guide. In February 1942 he died as a result of the siege of Leningrad by German troops. SUCHOW’S twelve herpetological works were almost exclusively devoted to the lacertid lizards. He described five new taxa, four of which are valid (Lacerta agilis tauridica, Lacerta agilis boemica, Apathya cappadocica urmiana und Timon kurdistanicus).
Bischoff, W. & Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Schmidtler, J.F. (1998) -
Bericht über die Entdeckungsgeschichte der Eidechsen des Lacerta kulzeri-Komplexes, speziell jener des Djebel Druz in Syrien. Der Lebensraum der Dj. Druz-Eidechsewn sowie einige Freilandbeobachtungen werden mitgeteilt. Bemerkenswert ist, dass die Eidechsen offensichtlich von sich aus das Wasser aufsuchen. Die übrige Herpetofauna des Dj. Druz wird aufgelistet und teilweise kurz kommentiert.
Bischoff, W. & Engelmann, W.-E. (1978) -
Bischoff, W. & Schmidtler, J.F. (1994) -
During two excursions to Syria (March/April and May 1994) 9 species of lacertid lizards were found (Acanthodactylus grandis, A. orientalis, A. tristrami, Lacerta media wolterstorffi L. cappadocica wolteri, L. l. laevis, L. (cf.) kulzeri, Mesalina brevirostris and Ophisops elegans ssp.). Three of them (A. tristrami, L. cappadocica wolteri and L. (cf.) kulzeri) are reported for the first time for this country. Concerning L. cappadocica, L. laevis, L. (cf.) kulzeri and O. elegans systematical questions are discussed. Ecological data are presented. Further amphibians and reptiles found during the excursions are listed, Coluber najadum is reported for the first time for Syria.
Bischoff, W. & Warnecke, R. (2009) -
Bischoff, W. & Zawadzki, M. (2021) -
After being voted «Reptile of the year 2020» the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) was featered extensively in the publications and on the websites of the relevant specialist organizations in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg (- not least in this magazine -), and it has repeatedly served as an attractive advertising medium for the protection of our amphibians and reptiles in the daily press. Nevertheless, numerous activities and conferences fell victim to the pandemic last year. And so it seems only logical to give the sand lizard a second chance. For this reason the German Society for Herpetology and Herpetoculture (DGHT), in cooperation with the Austrian Society for Herpetology (ÖGH), the Coordination Center for Amphibian and Reptile Protection in Switzerland (karch), the Natural History Museum Luxembourg (MNHN) and the Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union Germany (NABU), annouce the sand lizard «Reptile of the Year 2021».
Biserkov, V. (2007) -
Biserkov, V. & Kostadinova, A. (1998) -
A data set comprising individual host/parasite lists from 100 Lacerta viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) belonging to four isolated populations in Bulgaria was studied. A total of seven helminth species was recovered (Leptophallus nigrooenosus, Plagiorchis molini, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Spauligodon extenuatus, Skrjabinelaziahoffmanni, Physaloptera clausa and Mesocestoides sp.). Lacerta viridis is a new host record for the first five of these species. Communities of intestinal helminths of L. viridis consist of a few species which resulted in a low species richness, abundance and diversity of infracommunities, which exhibit substantial homogeneity among the four samples. A similar pattern of dominance of two nematode species leading to a relatively high community similarity at both infra- and component community levels was observed. While intestinal helminth communities in lizards from`marginal`habitats were dominated by the host generalist, O. filiformis, those in hosts from `typical` habitats were dominated by the lizard specialist S. extenuatus. The results indicate that the characteristics of the host`s habitat are important in determining the composition rather than structure of intestinal helminth communities in L. viridis.
Biserkov, V. & Naumov, B. & Tsankov, N. & Stoyanov, A. & Petrov, B. &Dobrev, D. & Stoev , P. (2007) -
The current book provides a synthesis of the information concern-
ing field identification of all the species and subspecies of Amphibia
and Reptilia hitherto registered in Bulgaria. It comprises 61 species
and 23 subspecies, among which 5 species (Pelophylax lessonae, P.
kurtmuelleri, Hemidactylus turcicus, Eremias arguta, Montivipera
xanthina) that have not been found yet on the territory of the
country, but which are known from sites in proximity to Bulgar-
ian frontiers. The frogs and toads are represented with 14 spe-
cies, newts and salamanders with 6 species, turtles and tortoises
with 7 species (Trachemys scripta introduced; Caretta caretta and
Chelonia mydas considered extinct), and snakes with 19 species
(Vipera aspis and V. ursinii considered extinct). The structure of
each species’ description includes the following headings: Name,
Diagnosis, General Distribution, Distribution in Bulgaria, Habitats,
and Biology. Besides in Bulgarian and Latin, all species are sup-
plemented with their English, French, German and Russian names.
All synonyms in the main herpetological literature are listed after
the currently accepted Latin name. Original keys for identification
of the families, genera and species, based entirely on morphologi-
cal characters of adult specimens, as well as on the structure of
amphibians’ eggs and larvae, are elaborated to facilitate the users.
A photo gallery, comprising original colour photos shot in nature,
and numerous line drawings of different key characters are made
for better distinction between the species. For purely conservation-
al reasons, the distribution maps not only indicate the scientifically
confirmed species distribution in the country, but also show the
areas with suitable habitats where a given species is likely to oc-
cur. The degree of suitability is indicated with a different degree
of shading: optimal (black); suboptimal (80% gray); suitable (60%
gray); less suitable (20% gray); white means unsuitable. The guide
is also introducing the readers to some general aspects of the tax-
onomy, systematics, morphology, biology and ecology of herpeto-
fauna. Special chapters are devoted to the methods of observation
and capture of amphibians and reptiles, first aid after a snake’s
bite, and the relationship between herpetofauna – humans. The
status of each species according to main biodiversity conservation
acts and conventions is given in Table 1. Being the first publication
of its kind, the book is intended for professional herpetologists,
students or nature lovers.
Blab, J. (1980) -
Reptiles range in the Federal Republic of Germany with the most endangered groups of animals and conservation measures are therefore of great importance for their sur- vival.
The ecological requirements of all twelve native species are precisely stated: climatic and microclimatic conditions, substrate humidity, vegetation structures, animals for prey, microstructures, hiding places, hibernation quarters and oviposition sites are decisive factors for the absence or presence of the particular species. The climatic factors are most important for those xerothermic species, which usually reach the northern limit of their range in our country. According to their habitat preference the following three eco- logical groups of reptiles can be separated: (a) Species dependent on open water, (b) species of open to semi-open dry habitats, (c) ecological generalists. The species-specific data regarding the minimal population and habitat size are mostly unknown, but some experimentally obtained data are available.
The indigenous species of reptiles are especially endangered through the following factors: (1) Destruction of habitats; (2) direct and indirect poisoning; (3) direct pro- secution and indirect destruction; (4) expulsion through human interference; (5) natural harmful effects (especially of climatic nature).
The extent and effects of endangering and corresponding counter-measures are dis- cussed. Special attention is paid to the general aspects of habitat protection, the priorities and model representation of conservation and development measures for reptile habitats.
The occurence of reptiles in xerothermic grassland can be secured only if the direct destruction of the habitat by building up, afforestation, wine growing, fertilization and other kinds of intensive use of the land are run down, however, also the secondary fac- tors must forma part of the management: natural succession of crops as in extensive agri- cultural methods, sheep grazing, mowing or combination of mowing and burning.
The maintenance and reproduction of reptile populations ·of woodlands needs the provision of light woods, managed according to old methods, and additionally the pro- vision and maintenance of extended and structurally abundant forest edges. The typical reptile population in an area of intensive agriculture requires at least four hectare of extensively managed grassland per each square kilometre; chis area can be either in one part or consist of small scattered `ecological cells`.
In order eo maincain ehe reptiles inhabiting wetlands, all efforcs regarding an in- creased draining of these areas must be strict!y prevented. The semi-natural fens and wet meadows need regular management: mowing and removal of mowed grass. For ehe Euro- pean pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) and the Dice snake (Natrix tessellata) it is pos- sible eo increase ehe qualicy of ehe habitat if additional undisturbed sites for oviposition and sunbathing could be provided. This equally applies to ehe Adder (Vipera berus) and the Grass snake (Natrix natrix). The shortage of food for ehe young specimens could be obviated by establishing amphibian habitats.
Blab, J. (1982) -
The paper discusses the possibilities of methodical improvements of faunistic discern- ing and mapping of reptiles in central Europe. These are based on the knowledge of the biology, behaviour and phenology of central European species. The main topics of the discussion are the procedures in the field and the influence of weather, time of day, and season on the activity of the species to be recorded. Questions related to quantitative surveys are also dealt with.
The activity of reptiles is determined by a complex of variable external factors so that only the following basic rules for the efficient recording of reptiles in central Europe can be made:
e All fast movements as well as any kind of disturbing of the ecotope have to be avoided,
0 recording during cool, chilly, rainy or windy weather is rather useless, perhaps with some exceptions, e. g. of the Adder (Vipera berus),
e the most advantageous periods for recording are from April to mid-June and mid- August to late September/ early October,
• the most advantageous times of day are between 9 and 12 a. m. and again from 17 to 19 p. m., Slow worm (Anguis fragilis) a litt!e earlier and later. The observation opportunities differ from species to species, according to the behaviour, e. g. sunbath- ing or territorial behaviour of species such as in case of the Green lizard (Lacerta viridis) exhibiting its blue throat,
e the activity of reptiles is particularly advantageous for recording during sunny days following longer periods of rain as well as during the high humidity (i. e. `close, sultry weather`) before thunderstorms.
Blab, J. & Brüggemann, P. & Sauer, H. (1991) -
Blab, J. & Nowak, E. (1976) -
Blain, H.-A. & Bailon, S. (2003) -
Blain, H.-A. & Monzón, A.M. & López-Garcia, J.M. & Lozano-Fernández, I. & Folie, A. (2019) -
Archeological sites usually provide important information about the past distribution of small vertebrate fauna, and by extension about past terrestrial environments and climate in which human activities took place. In this context, Belgium has an interesting location in northwestern Europe between the fully studied zooarcheological records of Germany and England. We present here the revision of the late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stages 3 and 2) collection of the “Caverne Marie-Jeanne” (Hastière-Lavaux, Namur), studied by Jean-Claude Rage in the 1970s and the revision of the whole “indeterminate” small vertebrate materials from the “Caverne Marie-Jeanne” stored in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS) Quaternary collections in search of more herpetofaunal remains. It is now by far the largest late Pleistocene collection at RBINS with more than 20,500 recognized bones of amphibians and reptiles and covering the last 60,000 years. The faunal list comprises two urodeles (Lissotriton gr. L. vulgaris and Salamandra salamandra), four anurans (Bufo gr. B. bufo-spinosus, Epidalea calamita, Rana temporaria and Rana cf. R. arvalis), three lizards (Lacerta cf. L. agilis, Zootoca vivipara and Anguis gr. A. fragilis), and three snakes (Natrix gr. N. natrix, Coronella austriaca, and Vipera berus). This study represents the first fossil record in Belgium for L. gr. L. vulgaris, R. arvalis, Z. vivipara, N. gr. N. natrix and C. austriaca. As a whole, this assemblage suggests a patchy humid landscape under colder and dryer climatic conditions in comparison with present ones. This study also underlines the necessity of a primary separation in larger taxonomical categories by the specialist itself.
Blanchard, R. (1880) -
Blanchard, R. (1894) -
Blanford, W.T. (1876) -
Blanke, I. (1995) -
Blanke, I. (1996) -
In the studied population basking sites were frequendly used by two ore more Lacerta agilis at the same time. Partly the lizards basked with direct body contact.
Blanke, I. (1999) -
Blanke, I. (2004) -
Blanke, I. (2006) -
Artificial refuges are often recommended as a tool in reptile surveys, especially for slow-worms and smooth snakes. In Britain the use of refuges is much more common than on the continent (with its wide spread wild pigs). Since 2004, refuges are used in two Natura 2000 sites with very poor reptile populations in Lower-Saxony (northwest Germany). Here, the refuges are used in addition to direct search in the open and beneath natural hiding places. The aims of these studies are the evaluation of management success and the monitoring of smooth snakes and sand lizards in Natura 2000 sites. In dry heathlands five wooden boards were placed in each of four sites. In each of four wet heathlands five metal sheets (‘tins’) were placed. In the first year, these 40 refuges led to 32 encounters of reptiles (only lizards) and six species records for the different sites. During the »normal« assessment, 75 encounters and 22 records of species for the eight sites were made. In 2005, the numbers of encounters were similar (110 with refuges, 111 other), but at the different sites the number of species proved beneath refuges was still lower than in the normal search (15 : 20). In the whole period, 142 observations of reptiles were made with the refuges, mainly records of slow-worms (123) and smooth snakes (10). 186 observations were made with the normal search (including 34 under »natural« refuges like tree trunks and litter). 86 observations of sand lizards and 12 of smooth snakes were made in the open. Most of the smooth snake records (26) were made under pre-existing objects (e. g. tree trunks, scrap metal) that provide refuges. The numbers of smooth snake individuals under natural refuges/pre-existing objects, artifical refuges and in the open were similar (7 each). In habitats with good structures the smooth snakes were almost found in the open, whilst they were found mainly under different types of refuges in poorer habitats. In total, 68 % of slow worm, 2 % of sand lizard, 12 % common lizard, 21 % of smooth snake, 25 % of grass snake and 13 % of adder encounters were made under/on refuges. An average of 1.78 reptile and 0.12 smooth snake encounters were made per refuge and year. There were great differences in the effectiveness of refuges in the different areas and for the different species. The literature also shows wide variation in the effectiveness of refuges. In different surveys, they are responsible for 28–99 % of slow-worm, 0–34 % of sand lizard, 0–67 % of common lizard, 0–100 % of smooth snake, 0–88 % of grass snake and 0–74 % of adder encounters.
Blanke, I. (2008) -
Blanke, I. (2010) -
Blanke, I. (2012) -
Blanke, I. (2015) -
Blanke, I. (2019) -
Blanke, I. (2020) -
Blanke, I. (2022) -
Blanke, I. & Fearnley, H. (2015) -
Blanke, I. & M. Frese (2021) -
Blanke, I. & Mertens, D. (2013) -
Blanke, I. & Podloucky, R. (2000) -
The present knowledge of the distribution of red-backed Sand Lizard in eastern Lower Saxony is presented. Of a grid corresponding to the Topographical Map 1:25.000 the `erythronotus`-mutant has been reported out of 11 grids since 1981. Populations with redbacked Sand Lizard are mainly found on railway embankments, frequently extended to several kilometer. The status (distribution, threats and conservation) of the Sand Lizard in Lower Saxony is briefly described.
Blanke, I. & Seyring, M. & Wagner, N. (2020) -
Blanke, I. & Völkl, W. (2015) -
An drei Beispielen (Mobilität, Flächenbedarf und Korrekturfaktoren) werden Fehldarstellungen der Biologie der Zauneidechse in Veröffentlichungen zur Anwendung des strengen Artenschutzes bei und im Vorfeld von Eingriffen und ähnlichen Verfahren vorgestellt. Am Beispiel von CEF-Maßnahmen werden Fehlauslegungen und -darstellungen des rechtlichen Rahmens erörtert. Diese fehlerhaften Darstellungen gehen jeweils zu Lasten des Artenschutzes. Mit Ihrer Hilfe können Eingriffsfolgen und fehlende Ausgleichsmöglichkeiten verschleiert und zudem der Bedarf für Kompensationsflächen reduziert werden. Einige für die Zauneidechse nachteilige Konstrukte wurden durch Fehlbewertungen im FFH-Bewertungsschema ermöglicht. Dieses wird daher kurz vorgestellt und auf anstehende Korrekturen verwiesen.
Blasius, W. (1897) -
Blin, A. (2010) -
Blitterswijk, H. van & Stumpel, A.H.P. & Arens, P.F.P. & Ottburg, F.G.W.A. (2005) -
Blom, P. (1950) -
Bobrov, V.V. (1986) -
Bobrov, V.V. (2018) -
Böckl, W. & Zauner, J. (2014) -
From 10/05/2014 to 05/17/2014 we traveled some selected areas in the south of France together with two terrarium friends. We have already known the lizards that occur in this area from former trips to other countries in southern Europe. Thus, our interest was in the following landscapes, outstanding by their particular circumstances, such as substrate, vegetation, moisture and color. Of course we also wanted to observe and photograph the resident reptiles and amphibians and in particular the „king“ of the Provence – the Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus lepidus).
Bodenheimer, F.S. (1944) -
Bodenschatz, H. (1957) -
Boere, A. & Haaren, R. van & Zweden, J. van (2001) -
Boettger, O. (1880) -
Boettger, O. (1881) -
Boettger, O. (1882) -
Boettger, O. (1885) -
Boettger, O. (1886) -
Boettger, O. (1888) -
Boettger, O. (1893) -
Bogaerts, S. (2000) -
A female Lacerta bilineata from the Cevennes, France, showed strong aggresiv behaviour towards other specimen of this species (a male and a female). In March 1995 it mated with an other female. This `mating` followed the same pattem as in normal matings of this species.
Bogaerts, S. (2003) -
In 2001 and 2002 I visited the Drulon estate in the Cher Department, France. On this estate, extensive cattle farming, nature and art are tightly interwoven. Apart from many insects, such as the Staghorn Beetle, Lucanus cervus, and Praying Mantis, Mantis religiosa, at least five species of reptile and five amphibian species occur here: Podarcis muralis, Lacerta bilineata, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Vipera aspis, Triturus helveticus, Triturus cristatus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina and Rana esculenta. The latter species also occurs in a blue colour mutation with some frequency. There is a good chance that additional species will be found here, but I only briefly visited the area twice during the summer months and missed out on the spring – an important time for amphibian inventories.
Bogdan, H.V. (2012) -
Bogdan, H.V. & Sas-Kovács, I. & Covaciumarov, S.-D. (2014) -
In the southern side of the Lipova Hills we found 11 amphibian species, 9 reptile species and 2 types of hybrid between amphibian species. The herpetofauna of the region contains lowland, hill and mountain related species. Also, in the area are present southern species in the vicinity of the northern limit of their distribution range, and related species in the mountainous areas, found at lower altitudes than usually. The mixture of mountain and lowland species is a consequence of the current aspect of the region, with wide valleys located between hill ridges, valleys that allow the advancement of these lowland species in the hill areas. The second aspect is a consequence of the history of the region. Currently the herpetofauna of the Lipova Hills is greatly advantaged by the relatively large forest covered areas.
Bogdanov, O.P. (1956) -
Bohle, D. (2004) -
Bohle, D. (2016) -
Im Rahmen eines Kreuzotter-Monitoring-Projektes wurden in Brandenburg gezielt phänologische Daten zur Kreuzotter (Vipera berus), aber auch zur Ringelnatter (Natrix natrix), Zauneidechse (Lacerta agilis), Waldeidechse (Zootoca vivipara) und Blindschleiche (Anguis fragilis) gesammelt. Der Schwerpunkt lag vor allem auf der Ermittlung der Aktivitätszeiträume der einzelnen Arten. Im Laufe der 10 Untersuchungsjahre von 2006-2015 wurden insgesamt 220 Begehungen in den Monaten Oktober bis März durchgeführt. Um die Ergebnisse der verschiedenen Jahre besser vergleichen zu können, wurde aus dem Aktivitätsbeginn und dem Aktivitätsende der einzelnen Jahre der Median berechnet. Das Ergebnis zeigt, dass die Kreuzotter (Vipera berus) den mit Abstand längsten Aktivitätszeitraum mit einem Median von 256 Tagen hat. Es folgt die Waldeidechse mit 223Tagen und dahinter die Zauneidechse mit 277 Tagen. Die Ringelnatter verzeichnet dagegen nur noch 202,5 Tage und die Blindschleiche 188 Tage. Der Vergleich mit Literaturangaben aus Deutschland zeigt weitgehende Übereinstimmungen für die Ringelnatter, Zauneiclechse und Waldeidechse. Bei der Kreuzotter und Blindschleiche gibt es hingegen erhebliche Abweichungen. Speziell der ermittelte Wert für das Aktivitätsende der Kreuzotter liegt mit dem 14. November als Median deutlich später im Vergleich zu den Literaturangaben. Ausschlaggebend für lange Aktivitätszeiträume scheinen vor allem geschützte Winterquartiere möglichst nahe an mikroklimatisch begünstigten Sonnenplätzen zu sein.
Bohlmann, H. & Falkenberg, E. & Knüppel, U. & König, R. (1981) -
Böhme, M.U. & Berendonk, T.U. & Schlegel, M. (2005) -
Twelve new microsatellite loci were isolated from the Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis viridis). Primers for 28 loci were designed and 18 of these loci amplified well for 10 individuals of four populations. Twelve of these loci were further characterized for a population in Hungary. The results document the suitability of these identified loci for the characterization of the genetic diversity of the endangered species L. viridis viridis.
Böhme, M.U. & Fritz, U. & Kotenko, T. & Džukić, G. & Ljubisavljević, K. & Tzankov, N. & Berendonk, T.U. (2006) -
It is well known that the current genetic pattern of many European species has been highly influenced by climatic changes during the Pleistocene. While there are many well known vertebrate examples, knowledge about squamate reptiles is sparse. To obtain more data, a range-wide sampling of Lacerta viridis was conducted and phylogenetic relations within the L. viridis complex were analysed using an mtDNA fragment encompassing part of cytochrome b, the adjacent tRNA genes and the noncoding control region. Most genetic divergence was found in the south of the distribution range. The Carpathian Basin and the regions north of the Carpathians and Alps are inhabited by the same mitochondrial lineage, corresponding to Lacerta viridis viridis. Three distinct lineages occurred in the south-eastern Balkans — corresponding to L. v. viridis, L. v. meridionalis, L. v. guentherpetersi— as well as a fourth lineage for which no subspecies name is available. This distribution pattern suggests a rapid range expansion of L. v. viridis after the Holocene warming, leading to a colonization of the northern part of the species range. An unexpected finding was that a highly distinct genetic lineage occurs along the western Balkan coast. Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony) suggested that this west Balkan lineage could represent the sister taxon of Lacerta bilineata. Due to the morphological similarity of taxa within the L. viridis complex this cryptic taxon was previously assigned to L. v. viridis. The distribution pattern of several parapatric, in part highly, distinct genetic lineages suggested the existence of several refuges in close proximity on the southern Balkans. Within L. bilineata sensu stricto a generally similar pattern emerged, with a high genetic diversity on the Apennine peninsula, arguing for two distinct refuges there, and a low genetic diversity in the northern part of the range. Close to the south-eastern Alps, three distinct lineages (L. b. bilineata, L. v. viridis, west Balkan taxon) occurred within close proximity. We suggest that the west Balkan lineage represents an early offshoot of L. bilineata that was isolated during a previous Pleistocene glacial from the more western L. bilineata populations, which survived in refuges on the Apennine peninsula.
Böhme, M.U. & Fritzsch, G. & Tippmann, A. & Schlegel, M. & Berendonk, T.U. (2007) -
For the first time the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for a member of Lacertidae. Lacerta viridis viridis was sequenced in order to compare the phylogenetic relationships of this family to other reptilian lineages. Using the long-polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) we characterized a mitochondrial genome, 17,156 bp long showing a typical vertebrate pattern with 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and one major noncoding region. The noncoding region of L. v. viridis was characterized by a conspicuous 35 bp tandem repeat at its 5′ terminus. A phylogenetic study including all currently available squamate mitochondrial sequences demonstrates the position of Lacertidae within a monophyletic squamate group. We obtained a narrow relationship of Lacertidae to Scincidae, Iguanidae, Varanidae, Anguidae, and Cordylidae. Although, the internal relationships within this group yielded only a weak resolution and low bootstrap support, the revealed relationships were more congruent with morphological studies than with recent molecular analyses.
Böhme, M.U. & Moravec, J. (2011) -
In order to obtain genetic data for the conservation of populations of Czech Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) the genetic diversity of 12 microsatellite markers was assessed for five Bohemian and three Moravian populations. Comparison of the genetic variation and differentiation between the highly fragmented and isolated Bohemian populations and the Moravian populations connected to the continuous species range revealed a lower level of genetic variation in Bohemian populations. Presence of a genetic split between the Bohemian and Moravian populations indicates that these populations have been isloted from one another for long time and currently there is no gene flow between them. The genetic structures of the populations in both regions are significantly correlated with respective geographic distances and influenced by the low level of habitat connectivity between the populations. Basic implications for the conservation of L. viridis in the Czech Republic are suggested.
Böhme, M.U. & Schneeweiss, N. & Fritz, U. & Moravec, J. & Majláth, I. & Majláthová, V. & Berendonk, T.U. (2006) -
The range of Lacerta viridis viridis is the result of a rapid postglacial dispersal, followed by
range-restriction events leading to the isolation of the present northern relict populations. Current
conservation efforts focus on these endangered, northern isolates. An understanding of the genetic diversity
of these populations is a prerequisite for any conservation measures. In order to provide such data we
analysed mtDNA sequence variation in 57 L. v. viridis from the northernmost part of the subspecies range,
including representatives of isolated relict populations in Brandenburg (Germany) and northern Bohemia
(Czech Republic). We detected a positive correlation between genetic distances of mtDNA sequences and
geographic distances, which corresponds well with the migration behaviour of L. v. viridis. Furthermore,
our data reveal the importance of a comparative analysis for estimating the genetic diversity of an
endangered taxon like Lacerta v. viridis.
Die Verbreitung von Lacerta viridis viridis ist das Ergebnis einer schnellen nacheiszeitlichen Ausbreitung mit nachfolgenden, die Verbreitung einschränkenden Geschehnissen, die zur Isolation der heutigen nördlichen Reliktpopulationen geführt haben. Die gegenwärtigen Schutzbestrebungen konzentrieren sich auf diese gefährdeten nördlichen isolierten Populationen. Das Verständnis der genetischen Diversität dieser Populationen ist eine Voraussetzung für Schutzmaßnahmen in jeder Form. Um derartige Daten zur Verfügung zu stellen, analysierten wir die mtDNS-Sequenzvariation von 57 L. v. viridis aus dem nördlichsten Bereich der Verbreitung dieser Unterart, einschließlich Vertretern von isolierten Reliktpopulationen in Brandenburg und Nord-Böhmen (Tschechische Republik). Wir stießen dabei auf eine positive Relation zwischen den genetischen Distanzen der mtDNS-Sequenzen und den geographischen Entfernungen, die gut mit dem Migrationsverhalten von L. v. viridis übereinstimmt. Weiterhin zeigen unsere Daten die große Bedeutung einer vergleichenden Analyse für das Abschätzen der genetischen Diversität von gefährdeten Taxa wie L. v. viridis auf.
Böhme, M.U. & Schneeweiss, N. & Fritz, U. & Schlegel, M. & Berendonk, T.U. (2007) -
Edge and central populations can show great differences regarding their genetic variation and thereby also in their probability of extinction. This fact might be of great importance for the conservation strategies of endangered species. In this study we examine the level of microsatellite variability within three threatened edge populations of the green lizard subspecies Lacerta viridis viridis (Laur.) in Brandenburg (Germany) and compare the observed variation to other edge and central populations within the northern species range. We demonstrate that the northernmost edge populations contain less genetic variation in comparison to the central population. However, there were no observable significant differences to the other edge population included in this study. Surprisingly, we observed a high genetic differentiation in a small geographical range between the three endangered populations in Brandenburg, which can be explained by processes like fragmentation, isolation, genetic drift and small individual numbers within these populations. We also detected unique genetic variants (alleles), which only occurred in these populations, despite a low overall genetic variation. This study demonstrates the potential of fast evolving markers assessing the genetic status of endangered populations with a high resolution. It also illustrates the need for a comparative analysis of different regions within the species range, achieving a more exact interpretation of the genetic variation in endangered populations. This will aid future management decisions in the conservation of genetic diversity in threatened species.
Böhme, W. (1971) -
Böhme, W. (1978) -
Kühnelt`s principle of regional stenoecy and its bearing on the subspecies problem: a theoretical approach
1. The subspecies concept as defined by Mayr (1975) and generally accepted at the present time is arbitrary, subjective and lacking a precise theoretical basis.
2. This concept may be improved if the subspecies is recognized as a phenomenon not only in space but also in time.
3. The term subspecies must be restricted only to those situations in which intra-specific evolutionary divergence can potentially give rise to new species.
4. Characters expressing these intra-specific divergences should be adaptive characters necessary for the evolutionary process. This is true for physiological and ecological characters rather than for morphological ones.
5. Theriological and herpetological examples demonstrate that Kühnelt`s principle of regional stenoecy is such an ecological criterion. This principle srates that individuals of a species can occupy a greater variety of habitats in the center of the species range (euryoec) than towards the periphery (stenoec). The discussed examples suggest however that this principle is a constant phenomenon not at the species level, but at a lower level.
6. Therefore it is proposed to bring the category subspecies in coincidence with the really existant level of Kühnelt`s principle, thus making the category less arbitrary.
7. The application of this proposed concept is illustrated by several examples. Those species which are comprised of demonstrably divergent subspecific populations should be named “polycentric” rather than “polytypic”.
8. The proposed concept is apparently applicable only to widely distributed mainland forms and not to insular forms. When discussing montane populations, insular and ecotypic forms can however be better distinguished.
9. The interesting parallelism of adaptation and compensation to similar climatic conditions of both poikilotherm and homoiotherm species is pointed out. It is suggested that peripheral isolares are most often relictual and in process of extinction because of environmental change. Therefore it is nor generally possible to interpret every isolate as a “beginning species”.
The raxonomic applicability of the theoretical approach presented here must be tested by ecological and experimental research.
Böhme, W. (1982) -
Within a species one can often distinguish between groupings which correspond to objectively different levels of differentiation. The level of these differentiations may vary
between semlspecies and local population rank. On the other hand the zoological system
supplies us with only one category for the nomenclatoral expression of infraspeclflc relative relationship. Several examples taken from the European herpetofauna are used to demonstrate the absurdity of infraspeclflc concepts currently accepted for many European, especially Mediterranean reptile species. An alternative to this unsatisfactory situation would be the concept of `megasubspecies` as developed by American ornithologists. This concept would allow to express Infraspeclflc relationship also in herpetology better than before, but nevertheless in harmony with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Böhme, W. (1989) -
Böhme, W. (2010) -
In the herpetological collection of ZFMK 528 scientific species group names are represented by type materi- al. Of these, 304 names are documented by primary type specimens (onomatophores) while for 224 further names sec- ondary type specimens (typoids) are available, ranging chronologically from 1801 to 2010. The list is a shortened pred- ecessor of a comprehensive type catalogue in progress. It lists name bearing types with their catalogue numbers includ- ing information on further type series members also in other institutions, while secondary types are listed only by pres- ence, both in ZFMK and other collections including holotype repositories. Geographic origin and currently valid names are also provided.
Böhme, W. & Bischoff, W. (1984) -
Böhme, W. & Corti, C. (1993) -
Böhme, W. & Weitschat, W. (2002) -
A comparative analysis of seven newly found pieces of Baltic amber containing specimens of lacertid lizards or parts of them results in the distinction of three different species. Despite some important differences even in the subdigital structures, all are assigned to the genus Succinilacerta BOEHME & WEITSCHAT, 1998. The diversity and adaptive radiation of Eocene lacertid lizards is stressed particularly when contemporaneous forms preserved only after skeletal remains (e. g., Plesiolacerta lydekkeri) are also taken into account.
Böhme, W. & Wiedl, H.-J. (1993) -
Böhme, W. & Zammit-Maempel, G. (1982) -
Lacerta siculimelitensis sp. n., an extinct giant lizard species is described from the Late Pleistocene of Malta. It is shown that this species lived contemporaneously also on Sicily. The zoogeographical aspects of the fossil form as compared with recent members of the genus are discussed.
Boie, F. (1841) -
Boiko, M.P. & Vikyrchak, O.K. & Holinei, H.M. & Shevchyk, L.O. (2019) -
Reliable information about the species composition of the fauna, way of life, abundance, distribution, and breeding features is not only the initial data for in-depth zoological, evolutionary and ecological research, but also the source for nature conservation activity based on the analysis of the state of wildlife resources. The European green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laurenti, 1768; Reptilia, Squamata) is one of the most vulnerable species of reptiles in the domestic herpetofauna. Therefore, it is the object of ecological research aimed at studying population structure, biotopic distribution, including within the protected natural areas and areas that are undergoing significant anthropogenic transformation. The work is based on field studies conducted in April - August 2018 and data from the regular phenological observations of the Dniester Canyon National Nature Park. The current status of the European green lizard population (Lacerta viridis Laurenti, 1768) within the territory of Dniester Canyon National Nature Park has been investigated. The abundance and spatial distribution of the species populations in different biotopes have been studiedon the basis of long-term phenological observations according to the program of the Chronicle of Nature of the National Nature Park and the authors’ research. The data of the species occurrence on the territory of the Park for the last six years is given. The abundance of the European green lizard populations under different biotopical conditions and the main factors influencing the studied parameters have been analyzed.
Boissinot, A. & Grillet, F. & Morin-Pinaud, S. & Besnard, A. & Lourdais, O. (2013) -
Böker, T. (1987) -
Böker, T. (1990) -
The population exhibits a high density and is rather stable. Numerous suitable areas are occu-
pied by L. viridis within the study site.
The biggest threat for this population is the increase of bushy vegetation and closure of the
Eastern and western L. viridis are differently adapted to temperature. The western population begins with its daily activity phase at a temperature which is at least 7 °C lower, when compared to the eastern population. Consequentially its yearly activity phase starts between two and three weeks (in very mild winters up to six weeks) earlier.
Böker, T. (1992) -
Böker,T. & Schausten, H. & Sound, P. & Twelbeck (1995) -
Bol, S. (1992) -
REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS ON SAMOS During a two week holiday on Samos, the follo- wing species were observed: Rona ridibunda, Agamastellio, Ophisaurusapodus, Ophisopsele- gans, Lacerta trilineata cariensis, Mabuya aura- to, L. anatolicaaegaea, Natrixnatrixpersa, Colu- ber caspius, C. najadum, Eirenis modestus, Eryx jaculus, Mauremyscaspica. Some of these species were not known to occur on the island. For each of the species some notes are given (if possible) about environment, status and behaviour.
Bolkay, S..J. & Ćurčić, V. (1930) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1919) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1927) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1928) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1929) -
Boll, E. (1864) -
Bollian, C. (0000) -
Bolnykh I.I. & Zhigileva O.N. (2016) -
The paper presents data on the variability of basic morphological characters of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) inhabiting the vicinities of the cities Tyumen (Western Siberia) and Sterlitamak (Southern Urals). Five subtypes of back coloration were identified. Typical and atypical variants of the coloration pattern are described. A high level of the genetic variability of the ISSR markers of sand lizards was revealed. It was significantly lower in the group of mature individuals as compared to juveniles.
Key words: Lacerta agilis, morphology, exterior signs, color polymorphism, genetic variability, DNA markers, Western Siberia, Southern Urals.
Больных И.И., Жигилева О.Н. (2016) -
Представлены данные об изменчивости основных морфологических признаков прыткой ящерицы Lacerta agilis, обитающей в окрестностях г. Тюмень (Западная Сибирь) и г. Стерлитамак (Южный Урал). Выделено пять под-типов окраски спины. Описаны типичные и атипичные варианты рисунка. Выявлен высокий уровень генетической изменчивости прыткой ящерицы по ISSR-маркерам. В группе половозрелых особей он значительно меньше, чем среди ювенильных.
Bologna, G.M. & Capula, M. & Carpaneto, G.M. & Cignini, B. & Marangoni, C. & Venchi, A. & Zapparoli, M. (2003) -
Mit dem Verbreitungsatlas der Amphibien und Reptilien Roms legt das vielköpfige Autorenteam ein Werk vor, das -soweit dem Rezensenten bekannt - erstmalig detailliert Auskunft über die urbane Herpetofauna einer mediterranen, international bedeutsamen Großstadt liefert. Allein schon die Abgrenzung des Untersuchungsraumes ist bemerkenswert, die sich nämlich nicht an der Stadtgrenze orientiert, sondern an der ringförmig das Stadtzentrum umgebenden Autobahn (Grande Raccordo Annulare) und damit statt eines administrativen einen funktionalen Charakter besitzt. Die Vielfalt der römischen Stadtlandschaften innerhalb des 360 km² großen Untersuchungsraumes wird anhand zahlreicher Photos belegt, die von der historischen Altstadt und den hochgradig versiegelten Innenstadtbereichen zur Peripherie hin über zunehmend aufgelockerte Stadtteile bis hin zu agrarisch genutzten Randzonen reichen. Gleichzeitig liefern die Photos einen ersten Hinweis auf das Angebot herpetologisch relevanter Lebensraumtypen. Exemplarisch seien hier die archäologischen Fundstätten und historische Parkanlagen aber auch weitere naturnahe Flächen genannt, denen als innerstädtischen Refugialbiotopen eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Die Genese des 1996 gestarteten Kartierungsprojektes, die von über hundert Mitarbeitern stammende Datenbasis sowie der verwendete Erfassungsbogen werden kurz vorgestellt. Grundlage der Verbreitungskarten ist ein UTM-km²-Raster. Den eigentlichen Artkapiteln wird ein mit Zeichnungen unterstützer Bestimmungsschlüssel vorangestellt. Die doppelseitigen Artkapitel sind jeweils nach folgendem Schema aufgebaut: Photo, Gesamtverbreitung, Vorkommen in Rom, Verbreitungskarte, tab. Angabe der Präsenzwerte für die Zeitintervalle 1980-1995, 1996-2002, 1980-2002, Biologie und ökologie. Das aktuelle, seit 1996 dokumentierte Artenspektrum setzt sich aus 10 Amhibien- und 16 Reptilienarten zusammen, darunter mit T. scripta eine allochthone Art. Die meisten Amphibienarten sind nur noch relikthaft im Stadtgebiet nachweisbar. So liegen die aktuellen Präsenzwerte von S. terdigitata, R. dalmatina, R. italica, T. carnifex und H. intermedia zwischen 0,3 und 2,2% und selbst T. vulgaris wurde nur in 3% der Untersuchungsraster nachgewiesen. Höhere Präsenzwerte werden für B. viridis (8%) angegeben, aber lediglich der Wasserfroschkomplex R. bergeri / R. kl. hispanica (16,7%) und B. bufo (17,2%) sind im Stadtgebiet von Rom noch relativ verbreitet. Ein deutlich anderes Bild ergibt sich für die Reptilienfauna: Während auch hier neun Arten nur Präsenzwerte zwischen 0,8 und 5% erreichen (in aufsteigender Reihenfolge: N. tesselata, T. hermanni, E. orbicularis, E. quattuorlineata, V. aspis, A. fragilis, T. scripta, E. longissima, N. natrix), sind die übrigen 7 Taxa noch relativ verbreitet und z.T. sogar bemerkenswert häufig. So liegen die Präsenzwerte von Ch. chalcides, H. turcicus und L. bilineata zwischen 15,5 und 17,2 und C. viridiflavus ist mit 19,4 die mit Abstand am weitesten verbreitete Schlangenart in der Großstadt Rom. Noch deutlich höhere Werte werden von T. mauritanica (28%), P. muralis (45,5%) und schließlich P. sicula (62,2) erreicht, die selbst in der Innenstadt regelmäßig auftreten und die die urbanen Raumstrukturen offensichtlich erfolgreich zu nutzen wissen. Ein Vergleich mit älteren Daten belegt, dass vier Arten ausgestorben sind (S. salamandra, B. variegata, C. austriaca, C. girondica) und dass die Bestände mehrerer weiterer Taxa in den letzten Jahren einen dramatischen Rückgang aufweisen (S. terdigitata, B. viridis, R. dalmatina, R. italica, E. orbicularis, L. bilineata, E. quattuorlineata, E. longissima). Abschließend kann dem kompetenten Autorenteam sowie dem Umwelt- und Kulturamt der Stadt Rom, die als Herausgeber des Verbreitungsatlas fungieren, ein großes Lob ausgesprochen werden. Italienische Sprachkenntnisse sind für das Verständnis der Arbeit nicht zwingend notwendig, da die wichtigsten Aussagen des klar gegliederten und sehr ansprechend gestalteten Heftes selbsterklärend sind. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist dieser Herpetofauna von Rom eine weite Verbreitung – und Folgeprojekte aus weiteren Großstädten! - zu wünschen.
Bombieri, G. & Novelli, F. & Pesentel, M. (2022) -
Bonaparte, C.L. (1839) -
Bonath, K. (2007) -
Bonato, L. (2011) -
Bonizzi, P. (1870) -
Borcea, M. (1974) -
Borcea, M. (1975) -
Borcea, M. (1978) -
Borcea, M. (1979) -
Borcea, M. (1981) -
Borczyk, B (2008) -
Borczyk, B. (2008) -
Borczyk, B. (2000) -
Borczyk, B. (2001) -
Borczyk, B. & Gottfried, I. & Urban, R.G. & Kania, J. (2022) -
Ecosystem engineering is among the most important factors shaping ecosystems; however, it remains largely unstudied. Here, we present observations on three lizard species, the common lizard Zootoca vivipara, the sand lizard Lacerta agilis, and the slow worm Anguis fragilis, which use habitats created by the great capricorn beetle, Cerambyx cerdo. These galleries are heavily used by the common lizards and young sand lizards. We discuss the possible advantages of such beetle-created habitats for reptiles: antipredator refuges, hibernation sites, thermoregulatory behaviour, and preying activities. Since previous studies have reported numerous invertebrate species as well as vertebrates (including bats and snakes) in these refugia, we find the great capricorn beetle-inhabited oaks as potentially important microhabitats for a variety of animals.
Borczyk, B. & Kaczmarek, M. & Maslak, R. (2006) -
Borczyk, B. & Kusznierz, J. & Pasko, L. & Turniak, E. (2014) -
Sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) exhibit a clear pattern of sexual dimorphism, both in coloration and body proportions, where males have larger heads and are longer-legged at a given snout-to-vent length (SVL). In this study we analyse allometry of skull growth with SVL and skull length (SL) as references. The sand lizard skull is basically sexually size dimorphic and there are only minor shape differences. When SVL is used as a reference point, it generates differences in all traits to be measured, presumably because SVL is subject to different and strong selection pressures in both sexes. When skull length is taken as a reference point, differences in skull shape are restricted only to the postorbital region, which is wider in males. This may reflect selection pressure on stronger bite force in males.
Borczyk, B. & Maslak, R. & Pasko, P. (2004) -
Borczyk, B. & Pasko, L. (2011) -
Reptiles show a positive correlation between age and body size and it is common practice to infer the age of an animal from its size. However, the growth rate often differs between individuals, thus such practice may lead to false conclusions. Because age of an animal is a very important factor in many ecological studies, it should be determined with a minimum of error. Here, we compare the body size distribution among different age classes of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) to infer if it is possible to correctly determine their age on the basis of the body length. Our results show that the average error in age estimation on the basis of the lizard size is 1.36 year which is approximately 1/3 the average sand lizard life span.
Borg, J.P. ter (2000) -
Reptiles and amphibians from temperate zones can be kept in outdoor terrariums. Outside there is often more room for larger dwellings than inside the house. Measures have ro be taken to prevent mice, moles, cars and so on ro gain access to rhe interior. At some spot the animals have to find refuge during high temperatures and during hibernation. The author prefers glass covered terrariums, for instance glass-houses, for sunlight can create high tempera- tures even in early spring and late autumn. During rhe summer, part of the glass is removed to prevent excessive hearing. In winter a thick layer of dry lea- ves is applied when it starts freezing. Good results are obtained with Podarcis sicula, Podarcis lilfordi and Lacerta viridis in this way.
On several spots the weekly highest and lowest tem- peratures are registered, for instance in a sunny spot, in the shadow and in rhe place of hibernation. Diagrams are shown representing rhe yearly varia- tion in these temperatures. Keeping animals this way gives an extra dimension to our hobby.
BREEDING WITH CLOSELY RELATED ANIMALS, NOT WITHOUT RISK
The negative consequences of inbreeding in small populations of reptiles and amphibians are discus- sed. When a species breeds in captivity, the resulting population after several generations often has a limi- ted amount of genetic variation. This is due to the fact that the ancestors of this group are made up of only a few founder-animals. Certain genetic charac- teristics can be expressed more frequent in their off- spring because they tend to accumulate in a small population, especially when the breeder tries to select for certain qualities. Other features are easily lost due to the often limited size of the group, in which only a limited amount of genes can be pre- sent. The animals are no longer wild, but in stead domesticated.
with a coiled tail and a paralysed right hind leg. The remaining egg was opened and contained a still living animal that looked normal from chest to head. The rest ofits body consisted ofan unstructu- red tumour-like process. The healthy looking ani- mals and the lizards with the coiled tails thrived well, although the latter ones lost their abnormal shaped tail within an day.
Olsson et al (1996) describes a very isolated popula- tion of Lacerta agilis in Sweden, in which malfor- med tails and paralysed extremities are often seen. Supported by laboratory experiments he claims that those aberrations are a result of inbreeding.
In captivity populations can often be compared to a very isolated population in nature. Keepers of repti- les and amphibians should be well aware o f the nega- tive consequences ofmating between closely related animals of a species. It is a potential danger for the survival ofsome groups in captivity. It is recommen- ded to artificially enlarge the population ofa species, and with it its genetic variation, by working together with other keepers. Animals can be exchanged to minimize inbreeding, joining a studbook project is especially recommended.
Jur ter Borg
Sometimes negative features can be seen more fre- quent in those populations, especially when siblings are allowed to mate. The author describes offspring ofa brother/sister mating in Lacerta viridis. It is sug- gested, that on their turn their parents were proba- bly offspring of related animals too. Several clutches ofeggs were laid, often not fertilized and often dying off during incubation. Only two healthy looking juveniles hatched from 45 eggs. At first the author thought this was the result of Calcium/vitamin defi- ciency, although he had good results breeding seve- ral species ofPodarcis, giving the same care.
More Calcium and vitamins were provided, resul- ting in a clutch of 12 eggs, ofwhich 3 not fertilized. The other eggs died offduring incubation. An other clutch of 17 eggs contained 6 unfertilized eggs. The rest ofthe eggs resulted in 7 normal looking animals, one fully grown juvenile that had died off just befo- re hatching, one animal with a coiled tail and one with a coiled tail and a paralysed right hind leg. The remaining egg was opened and contained a still living animal that looked normal from chest to head. The rest ofits body consisted ofan unstructu- red tumour-like process. The healthy looking ani- mals and the lizards with the coiled tails thrived well, although the latter ones lost their abnormal shaped tail within an day.
Olsson et al (1996) describes a very isolated popula- tion of Lacerta agilis in Sweden, in which malfor- med tails and paralysed extremities are often seen. Supported by laboratory experiments he claims that those aberrations are a result of inbreeding.
In captivity populations can often be compared to a very isolated population in nature. Keepers of repti- les and amphibians should be well aware o f the nega- tive consequences ofmating between closely related animals of a species. It is a potential danger for the survival ofsome groups in captivity. It is recommen- ded to artificially enlarge the population ofa species, and with it its genetic variation, by working together with other keepers. Animals can be exchanged to minimize inbreeding, joining a studbook project is especially recommended.
Borg, J.P. ter (2002) -
Borg, J.P. ter (2003) -
UNCOMMON COLOUR VARIETY OF THE SAND LIZARD (Lncertn agilis)
During an excursion ro Wolfl1eeze (rhe Nerherlands} in June 2002, some members of rhe Anmedam chaprer of rhe Sociery found a female Sand Lizard wirhout any colour parrern. NEt-lES (2002) described rhis variery as `immaculara`. Th is kind of variery is somcrimes seen more ofren, bur is considered rare.
Borg, J.P. ter (2004) -
Reptiles and amphibians in Portugal
The author spend two weeks in July 2002 in Beira, Portugal. The following observations were made:
Vale de Asna (Serra do Açor): the sound of several Alytes obstreticans boscai (probably), several Tarentola mauritanica, one Podarcis hispanica type 1, many Psammodromus algirus, several Chalcides chalcides striatus, larvae of Rana iberica, Triturus marmoratus marmoratus, Triturus helveticus sequeirai and Triturus boscai, one adult Rana perezi, one dead Bufo bufo, three Natrix maura (half-grown and adult).
Waterfall of Sobral (Serra do Açor): many Psam-modromus algirus, several larvae, juvenile and adult Rana iberica, many juvenile Bufo bufo.
Pena (Serra da Lousã): several Psammodromus algirus.
Mata da Margaraça (Serra do Açor): several Psam-modromus algirus, one Podarcis hispanica (probably).
Fraga de Pena (Serra do Açor): several larvae and two adult Rana iberica, one Natrix maura (probably), several larvae and three adult Chioglossa lusitanica.
Serra da Estrela: Near the top of mount Torre (between 1750 and 1993 m): many Iberolacerta monticola monticola, many larvae of Bufo species, many adult Rana perezi, one adult Rana iberica, one adult Hyla arborea molleri. Around 1200 m, one adult and one juvenile Timon lepidus, one adult Lacerta schreiberi. At 1600 m one juvenile Lacerta schreiberi.
Between Piódão and Foz d’Égua (Serra do Açor): one half-grown Natrix natrix astreptophora, one juvenile Natrix maura (probably newly hatched), several Psammodromus algirus and one adult Malpolon monspessulanus.
It is stated that Portugal is a very interesting place for spotting reptiles and amphibians in nature.
Borg, J.P. ter & Bol. B.J. (1999) -
COMMON KESTREL CATCHES LIZARD
In 1994 in rhe village of Zwaanshoek, muni- cipality of Haarlemmermeer, a female Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was caught bij research-workers of rhe regional society for birds of prey and owls. The bird carried a female sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), rhat was obviously pregnant. After a few hours rhe lizard was presented ro one of rhe authors, which instantly removed rhe eggs, nine in total. None of the eggs turned out to be viable, probably due ro lack of oxygen in the hours after the lizard died.
Common Kestrels mainly catch field-mice (Microtus arva!is) in this area, only in years when field-mice are less abundant, like in 1994, they switch over ro other prey, most ofren birds, especially young starlings (Sturnus vuLgaris). T he capture of a lizard is remarkable, since their hunringarea is in the near surroundings of their nest, the nearest place where it could possibly find lizards being ar a distance of three miles.
Borgula, A. & Bolzern-Tönz, H. (1999) -
Borisov, V.J. & Orlova, V.F. (1986) -
Borkin L.J. (2022) -
The book summarizes studies related to the herpetofauna of Kazakhstan that were carried out in
the 18th century. The first fragmentary information on this topic refers to the middle of this century (J.G.
Gmelin, P.I. Rychkov). The greatest scientific value were the results of the academic expeditions (P.S. Pallas,
I.I. Lepekhin, S.G. Gmelin, J.P. Falk, J.G. Georgi, N.P. Rychkov) between 1768 and 1774, especially the field
data obtained by P.S. Pallas. This information served as a basis for the inclusion of data on amphibians
and reptiles inhabiting the territories of present-day Kazakhstan (mainly the western Caspian region) into
foreign herpetological reviews on a global scale as well as the zoological manuals established by West-
European naturalists (e.g., P.L.S. Müller, G.H. Borowski, B.-G.-É. Lacepède, P.-G. Bonnaterre, J.F. Gmelin,
F.A. Меyer, J.A. Donndorff, G.A. Suckow, I. Schneider, J.M. Bechstein, W. Тurton). Тhese studies concluded
with the first summaries of the herpetofauna of the Russian Empire compiled by J.G. Georgi (1801) as well
as by P.S. Pallas in his “Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica” (1814). Short biographies of all mentioned authors are
presented in this volume, and annotated lists of species they noted for Kazakhstan as well.
Л.Я. Боркин (2022) -
В книге анализируется изучение герпетофауны Казахстана в XVIII веке. Первые отрывочные сведения относятся к первой половине – середине этого столетия (И.Г. Гмелин, П.И. Рычков). Однако наибольшее научное значение имели результаты академических экспедиций 1768–1774 годов (П.С. Паллас, И.И. Лепёхин, С.Г. Гмелин, И.П. Фальк, И.Г. Георги, Н.П. Рычков), особенно полевые сведения, полученные П.С. Палласом. Они послужили основой для включения данных об амфибиях и рептилиях, обитающих на территории современного Казахстана (главным образом, его западной Прикаспийской части), в зарубежные герпетологические сводки мирового охвата и даже общеполезные зоологические руководства, составленные западноевропейскими натуралистами (Ф.Л.С. Мюллер, Г.Г. Боровский, Б.-Ж.-Э. Ласепед, П.-Ж. Бонатерр, И.Ф. Гмелин, Ф. Мейер, И. Донндорфф, Г.А. Зукков, И. Шнейдер, И. Бехштейн, У. Тёртон). Венчают эти исследования первая сводка по герпетофауне Российской империи И.Г. Георги (1801) и «Zoographia Rosso- Asiatica” П.С. Палласа (1814). Приведены краткие биографии авторов, а также аннотированные списки видов, отмеченных ими для Казахстана.
Borkin, L.Ya. & Darevsky, I.S. (1987) -
Боркин Л.Я. & Даревский И.С. (1987) -
Börner, A.-R. (2015) -
Die Eidechsen im Lahn- und Rheintal gelten als seit Jahrzehnten gut erforscht: Neben der weit verbreiteten Blindschleiche sind Wald-, Zaun- und Mauereidechse und die westliche Smaragdeidechse zu finden. Wichtige, aktuelle Daten enthalten insbesondere die zweibändige Studie der Gesellschaft für Ornithologie und Naturschutz Rheinland.-Pfalz e.V über die Amphibien und Reptilien von Rheinland-Pfalz (1996, Britz et al. (Hrsg.)), die für Rheinland- Pfalz, und die Broschüre der Eheleute Braun (1995), die für den Naturpark Nassau, insbesondere den Rhein-Lahn-Kreis, die Beobachtungen der Vergangenheit zusammenfasst und den aktuellen Stand der Verbreitung wiedergibt. Dennoch erschließt die langjährige Beobachtung vor Ort, wie sie meine über fünfzigjährige Ferienasässigkeit in Bad Ems ermöglicht hat, zusätzliche Erkenntnisse. Das Gebiet der Beobachtungen umfasst im wesentlichen das Lahntal flußab von Limburg und die angrenzenden Mittelgebirge von Westerwald (nördlich) und Taunus (südlich) sowie das rechte Mittelrheintal, vor allem das obere Mittelrheintal (von Koblenz bis Bingen/Rüdesheim), und den angrenzenden Rheingau (von Rüdesheim bis Wiesbaden) (Abb. 1).
Börner, A.-R. (2017) -
The emerald lizard reaches the northern limit of its distribution in the upper Middle Rhine Valley and has stringent, narrow requirements for its habitat. In the last years, habitats, populations, and the number of individuals have been in decline, mainly because of eutrophy and suboptimal grazing in the protected areas as well as an increasing civilization pressure (including domestic cats, tourists, and presumably poachers), less by the rationalized viticulture. The mere protection of the few remaining habitats is not sufficient. It is necessary to restore the historical habitats and to release captive-bred specimens there. A special initiative for the protection of the green lizards in the upper Middle Rhine Valley is required.
Börner, A.-R. (2021) -
Börner, A.-R. (2022) -
For the improvement and the recreation of lizard habitats, the habitat requirements are is of foremost importance. The habitats of today for the West German lizards (the Slow Worm, the Common Lizard, the European Wall Lizard, the Sand Lizard, and the Emerald Lizards) are analysed and shown in photos for clarity. On this basis, the planning and the realization of habitats as well as typical mistakes are discussed.
Börner, A.-R. & Eßer, G. & Schneider, M. & Walther, E.-H. (2019) -
Borrás, A. & Polls, M. (1987) -
The eastern Pre-Pyrenees were prospected using 5x5 UTM square from 1974 to 1986. Nineteen reptiles were found. Their geographical and altimetric distribution is given, and its corology discussed taking into account other data from the Pyrenees. The topoclimatical effects and the particular disposition of the mountain range, are the key factors to understand the corology and the altimetric distribution of herpetofauna. The study area shows mediterranean elements as well as Pyrenean and mid-european ones. Cerdaña basin acts as a bndge between the herpetofauna from France and the more meridional species from Spain. The Segre nver divides the Pre-Pyrenees in two big biogeographical areas: the eastem one very close to axial Pyrenees and characterized by boreal and the western one with a more mediterranean faunistic elements.
Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. & Lubka, M. & Böhme, W. (1999) -
An almost complete lizard specimen discovered from the Baltic amber of middle Eocene age is described and considered conspecific with the first Baltic amber lizard Succinilacerta succinea (Boulenger, 1917). The new specimen demonstrates that the typical lacertid morphotype was fully developed by the middle Eocene. This is in conflict with a possible derivation of all the extant lacertids from a common ancestor of no earlier than Oligocene age based on the recent albumin-immunological and karyologic analyses using molecular clock methodology. Outgroup analysis of the lacertid pileus characters is applied to reconstruct the order and rate of appearance of character states during the pre-Oligocene section of phylogeny of the lacertid clade theoretically beginning by about the Late Jurassic. Two synapomorphies are proposed for the whole lacertid clade, including Eocene Plesiolacerta: frontoparietal scales largely overlapping the parietal table with a corresponding central position of the interparietal, and presence of the occipital. Plesiolacerta is the only stem lacertid known. Succinilacerta is considered a member of the crown lacertids on the basis of two other synapomorphies: an integration of parietal scales and a development of early ontogenetic control of the pileus pattern. Parietal integrity is suggested to be sensitive to animal size. Pileus fragmentation may be primary or secondary.
Bosbach, G. & Weddeling, K. (2005) -
Boscá, E. (1877) -
Bosca, E. (1880) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1993) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1994) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1995) -
An as yet undiagnosed ailment of male lacertids is described. The femoral pores are over-active resulting in thick, lumpy waxy masses an the inside of the thighs. In animals wich this condition bugly eyes, apathy and a lessened sexual drive was often noticed. The disease is probably not contagious. Instead of an infection (as mentioned in the literature), the cause may lie in a disturbed metabolism or an unsettled hormonal balance.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1996) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1999) -
A presumed paratype of Lacerta mostoufii Baloutch, 1977 deposited in the Muséum
national d`Histoire naturelle (Paris) is a mislabelled, probably Iranian, specimen of Lacerta
praticola praticola. The type material in the Iranian Museum of Natural History (Tehran) is lost. The
validity of L. mostoufii therefore remains unclear, and new visits to the type localities and new
specimens are needed before the species can be accepted.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (2003) -
The physical geography of Iraq is summarised. Using data from the relevant literature and current information from the Internet, a very provisional checklist of Iraqi amphibians and reptiles is presented. Ten amphibian species are reported for Iraq, and exactly 100 reptile species.
Bosch, H.A.J. In Den (2003) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Bischoff, W. (2004) -
Many regions of the former USSR still re- ceive little attention from Western visitors, herpetologists not excluded. For the Cau- casus Mountains this is all the more sur- prising since the area forms a zone where northern and Middle Eastern flora and fauna meet, and which is thus of considera- bly zoogeographical interest.
Presently we find three larger states in the Caucasus: Georgia, Azerbaijan and Arme- nia. Turkey borders to the southwest, Iran to the southeast, and in the north it is the Russian federation. Various smaller parts claim independence. The Black Sea forms the natural western boundary, the Caspian Sea the eastern one.
Herpetologically the Caucasus is historically well-known because of the work of Darev- sky and collaborators on the rock lizards (at the time still in the large genus Lacerta, now in Darevskia) and the discovery of the first case of parthenogenesis in vertebrates (DAREVSKY, 1967; DAREVSKII, 1978; DAREVSKY & KULIKOVA, 1961).
Below we will concentrate on the results of our field trip to Georgia during the last two weeks of June 2003. Predictably, because of our common interest in the group, the lacertids will receive the most attention.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Bischoff, W. & Schmidtler, J.F. (1998) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Musters, C.J.M. (1981) -
Note are given on the herpetofauna of Greece, with special reference to some of the (sub-) species. The observations were made during a spring trip.
Bosch, P. (1990) -
Comparing the head scales of female and male L. schreiberi the following difference was obser- ved. Females have touching prefrontal scales (photo 1), males have one or two scales between ~he prefrontals (photo 2 and 3).
Boscherini, A. (2015) -
Bosman, W. & Schippers, T. & Bruin, A. de & Glorius, M. (2011) -
Dispensation for the Dutch Flora and Fauna Act: noncommittal?
In the Netherlands, many species of reptiles, amphibians and shes are protected by law. One of the clauses of this law is that habitat lost due to, for example, human habitation or industrial expansion at locations where such species occur, has to be compensated for. In this context, compensation means creating new habitat values comparable with the values lost as
a consequence of human activity.
One has to ask the government for dispensation by submitting a report
for all the activities carried out and
a plan for compensation. Thirty-one projects were selected for which the Dutch government gave dispensation with a compensation obligation and evaluated them on: timeline and quality of implementation and availability of monitoring data. Field visits revealed that in eleven projects there was no visible activity, so we evaluated the 20 remaining cases.
Species should be allowed to colonise a new habitat before the old one disappears. In three cases, compensation was created before other activities started. In three other cases, in which was compensated, this was not done. In seven cases, it was unclear when compensation was carried out. In all other cases, no compensation was detected, also not before the project was implemented. Only in 10% of the cases evaluated, was compensation fully carried out as described in the dispensation contract. In all other cases, compensation was partially or not carried out (table 3). No monitoring data were available from any project. We have to conclude that although
the Dutch government permits dispensation due to contracts, there is hardly any check on whether or how the compensation is carried out. This must lead to losses of occupied habitats of Habitats Directive II species or Red List species, as for example the Great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) and European weather loach (Misgurnus fossilis). And this is against European legislation.
Bössneck, U. (2008) -
Im Rahmen der lokalfaunistischen Bearbeitung von 184 überwiegend aktuellen Angaben zum Vorkommen von Kriechtieren im Gebiet der Stadt Erfurt liegen für fünf Arten faunistisch-ökologische Daten vor. Auf das zunehmende Problemfeld bezüglich illegal in die Natur gelangter ursprünglich nicht einheimischer Reptilien, insbesondere Wasserschildkröten, wird eingegangen.
Böttcher, H. (1967) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1881) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1884) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1887) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1900) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1916) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1917) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1919) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1920) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1923) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1928) -
Bour, R. & Cheylan, M. & Crochet, P.-A. & Geniez, P. & Guyetant, R. & Haffner, P. & Ineich, I. & Naulleau, G. & Ohler, A.-M. & Lescure, J. (2008) -
Bovenkerk Jr., J. (1955) -
Bovenkerk, J. (1948) -
Bovero, S. & Canalis, L. & Crosetto, S. (2013) -
Bowles, F.D. (2002) -
Bozhansky, A.T. (2005) -
Bozkurt, E. & Ürker, O. & Elverici, M. (2022) -
Oriental Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) is a threatened tree species restricted to Rhodes Island (Greece) and southern Anatolia (Turkey), best known for its rare riparian forests. These small patches of forests are severely fragmented and scattered, and are rarely found in southwestern Turkey. Based on field sampling and data compilation, we performed an assessment of the herpetofauna in these forests in southwestern Turkey during the spring of 2019 and 2021. Sampling was carried out using a line-transect method in 13 forests with various habitats, resulting in data at the community and population levels. Sixteen families, including 26 amphibian and reptile species (four anurans, four turtles, nine lizards, and nine snakes), were recorded from these unique forests, based on 1440 individuals. Twenty-two species were recorded for the first time from these forests; in addition, Emys orbicularis and Elaphe sauromates were recorded for the first time from the region. Richness in the forest patches, habitat use by the recorded species, and interspecific interactions are discussed to explain the conspicuous patterns observed in the species distributions. The unique distribution pattern of Phoenicolacerta laevis among the existing forest patches represents the most prominent finding, with implications for a recent introduction. The fossorial species Xerotyphlops vermicularis, Blanus strauchi, and Eryx jaculus are unlikely to occur in the Oriental Sweetgum forest due to annual flooding. The data obtained during this study will be transferred to the Oriental Sweetgum forest conservation action plan (2019–2024) as part of the biodiversity monitoring tools for use in the long-term conservation of these forests.
Braak, H. (1967) -
The organon vasculosum hypothalami of Lacerta viridis was investigated by means of light- and electron microscopy. Beneath the ependyma a strongly vascularized nucleus of small bipolar nerve cells was found. No relation could be found between the ultrastructure of the cells and their content of histochemically traceable catecholamines. The clublike processes of neuroplasm penetrate the ventricle and form a dense plexus with cilia and other cell processes. There is a possibility that biogenic amines are secreted through the nerve cell processes into the cerebrospinal fluid. A second type of cell, forming a superficial layer, and the adjacent nucleus ventromedialis tuberis also send processes into the ventricle. It is supposed that these processes have a receptor function.
Braak, H. & Baumgarten, H.G. & Falck, B. (1968) -
The distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system of the lizards Lacerta viridis and muralis was investigated with the fluorescence method of Falck and Hillarp. Microspectrometric analyses revealed that the yellow fluorescence had the characteristics of the fluorophore of 5-hydroxytryptamine and chemical determinations on whole brains demonstrated the presence of considerable quantities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5,2–6,4 μg/g). Nuclear areas of the mesencephalon, di and telencephalon, which are mainly intercalated in sensory pathways, receive terminal ramifications of 5-hydroxytryptaminecontaining neurons. These fibres are presumed to originate from cells situated in the tegmentum. The nucleus reticularis mesencephali is shown to contain numerous perikarya of nerve cells rich in 5-hydroxytryptamine.
Bradshaw, S.D. & Saint Girons, H. & Bradshaw, F.J. (1991) -
Rates of turnover of oxygen, water and sodium were measured in free-ranging and captive Lacerta viridis in western France during their period of reproduction in May, and again in late autumn prior to their entering winter hibernation. Rates of C02 production and turnover of water and sodium in captive lizards showed little significant variation and these animals appeared to be buffered to a large extent from environmental changes, even though they were exposed to external climatic influences. Overall means for rates of CO2 production in free-ranging individuals did not vary statistically between seasons but considerable individual variation was observed during the breeding season in May. The animals could be divided into `active` and `inactive` groups on the basis of their rate of CO2 production and other significant differences were apparent between these two groups: `active` individuals had increased rates of sodium turnover, lower body water contents and lost body mass during the period of observation whereas the `inactive` individuals gained mass over the same period. These data suggest that not all individuals necessarily participate in the activity associated with breeding in spring in this species and further behavioural studies would seem appropriate in the light of these physiological data. Calculation of the `Water Effectiveness Index` for this species from the ratio of water to energy turnover suggests that Lacerta viridis is a profligate utiliser of available resources when compared with similar-sized species of lizards inhabiting desert environments.
Bradshaw, S.D. & Saint Girons, H. & Naulleau, G. & Nagy, K.A. (1987) -
Rates of turnover of water, energy and sodium were measured in free-ranging and enclosed Lacerta viridis and Vipera aspis at a site in Western France in late summer. Rates of CO2 production did not differ significantly between free-ranging Lacerta and those maintained in large outdoor enclosures and averaged 0.371 ± 0.056 mL(g.hr)-1 which was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than the rate of 0.152 ± 0.02 mL(g.hr)-1 recorded for Vipera aspis living in similar outdoor enclosures. Rates of water, but not sodium, turnover were significantly greater in free-ranging than in enclosed Lacerta (12.03 ± 1.21 mL(100g.day)-1 versus 7.46 ± 1.03 mL(100g.day)-1 respectively), suggesting that the free-ranging individuals, which were captured along a canal, had access to a source of free water not linked with their diet. Field Metabolic Rates (FMR) of Lacerta were positively and significantly correlated with the rate of water turnover and analysis of influx and efflux data indicate that this lizard requires on the average approximately 8mL(100g.day)-1 of water to maintain its hydric balance. A similar analysis suggests that this species requires roughly 1meq(kg.day)-1 of sodium for the maintenance of electrolyte balance. Rates of sodium and water turnover were significantly correlated in captive Lacerta, the diet of which was supplemented daily with mealworms and crickets, but the correlation in the case of animals living by the canal was not significant, indicating again that sources of water and sodium intake were independent in these individuals. Rates of water and sodium turnover were low in the vipers maintained in external enclosures and both elements were in negative balance, as would be expected with non-feeding animals. The data reveal a small but significant intake of sodium however, which was not identified. A regression of water intake versus rate of weight loss suggest that Vipera aspis requires an intake of approximately 2.5mL(100g.day)-1 to maintain hydric balance under these conditions. The data reported here for FMR`s and rates of water turnover are compared with those for other lizards in the literature and suggest that Lacerta viridis falls mid-way between desert and tropical species studied to date. Further work with temperate-living species should prove of value in delineating the physiological capacities of terrestrial reptiles.
Bramke, K. (2012) -
Bramke, K. (2014) -
Braña, F. (1996) -
Die Arbeit basiert auf der Messung verschiedener metrischer Charaktere (Kopf-Rumpf-Länge, Kopflänge, maximale Kopfhöhe, maximale Kopfbreite und Rumpf-Länge) an insgesamt knapp 500 nordspanischen Eidechsen. In die Analyse gingen Mesungen an Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta viridis (=L. bilineata) ein. Demnach ist das ontogenetische Wachstum von Kopf und Rumpf bei männlichen Tieren isometrisch, während Weibchen hingegen ein allometrisches Wachstum des Rumpfes aufweisen. Mit der verwendeten Methodik (Felsenstein) ließ sich der Geschlechtsdimorphismus am besten durch den weiblichen Fortpflanzungsaufwandes (u. a. Gelegegröße) und damit durch die überproportionale Rumpflänge weiblicher Tiere erklären. Bei Arten mit geringer Fruchtbarkeit bzw. konstanter Gelegegröße (hier: Podarcis hispanica) besteht hingegen nur ein geringer Selektionsdruck in Richtung auf große Weibchen. Dann können Männchen zum größten Geschlecht werden. Ebenfalls durchgeführte Größenmessungen an Beutetieren (Magen-Darminhalte) ergaben vergleichsweise gering abweichende Einnischungen männlicher und weiblicher Eidechsen. Eine Analyse der Mechanismen, die zur Ausprägung von Geschlechtsdimorphismen beitragen, ist sicherlich verdienstvoll. Allerdings ist fraglich, ob die hier verwendeten Methoden allein zu einer befriedigenden Klärung führen. Zum einen wurden pro Art nur wenige Individuen (zwischen 22 und 90) untersucht, was - auch nach Ansicht des Autors - statistisch unbefriedigend ist. Wichtiger dürfte aber wohl sein, dass keinerlei Hinweise darauf vorliegen, inwieweit die aus einem relativ begrenzten Gebiet stammenden Freilandfänge als “typisch“ für die Art gelten können. Hinzu kommt, dass sich mit der verwendeten Methode nur die Parameter weiblicher Fortpflanzungsaufwand und unterschiedliche Nahrungseinnischung, nicht jedoch der dritte vom Autor angesprochene Parameter “Kämpfe zwischen den Männchen“ untersuchen lässt. Zumindest in diesem Kontext bedarf es weiterer Daten, die nur durch Verhaltensbeobachtungen lebender Eidechsen zu gewinnen sind.
Braña, F. & Bea, A. & Arrayago, M.J. (1991) -
We examined stages of embryonic development at the time of oviposition in 10 populations of seven species of lacertids from northern Spain, including one of the few species of lizards that exhibits reproductive bimodality (Lacerta vivipara). In the species studied, embryonic development at the time of oviposition ranges, as a whole, from stage 22-34 in the classification of Dufaure and Hubert, showing highly significant differences between populations. Lacerta vivipara (two populations; stages from 30-34) and L. monticola (28-31) are the species with a more advanced intrauterine embryogenesis, while at the opposite end one can find Podarcis bocagei (22-26) and P. hispanica (two subspecies: stages from 24-27). Lacerta viridis, L. schreiberi and P. muralis are in an intermediate situation (stages 25-29), without appreciable differences among species. Our data show that species with more advanced egg retention reach the highest elevations in the study area, and there also seems to exist a relationship between the egg retention level and the northern distribution limit for oviparous lizards in Europe. However, there is no evidence of intraspecific variability in that regard. No significant correlations were found between developmental stage at oviposition and female size, clutch size, or egg mass, but relative clutch mass (RCM) was significantly larger in species with a more advanced embryonic development at oviposition. This difference in RCM was mainly due to an increase in clutch size (adjusted for female size) and not to an increase in the mass of individual eggs, which tended to be lower in relation to female mass in those species with a more prolonged egg retention.
Branch, B. (2003) -
Brandjes, G.J. & Groenveld, A. (1995) -
Brändle, M. & Rödel, M.-O. (1994) -
Within ten years, data on twenty amphibian and thirty reptile species from the Iberian Peninsula were collected. The excursions were mainly centred on the northeast of Spain and the Extremadura. We report ob- servations on Salamandra salamandra almanzoris MÜLLER & HELLMICH, 1935, Rana pereti SEOANE, 1885, Lacerta viridis (LAURENTI, 1768), Lacerta monticola BOULENGER, 1905, and Malpolon monspes- sulanus (HERMANN, 1804). Additionally, all herpetological records and brief descriptions of the correspond- ing habitats are listed.
Brandt, I. & Feuerriegel, K. (2004) -
Brandt, I. & Hamann, K. & Hammer, W. (2018) -
Brandt, T. & Buschmann, H. (2004) -
The following work summarizes and updates the current knowledge on the reptile and amphibian species of the landscape protection area »Wetland of international importance Steinhuder Meer« by numerous original distribution maps and analysis of all available observations. The results show that the landscape protection area is of important significance for the herpetofauna. A total of eleven amphibian and six reptile species were confirmed, and their distribution within the landscape protection area is shown on grid maps. The species are: Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Bufo bufo, B. calamita, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, R. esculenta, R. lessonae, R. ridibunda, Anguis fragilis, Zootoca vivipara, Lacerta agilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus. The species with the largest distribution range within the amphibians and the reptiles, respectively, were Rana arvalis and Natrix natrix. Hyla arborea has disappeared from the area. The preferred habitat distribution of each species in the main habitats is presented and discussed, as well as the decrease or increase of particular species, and the underlying causes. Finally, conservation measures for the herpetofauna of the area are considered.
Braun, M. (1877) -
Braun, M. & Braun, U. (1995) -
Brauner, A.A. (1903) -
Brauner, A.A. (1905) -
Bree, H. van & Plantaz, R. & Zuiderwijk, A. (2006) -
In 2000, an isolated population of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) was discovered on an island in the Netherlands.
The population-size was estimated at 57 adult individuals. Subsequently, the area has been improved to make the
habitat more suitable for sand lizards. After 5 years of monitoring the population-size was estimated again. There are
no indications for major population-size changes, for the population-size is estimated at 59 adult individuals. There is
no signiﬁ cant difference in the population structure, although males were more abundant in 2005 than in 2001. Males
outnumbered females in both years. The newly made dunes are populated by males, females and sub-adults. Gulls do not
seem to conduct a predator stress, as there were no lizards seen there with autotomy. Nevertheless, gulls are believed to
negatively inﬂ uence habitat quality for the lizards. On the short term, cats seem to be the biggest threat to the sand lizards
as there are strong indications that they have killed 10 % of the whole population within six weeks.
Bree, P.J.H. van (1960) -
Breg, A. & Janota, B. & Peganc, M. & Petrovič, I. & Tome, S. & Vamberger, M. (2010) -
Brehm, A.E. (1902) -
Brelih, S. (1962) -
Brelih, S. (1963) -
Brelih, S. & Džukić, G. (1974) -
Bressi N. (1995) -
Bressi, N. (1998) -
Bressi, N. (1999) -
The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has almost 700 specimens of European Sauria belonging to about 33 taxa, including all the lacertids of northern Adriatic re- gions. The origin of the collection dates back to the foundation of the Museum of Trieste in 1846, but it was increased mainly between 1871 and 1939. The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has a great scientific and historical importance; it documents the varia- tion of the composition and distribution of northern Adriatic Sauria fauna during this century, in- cluding endemic varieties typical of little islands.
Briggeman, T. (2019) -
Briggeman, T. (2020) -
Briggeman, Z. (2020) -
Bringsoe, H. (1997) -
Bringsøe, H. (1985) -
Bringsøe, H. (1988) -
Brito e Abreu, F. & Brito, J.C. & Paulo, Octávio S. & Rosa, Humberto D. & Crespo, Eduardo G. (2001) -
Brito, J.C. (1994) -
Brito, J.C. & Brito e Abreu, F. & Paulo, O.S. & Rosa, Humberto D. & Crespo, E.G. (1996) -
The geographic distribution of the endemic Iberian lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal was determined through extensive field surveys. Subsequently, a logistic regression model which predicts the probability of occurrence, based on environmental variables, was developed. We found that L. schreiberi is more widely distributed than previously thought, through most of central/northern Portugal, including the coastal zone and extending into low altitude zones. New isolated populations were also detected and the area occupied by three previously known southern isolates was enlarged. The model indicates that the distribution of L. schreiberi is largely explained by environmental parameters such as insolation, evapotranspiration, rain, humidity and soil-drainage. Values of probability of occurrence greater than 0.50, as determined by our model, correspond with the actual presence of the species.
Brito, J.C. & Crespo, E.G. & Paulo, O.S. (1999) -
We compare the results, benefits and disadvantages of two techniques for modelling wildlife species distribution: Logistic Regression and Overlap Analysis. While Logistic Regression uses mathematic equations to correlate variables with presence/absence of the species. Overlap Analysis simply combine variables with the presence points, eliminating the non-explanatory variables and recombining the others. Both techniques were performed in a Geographic Information System and we attempted to minimise the spatial autocorrelation of data. The species used was the Schreiber`s green lizard Lacerta schreiberi and the study area was Portugal, using 10 X 10 km UTM squares. Both techniques identified the same group of variables as the most important for explaining the distribution of the species. Both techniques gave high average correct classification rates for the squares with presence of the species (79% for Logistic Regression and 92% for Overlap Analysis). Correct absence classification was higher with Logistic Regression (73%) than with Overlap Analysis (32%), Overlap Analysis tends to maximise the potential area of occurrence of the species, which induces a reduced correct classification of absences, since many absences will fall in the potential area. This is because a single presence in a given class of a variable makes all the area of that class to be considered as potential. The technique does not consider that the species may occasionally occupy an unfavourable region. Although, in Logistic Regression, modelling procedures are more complex and time-consuming, the results are more statistically robust. Moreover. Logistic Regression has the capability of associating probability of occurrence to the potential area. Overlap Analysis is very simple in building procedures and swift in obtaining reliable potential areas. It is a valid technique especially in exploratory analysis of species distributions or in the initial stages of research when data may be scarce.
Brito, J.C. & Godinho, R. & Luis, C. & Paulo, O. & Crespo, E.G. (1999) -
Lacerta schreiberi is an endemic lizard in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, with some isolated populations in the south. The aims of this work are to select priority areas for the conservation of the species, identify extinction risk areas, evaluate the current degree of protection and define a strategy for the conservation of this species in Portugal. We used an evaluation model of areas in a GIS environment. Conservation priority areas represent 15% of the distribution area of the species in Portugal. Populations with high risk of extinction are located primarily along the littoral strip. About 50% of the conservation priority areas are already included in the Portuguese protected areas (PPA). The conservation strategy for the species needs efficient protection of habitats, increase of PPA and creation of Regional Reserves for the littoral populations. For the isolated populations we propose five types of management actions: habitat restoration, supplementation of populations, reintroduction of individuals, captive breeding and population monitoring.
Brito, J.C. & Luis, C. & Godinho, M.R. & Paulo, O.S. & Crespo, E.G. (1998) -
Brito, J.C. & Paulo, O.S. & Crespo, E.G. (1998) -
We describe the habitats of the endemic Iberian lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal and determine those habitat components that best explain the presence of the species. The geographic distribution of L. schreiberi in Portugal was also determined through extensive field surveys. The previously known distribution area was enlarged by 150% and new isolated populations were detected. The area occupied by the three previously known southern isolates was delimited and increased by 300%. The species is usually restricted to the margins of rivers and streams. Major habitat characteristics that correlate with the presence of the species are water velocity and quality, dominant species in the tree and shrub strata, streams surrounding the biotopes, and altitude. Nevertheless, the selection patterns that L. schreiberi seems to exhibit are only a consequence of its preference for the Atlantic climate. Consequently the presence of the species in a given watercourse seems to be more dependent on the climate of that region than on the intrinsic characteristics of that watercourse.
Brito, J.C. & Pinto, I. & Rosário, I. & Pombo, I. & Monteiro, J.L. & Brito e Abreu, F. & Paulo, O.S. & Rosa, H.D. & Crespo, E.G. (1994) -
Brockhaus, T. (1998) -
Broekhuysen, W.P. (1899) -
Broen, A.J.J. & Stempens, T.P.M. (1977) -
Broggi, M.F. (1978) -
The herpetofauna of Lesbos comprises the following species: Hyla a. arborea, Rana r. ridibunda, Testudo graeca ibera, Mauremys caspica rivulata, Agama st. stellio, Cyrto- dactylus kotscbyi (subspecies unknown), Opbisaurus apodus, Lacerta t. trilineata, Ophis- ops elegans ehrenbergii,Typhlops vermicularis, Natrix natrix persa, and Eirenis m. mode- stus.
The following species were recorded for the first time from the island: Bufo bufo spinosus? (till now listed from Samos), Emys orbicularis (new for islands in Asia Minor), Testudo graeca ibera (hitherto Samos), Hemidactylus t. turcicus (hitherto Ikaria), and Elaphe situla (hitherto Chios and Samos).
The most widespread and rather abundant species on the island is Ophisops elegans. Testudo graeca is not at all rare in the mountainous parts. In the wetlands Rana ridi- bunda and Mauremys caspica (surprisingly tall specimens of the latter) are often found.
Broggi, M.F. (1988) -
Broggi, M.F. (2000) -
In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden vor allem die durch menschliche Aktivitäten zunehmend beeinträchtigten Feuchtlebensräume der griechischen Kykladeninseln Milos und Sifiios untersucht. Die Kleinstpopulationen der hygrophilen Amphibien und Reptilien sind stark gefährdet So ist Mauremys rivulata auf Sifiios wahrscheinlich bereits ausgestorben und sind die einzigen zwei auf Milos beobachteten Vorkommen stark gefährdet Auch der Seefrosch (Rana sp.) muß heute auf Sifiios und Milos als stark gefährdet betrachtet werden.
Broggi, M.F. (2006) -
Broggi, M.F. (2010) -
The natural history of the island of Alonissos in the Northern Sporades is briefly described. The existing herpetological literature is presented and the new finds listed, namely Pelophylax ridibundus, Testudo marginata, Telescopus fallax and Zamenis situla. A melanistic snake, presumably Hierophis caspius, was also found. A total of 13 species of amphibians and reptiles has been reported for Alonissos.
Broggi, M.F. (2011) -
Nach gegenwärtiger Kenntnis umfaßt die Herpetofauna von Serifos zwölf Arten. Die insel ist wasserreich, die Verbreitung der vier dort vorkommenden semi-aquatischen Arten wurde untersucht. Die Populationen von Bufo viridis, Pelophylax kurtmuelleri und Mauremys rivulata sind als vital anzusprechen, hingegen konnte Natrix tessellata nicht mehr nachgewiesen werden. Es werden einige Aspekte des Naturschutzes im Hinblick auf diese Arten behandelt. Auf Serifos verschlechtern zwei infrastrukturprojekte die Situation der semiaquatischen Herpetofauna zusammen mit Schadeinflüssen durch Tourismus und Landnutzung. Weiters wird auf Austrocknungstendenzen in der Ägäis verwiesen, die für die insel-Herpetofaunen inskünftig Probleme verursachen werden.
Broggi, M.F. (2014) -
Broggi, M.F. (2016) -
Die Insel Kythira ist Teil des südägäischen Inselbogens, der sich vor mehreren Millionen von jahren bildete und von der Peloponnes-Halbinsel über Kreta, Karpathos und Rhodos nach Anatolien erstreckt. In seiner Pflanzen- und Tierwelt hat Kythira viel mit dem Peloponnes gemeinsam. Bislang wurden etwa sechzehn Amphibien- und Reptilienarten von der Insel beschrieben, die sich durch ihren Wasserreichtum, besonders im Norden, auszeichnet. Die vorliegende Arbeit trägt die verstreute Information zur Herpetofauna von Kythira zusammen und erweitert sie durch eigene Beobachtungen.
Brown, R.P. (2005) -
A phylogenetic-comparative approach was used to assess and refine existing secondary structure models for a frequently studied region of the mitochondrial encoded large subunit (16S) rRNA in two large lizard lineages within the Scincomorpha, namely the Scincidae and the Lacertidae. Potential pairings and mutual information were analyzed to identify site interactions present within each lineage and provide consensus secondary structures. Many of the interactions proposed by previous models were supported, but several refinements were possible. The consensus structures allowed a detailed analysis of rRNA sequence evolution. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from Bayesian analyses of all sites, and the topologies used for maximum likelihood estimation of sequence evolution parameters. Assigning gamma-distributed relative rate categories to all interacting sites that were homologous between lineages revealed substantial differences between helices. In both lineages, sites within helix G2 were mostly conserved, while those within helix E18 evolved rapidly. Clear evidence of substantial site-specific rate variation (covarion-like evolution) was also detected, although this was not strongly associated with specific helices. This study, in conjunction with comparable findings on different, higher-level taxa, supports the ubiquitous nature of site-specific rate variation in this gene and justifies the incorporation of covarion models in phylogenetic inference.
Brückner, M. & Düring, A. (2002) -
Brückner, M. & Klein, B. & Düring, A. & Mentel, T. & Rabus, S.& Soller, J.T. (2002) -
Brüggemann, P. (1988) -
Brüggemann, P. (1990) -
Brugiere, D. (1987) -
Brugiere, D. (1991) -
Bruin, R. de (1952) -
Bruner, E. & Costantini, D. (2009) -
The morphology of cephalic scales in Lacertids is organised in well defined geometrical structures. The variation of these elements is related to the underlying bone growth and morphogenesis, but it is also associated with the muscular system and the sutural dynamics. In this paper, the patterns of variation of the cephalic scales have been compared between three common Mediterranean species: Podarcis muralis, Podarcis sicula and Lacerta bilineata. The morphospace generated by the morphological relationships within the cephalic system in these three species is investigated in order to consider their degree of variation and their anatomical peculiarities. Generally, Lacerta is 64% larger than Podarcis, shows a relative reduction of the frontal scale, enlarged fronto-parietal structures, and stretched occipital area. L. bilineata shows the smaller degree of variation within the shape space, while P. muralis shows the highest values. The morphology of the two genera is definitely different mostly because of allometric variation. Non-allometric distinctions between the three species are subtle but detectable. The degree and pattern of variation are interpreted in terms of possible environmental pressures and of functional cranial dynamics associated with the fronto-parietal suture, respectively. In this sense, the structural relationships between bones and scales are of particular interest to further investigate ontogeny and phylogeny in reptiles.
Bruner, E. & Costantini, D. & Fanfani, A. & Dell’Omo, G. (2005) -
The Western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) is a lacertid distributed throughout Mediterranean and Central Europe. Little is known about the morphological variability and sexual shape differences in this species. In this paper, the variation of the cephalic scales in L. bilineata is analysed by means of a geometric morphometric approach. A main structural pattern is characterized by negative allometry of the frontal and interparietal areas, and positive allometry of the parietal and frontoparietal scales. Sexual differences are described both in size and shape. In males, the scales are generally larger, with relative shortening of the frontal area, frontoparietal enlargement, occipital lengthening and bulging of the parietal scales, which compresses and narrows the interparietal and occipital areas midsagittally. This pattern is based on a shared allometric trajectory, with males displaying a peramorphic morphotype. However, males show some shape differences in the occipital area that are not size‐related, and cannot be interpreted in terms of general head enlargement. This structural trajectory can be related to the development of the skull, but the role of soft tissues (temporal, nuchal and masticatory muscles) must also be considered. The development of the jaw and nuchal muscles involved in intra‐ and intersexual behaviours could have played a pivotal role in the evolution of this pattern.
Bruno, S. (1971) -
Bruno, S. (1977) -
Almost all species of Amphibians and Reptiles of Central Italy occur in the Tolfa mountains (Civitavecchia, Latium). This is one of the most interesting areas in the whole of Italy as far as the herpetofauna is concerned. It lies not far from Rome and its conservation state is satisfactory; both these facts have favoured and enabled some experimental studies of eco-ethology on such mountains since 1964. The A. describes the species and subspecies of Amphibians and Reptiles recorded in this area, adding some information on their chorology, biology, taxonomy, history and zoogeograph.
Bruno, S. (1980) -
Bruno, S. (1982) -
Bruno, S. (1986) -
Bruno, S. (1988) -
Bruno, S. (1989) -
Bruno, S. & Cesare, E. di (1990) -
Bruno, S. & Maugeri, S. (1976) -
Brusco, A. & Marchianó, R. & Giglio, G. & Piovesan, G. & Sperone, E. (2021) -
Brushko, Z.K. (1995) -
Brusina, S. (1874) -
Brusina, S. (1908) -
Bruyn, F. de (1919) -
Brygoo, E.R. (1988) -
Buchholz, K.F. (1962) -
Buchoz, P. (1771) -
Buckley, J. & Cole, M. (2004) -
Buggenum, H.J.M. van (1990) -
In dit artikel worden gegevens over de verspreiding op uurhokbasis van de in Limburg aangetroffen amfibieën en reptielen kort samengevat.
Bulakhova, N.A. (2004) -
Булахова, Н.А. (2004) -
Bulakhova, N.A. & Kuranova, V.N. & Saveliev, S.V. (2007) -
The average and maximum life intervals, the age of sexual maturity attaining, the age structure and peculiarities of growth are studied by the longitudinal thin sections of cortical bones with the help of polarized light in nine populations of sand (Lacerta agilis) and common (Zootoca vivipara) lizards of the south-east territories of Western Siberia. The influence of abiotic factors to the main demographical structure characteristics of both populations are shown.
Bülbül, U. & Eroglu, A.I. & Kurnaz, M. & Koc, H. & Odabas, Y. (2019) -
Many wild animals are exposed to road kills in the world. Amphibians and reptiles which live near the roads are the most endangered groups among vertebrates related to the road kills. However, there are only few studies about the road kills of amphibians and reptiles in Turkey. We recorded 23 individuals (6 amphibian individuals belonging to 2 species and 17 reptile individuals belonging to 9 species) exposed to road kills on the E87 highway on June 18-22, 2016 in Kırklareli province while we found 134 individuals (114 amphibian individuals belonging to 3 species and 20 reptile individuals belonging to 8 species) killed on the Enez-Ipsala highway on June 22-25, 2016 in Edirne province. The individuals killed more often belonged to Pelophylax ridibundus and Bufotes variabilis in the Edirne while the species more affected by road kills were Pelophylax ridibundus, Lacerta trilineata, Dolichophis caspius and Testudo graeca in Kırklareli. The results of this short-term study show that there is a need for long-term studies to show that amphibians and reptiles exposed to road kills are very common.
Bülbül, U. & Koc, H. & Eroglu, A.I. & Odabas, Y. & Kurnaz, M. & Kutrup, B. (2023) -
The present study was designed to obtain information about life history traits of Lacerta viridis in the Belen population with an altitude of 292 m. In the adult sample (21 males and 15 females), the age ranged from 3 – 10 (X = 6.97) years for both sexes collectively, 5 – 10 (X = 7.43) years in males, 3 – 8 (X = 6.33) years in females and not differed significantly between sexes. Age at sexual maturity was 2 – 3 years for both sexes. However, a confirmation is required with some sexual characters (e.g., the presence of eggs for female, developed hemipenes for male) for age at sexual maturity in both sexes. The mean body size (SVL) was not significantly different between sexes. There was no correlation between SVL and age for males while there was a positive correlation for females. A male.
Bülbül, U. & Koc, H. & Orhan, Y. & Odabas, Y. & Kutrup, B. (2019) -
It is a fact that the amphibians and reptiles respond to unfavourable weather conditions by searching an underground refuge to survive during winter. The current literature has shown that some species of reptilians and amphibians may become active before their known end of hibernation periods, especially in lowland areas. In the present study, it has been detected that the changing weather conditions in a highland area in Gümüshane, Turkey can cause similar effects on Lacerta media, Bufo bufo and Rana macrocnemis that share the same habitats. One of the reasons of the early activities of some reptilian and amphibian species before their known end of hibernation periods may be the high sensitivity of these species to the changing temperature conditions. Effects of global warming on reptilians and amphibians obvious, and some members of these animals can even be active during winter. This conclusion brings into mind that L. media, B. bufo and R. macrocnemis can continue to be active at highland areas as long as air temperature values allow them.
Bülbül, U. & Koc, H. & Özkan, H. & Öztürk, I. & Kutrup, B. (2019) -
In this study, it was given the locality record of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) from Yeşilköy Village, Pazar District of Rize Province of Turkey. This new record revealed the second locality for L. agilis from the eastern Black Sea coast of Anatolia. The metric and meristic features of the adult, subadult and juvenile specimens were compared to the features of the specimens of the species, L. agilis in the literature.
Bülbül, U. & Özkan, H. & Koc, H. (2022) -
The Pamphylian green lizard, Lacerta pamphylica, whose distribution is only known from Antalya and Mersin provinces of Turkey, is recorded in the Isparta Province for the first time in the present study. The present note re ports the new locality records of L. pamphylica, which constitutes the species’ the northernmost known Turkish locality. With the record of the present study, the known distribution area of the species has been extended about 100 km to the northward. The pholidolial and morphometric characters and color-pattern features of the specimens were found similar to the specimens of L. pamphylica reported in the literature.
Bund für Naturschutz (2019) -
Bund, C.F. van de (1956) -
Bund, C.F. van de (1959) -
Bundesamt für Naturschutz (2020) -
Bündnis Naturschutz in Dithmarschen e.V. (2010) -
Buresch, I. & Zonkow, J. (1933) -
Buric, I. & Jelić, D. (2011) -
Burke, R.L. & Deichsel, G. (2008) -
Two species of lacertid lizards, Italian Wall Lizards (= “Ruin” Lizards), Podarcis sicula, and Common Wall Lizards, P. muralis, have been successfully introduced into at least 7 urban and suburban locations in North America, all close to the same general latitudes as their native ranges. The Pennsylvania Podarcis population is apparently extinct but the other Podarcis are expanding their new ranges. Extant Podarcis populations have been studied to a limited extent, and their date of origin, number of released individuals, and source population can be reliably estimated. A third species, Western Green Lacertas, Lacerta bilineata, has been introduced to Kansas, USA but is apparently not spreading.
Whereas other lizard species have been successfully introduced in the southern United States, these lacertid populations are the only successful introductions of lizards into temperate North America. It is not coincidental that they are restricted to urban and suburban areas. Few native North American lizards exploit urban habitats above 35o latitude, so lacertids encounter few native competitors. These lacertid species thrive in urban/suburban areas in southern Europe, and are common commensals with humans there because they are diet and habitat generalists that quickly habituate to new environmental conditions, including the presence of humans. They are also apparently well adapted to the specialized guild of potential predators that inhabit urban areas in both their native and new habitats.
Burneleau, G. (1983) -
Burneleau, G. & Duguy, R. (1981) -
Bury, S. & Kolanek, A. (2020) -
Busack, S.D. & Maxson, L.R. (1987) -
Relationships among representatives of five genera of lacertid lizards from Iberia, Morocco, and South Africa were studied using quantitative micro-complement fixation analysis of serum albumin evolution. Using the albumin molecular clock to establish divergence times we suggest (1) South African Ichnotropis and North African Psammodromus diverged from the lineage representing Lacerta lepida-L. monticola during the Oligocene, (2) South African Pedioplanis and Heliobolus diverged from this lineage during the late Miocene, and (3) ancestral representatives of L. andreanszkyi, L. perspicillata and Podarcis hispanica diverged from lineages leading to L. monticola and L. lepida during the mid-Miocene. Radiation within the Palearctic Lacertidae has clearly been extensive, yet fewer than twenty percent of the species in this radiation have been examined biochemically. Until additional data can be gathered, the current classification of the Palearctic Lacertidae cannot be much improved and we recommend adherence to the taxonomy proposed by Arnold (1973).
Buschendorf, J. (1999) -
Buttle, D. (1987) -
Buttle, D. (1988) -
Buttle, D. (1989) -
Buttle, D. (1993) -
Buttle, D. (1995) -
Buttle, D. (1997) -
Buursink, E. (2008) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Happ, H. & Happ, F. & Koller, R. (1992) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Tiedemann, F. (1997) -